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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 120-131, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150526

ABSTRACT

La inestabilidad microsatelital es causada por una alteración de los sistemas de reparación de apareamiento incorrecto, que puede afectar los microsatélites dentro de todo el genoma humano, produciendo errores en su replicación. Los estudios publicados, principalmente en la literatura inglesa, han encontrado que algunos tumores, como los gástricos, pueden expresar inestabilidad microsatelital. En la siguiente revisión de tema, se presenta una descripción de los sistemas de reparación de apareamientos incorrectos y su relación con la presencia de inestabilidad microsatelital en los tumores gástricos, así como su posible utilidad clínica, como factor asociado en la respuesta al tratamiento con inmunoterapia en los pacientes con dicha patología


Microsatellite instability is caused by an alteration of the mismatch repair systems, which can affect microsatellites within the entire human genome, causing errors in their replication. Published studies, mainly in the English literature, have found that some tumors, such as gastric ones, can express microsatellite instability. In this review, a description of the mismatch repair systems and their relationship with the presence of microsatellite instability in gastric tumors is presented, as well as its possible clinical utility, as an associated factor in the response to immunotherapy treatment, in patients with gastric cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Microsatellite Instability , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880694

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma is one of the most common malignant tumor of the hematologic system. The genome instability is not only an important molecular basis for the development of lymphoma, but also has important value in the diagnosis and prognosis of lymphoma. There are 2 types of genome instability: Microsatellite instability (MSI/MIN) at gene level and chromosomal instability at chromosome level. Through the study on genes associated with lymphoma, the unstable genes associated with lymphoma could be found, meanwhile the mechanism of its occurrence and development of lymphoma could be explored, and the important basis of molecular biology could also be provided in the field of current hot lymphoma precision medical research.


Subject(s)
Genomic Instability , Humans , Lymphoma/genetics , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Neoplasms
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 404-411, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143186

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Colorectal cancer is one of the neoplasms with the greatest social impact. Given the great molecular heterogeneity and diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms, it is difficult to define prognostic factors that could guide therapy. Objectives: To identify the molecular prognostic factors that may be of interest in clinical practice and to synthesize the existing evidence. Material and methods: The search for the articles was carried out using the PubMed platform and the keywords "sporadic colorectal cancer and prognosis", for articles published between 2014 and 2019. We selected all articles published on studies in humans and written in English or Portuguese. Of the 215 articles found, 35 articles were selected to perform this review. Results: Current evidence supports the use of four molecular markers in clinical practice − KRAS, NRAS and BRAF (EGFR signalling pathway) and the mismatch repair status. Conclusion: The use of molecular biomarkers in clinical practice to define prognosis is still little supported by the existent evidence. The studies are slightly contradictory, so new projects and international collaborations must be carried out in this area to obtain more robust evidence.


RESUMO Introdução: O carcinoma colorretal é uma das neoplasias com maior impacto social. Dada a grande heterogeneidade molecular e diversidade de mecanismos fisiopatológicos, torna-se difícil definir fatores de prognóstico que orientem a terapêutica. Objetivos: Identificar os fatores de prognóstico moleculares que poderão vir a ter interesse na prática clínica e fazer uma síntese da evidência existente. Material e métodos: A pesquisa dos artigos foi realizada recorrendo à plataforma PubMed e utilizou-se as palavras-chave "sporadic colorectal cancer and prognosis", para artigos publicados entre 2014 e 2019. Foram selecionados todos os artigos publicados sobre estudos em humanos e escritos em inglês ou em português. Dos 215 artigos encontrados, foram selecionados 35 artigos para realizar esta revisão. Resultados: A evidência atual apoia a utilização de quatro marcadores moleculares na prática clínica - KRAS, NRAS e BRAF (via de sinalização do EGFR) e o estado mismatch repair. Conclusão: A utilização na prática clínica de biomarcadores moleculares para definir o prognóstico é ainda pouco apoiada pela evidência disponível. Os estudos são algo contraditórios, pelo que novos projetos e colaborações internacionais devem ser realizados neste âmbito para se obter evidência mais robusta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma , Biomarkers , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Chromosomal Instability , Microsatellite Instability , Prognosis
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 412-420, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143169

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, with about 15% of these tumours related with microsatellite instability, which confers distinct characteristics to these tumours, both clinicopathological and in the response to treatments. In fact, the poor response to chemotherapy in these tumours has led to the investigation for new treatments, with immunotherapy being the most successful one to date. The focus of this review is to assess the response of microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer to PD-1 blockade, and the mechanisms behind that response. Methods: A PubMed research was conducted, resulting in the inclusion of 47 articles in this review. Results: Microsatellite instability results in a high neoantigen load, leading to a highly active immune microenvironment of the tumour, mainly due to T-cells. To counteract this, there is an upregulation of PD-1, acting as a "brake" for immune cells, facilitating tumour growth and metastasis. This upregulation makes these tumours great candidates for treatment with PD-1 blockade, as seen in many clinical trials, where the overall responses and progression free survival rates were higher than those observed in microsatellite stable tumours. Conclusion: With the importance of colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability new treatments are necessary. Therefore, PD-1 blockade is a promising treatment for colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability, with improvement in survival rates and a better prognosis for these patients.


RESUMO Introdução: O câncer colorretal é o terceiro mais comum em todo o mundo, com cerca de 15% desses tumores relacionados com instabilidade dos microssatélites, o que confere características distintas a esses tumores, tanto clínico patológicas quanto na resposta aos tratamentos. De fato, a fraca resposta à quimioterapia nesses tumores levou à investigação de novos tratamentos, sendo a imunoterapia a mais bem sucedida até o momento. O foco desta revisão é avaliar a resposta do câncer colorretal com microssatélites instáveis ao bloqueio do PD-1 e os mecanismos por trás dessa resposta. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, resultando na inclusão de 47 artigos nesta revisão. Resultados: A instabilidade de microssatélites resulta em uma alta carga de neoantígenos, levando a um microambiente imunológico altamente ativo do tumor, principalmente devido às células T. Para neutralizar isso, há uma maior expressão do PD-1, atuando como um "freio" para as células imunes, facilitando o crescimento do tumor e suas metástases. Essa expressão faz desses tumores grandes candidatos ao tratamento com bloqueio PD-1, como demonstrado em vários ensaios clínicos, onde as respostas globais e as taxas de sobrevivência livres de progressão foram maiores do que as observadas em tumores com microssatélites estáveis. Conclusão: Com a importância do câncer colorretal com instabilidade de microssatélites, novos tratamentos são necessários. Portanto, o bloqueio do PD-1 é um tratamento promissor para o câncer colorretal com instabilidade de microssatélites, com melhora nas taxas de sobrevivência e melhor prognóstico para esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Microsatellite Instability
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinicopathological features and types of genic mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of MMR proteins in 1394 patients with CRC, and PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) was used to detect microsatellite instability (MSI) in 106 cases of defective MMR (dMMR), 46 cases of proficient MMR (pMMR) with heterogeneous expression and 147 randomly selected cases of pMMR. The relationship between the expressions of MMR proteins and the clinicopathological features of the patients was evaluated. The consistency between the results of immunohistochemistry and PCR-CE was assessed.@*RESULTS@#Immunohistochemical staining showed an incidence of dMMR of 7.6% in the patients. The main type of dMMR was co-deletion of MLH1 and PMS2, accounting for 55.7% of the total dMMR cases. The deletion of MMR proteins was significantly correlated with the patients' age, tumor location, tumor size, gross type, histological type, degree of differentiation, lymph node status and TNM stage (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The main type of dMMR is co-deletion of MLH1 and PMS2 in patients with colorectal cancer. dMMR colorectal cancer has typical clinicopathological features and a lower incidence in China than in Western countries. The results of immunohistochemistry and PCR-CE are highly consistent for detecting dMMR in colorectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
China , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Humans , Microsatellite Instability
6.
Repert. med. cir ; 29(1): 32-40, 2020. il., cuadros, fotos a color
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1116551

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma colorrectal es una de las neoplasias con mayor incidencia a nivel mundial. Algunos de los tipos tienen componente hereditario y asociación con defectos en la reparación génica a nivel replicacional, por mutaciones en los genes encargados (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 y PMS2), llamándose esto la inestabilidad microsatelital. Esta situación se acompaña de mayor predisposición a desarrollar carcinoma colorrectal y algunos extracolónicos que incluyen cáncer de estómago, endometrio, ovarios y tracto urinario, entre otros. Es importante, entonces, evaluar la presencia de la inestabilidad microsatelital a nivel histopatológico conociendo que hay ciertos hallazgos que hacen sospechar la presencia de estas alteraciones genéticas, tales como la presencia de linfocitos intraepiteliales, infiltrado inflamatorio Crohn-like , el subtipo histológico y la localización. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar en detalle algunas características de las variables mencionadas, así como resaltar la importancia de otras variables histopatológicas con impacto pronóstico.


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. Some have a heritable component and are associated with a genetic defect in replication error repair due to MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 genes mutations known as microsatellite instability. This entails a greater predisposition to CRC and other extracolonic cancers including stomach, endometrium, ovary and urinary tract cancers, among other. Thus, it is important to detect histologic microsatellite instability through certain findings such as intraepithelial infiltrating lymphocytes, Crohn-like inflammatory reaction, histologic subtype and anatomical location leading to suspect the presence of genetic alterations. The objective of this article was to examine some features of said variables in detail and highlight the importance of other histopathologic variables with prognostic significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms , Microsatellite Instability , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 734-741, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773350

ABSTRACT

Microsatellite instability (MSI) which resulted from the deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR), is an important clinical significance in the related solid tumors, such as colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer. There are several methods to detect MSI status, including immunohistochemistry for MMR protein, multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for microsatellite site and MSI algorithm based on next generation sequencing (NGS). The consensus elaborates the definition and clinical significance of MSI as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the three detection methods. Through this expert consensus, we hope to promote the screening which based on MSI status in malignant tumors and improve the acknowledge of clinicians about various testing methods. Thereby, they could interpret the results more accurately and provide better clinical services to patients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Colorectal Neoplasms , Genetics , Pathology , Consensus , DNA Mismatch Repair , DNA Sequence, Unstable , Delivery of Health Care , Reference Standards , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Practice Guidelines as Topic
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis is becoming increasingly important in many types of tumor including colorectal cancer (CRC). The commonly used MSI tests are either time-consuming or labor-intensive. A fully automated MSI test, the Idylla MSI assay, has recently been introduced. However, its diagnostic performance has not been extensively validated in clinical CRC samples.METHODS: We evaluated 133 samples whose MSI status had been rigorously validated by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) cancer panel test, or both. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Idylla MSI assay in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, as well as various sample requirements, such as minimum tumor purity and the quality of paraffin blocks.RESULTS: Compared with the gold standard results confirmed through both PCR MSI test and NGS, the Idylla MSI assay showed 99.05% accuracy (104/105), 100% sensitivity (11/11), 98.94% specificity (93/94), 91.67% positive predictive value (11/12), and 100% negative predictive value (93/93). In addition, the Idylla MSI assay did not require macro-dissection in most samples and reliably detected MSI-high in samples with approximately 10% tumor purity. The total turnaround time was about 150 minutes and the hands-on time was less than 2 minutes.CONCLUSIONS: The Idylla MSI assay shows good diagnostic performance that is sufficient for its implementation in the clinic to determine the MSI status of at least the CRC samples. In addition, the fully automated procedure requires only a few slices of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and might greatly save time and labor.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Paraffin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 375-392, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785963

ABSTRACT

Preoperative chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies followed by surgery are currently a standard approach for treating locally advanced gastric and esophagogastric junction cancer in Western countries. However, in a large number of cases, the tumor is extremely resistant to these treatments and the patients are exposed to unnecessary toxicity and delayed surgical therapy. The current clinical trials evaluating the combination of preoperative systemic therapies with modern targeted and immunotherapeutic agents represent a unique opportunity for identifying predictive biomarkers of response to select patients that would benefit the most from these treatments. However, it is of utmost importance that these potential biomarkers are corroborated by extensive preclinical and translational research. The aim of this review article is to present the most promising biomarkers of response to classic chemotherapeutic, anti-HER2, antiangiogenic, and immunotherapeutic agents that can be potentially useful for personalized preoperative systemic therapies in gastric cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Esophagogastric Junction , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 , Stomach Neoplasms , Translational Medical Research
10.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 427-437, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of microsatellite instability in early gastric cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microsatellite instability status of resected early gastric tumors was evaluated using two mononucleotide repeat markers (BAT25 and BAT26) and three dinucleotide repeat markers (D5S346, D2S123, and D17S250). Tumors with instability in two or more markers were defined as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and others were classified as microsatellite stable (MSS).RESULTS: Overall, 1,156 tumors were included in the analysis, with 85 (7.4%) classified as MSI-H compared with MSS tumors. For MSI-H tumors, there was a significant correlation with the female sex, older age, tumor location in the lower gastric body, intestinal histology, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and submucosal invasion (P<0.05). There was also a trend toward an association with lymph node (LN) metastasis (P=0.056). In mucosal gastric cancer, there was no significant difference in MSI status in tumors with LN metastasis or tumors with LVI. In submucosal gastric cancer, LVI was more frequently observed in MSI-H than in MSS tumors (38.9% vs. 25.0%, P=0.027), but there was no difference in the presence of LN metastases. The prognosis of MSI-H tumors was similar to that of MSS tumors (log-rank test, P=0.797, the hazard ratio for MSI-H was adjusted by age, sex, pT stage, and the number of metastatic LNs, 0.932; 95% confidence interval, 0.423–2.054; P=0.861).CONCLUSIONS: MSI status was not useful in predicting prognosis in early gastric cancer. However, the frequent presence of LVI in early MSI-H gastric cancer may help guide the appropriate treatment for patients, such as endoscopic treatment or limited LN surgical dissection.


Subject(s)
Dinucleotide Repeats , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) has gained attention as a promising prognostic factor of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as a key molecule to understand the tumorigenesis and progression of CRC. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1,281 CRC cases immunohistochemically for their expression status of SMAD4, and correlated this status with clinicopathologic and molecular features of CRCs. RESULTS: A loss of nuclear SMAD4 was significantly associated with frequent lymphovascular and perineural invasion, tumor budding, fewer tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, higher pT and pN category, and frequent distant metastasis. In contrast, tumors overexpressing SMAD4 showed a significant association with sporadic microsatellite instability. After adjustment for TNM stage, tumor differentiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and lymphovascular invasion, the loss of SMAD4 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for worse 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.60; p=.042) and 7-year cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.99; p=.022). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the value of determining the loss of SMAD4 immunohistochemically as an independent prognostic factor for CRC in general. In addition, we identified some histologic and molecular features that might be clues to elucidate the role of SMAD4 in colorectal tumorigenesis and progression.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Microsatellite Instability , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740193

ABSTRACT

This extensive review summarizes clinical evidence on immunotherapy and targeted therapy currently available for endometrial cancer (EC) and reports the results of the clinical trials and ongoing studies. The research was carried out collecting preclinical and clinical findings using keywords such as immune environment, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, immune checkpoint inhibitors, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and others' on PubMed. Finally, we looked for the ongoing immunotherapy trials on ClinicalTrials.gov. EC is the fourth most common malignancy in women in developed countries. Despite medical and surgical treatments, survival has not improved in the last decade and death rates have increased for uterine cancer in women. Therefore, identification of clinically significant prognostic risk factors and formulation of new rational therapeutic regimens have great significance for enhancing the survival rate and improving the outcome in patients with advanced or metastatic disease. The identification of genetic alterations, including somatic mutations and microsatellite instability, and the definition of intracellular signaling pathways alterations that have a major role in in tumorigenesis is leading to the development of new therapeutic options for immunotherapy and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Biological Therapy , Carcinogenesis , Developed Countries , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Microsatellite Instability , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Uterine Neoplasms
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 132-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742526

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinical implications of single patient classifier (SPC) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in stage II/III gastric cancer have been reported. We investigated SPC and the status of MSI and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as combinatory biomarkers to predict the prognosis and responsiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II/III gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor specimens and clinical information were collected from patients enrolled in CLASSIC trial, a randomized controlled study of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The results of nine-gene based SPC assay were classified as prognostication (SPC-prognosis) and prediction of chemotherapy benefit (SPC-prediction). Five quasimonomorphic mononucleotide markers were used to assess tumor MSI status. EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization was performed to define EBV status. RESULTS: There were positive associations among SPC, MSI, and EBV statuses among 586 patients. In multivariate analysis of disease-free survival, SPC-prognosis [hazard ratio (HR): 1.879 (1.101–3.205), 2.399 (1.415–4.067), p=0.003] and MSI status (HR: 0.363, 95% confidence interval: 0.161–0.820, p=0.015) were independent prognostic factors along with age, Lauren classification, TNM stage, and chemotherapy. Patient survival of SPC-prognosis was well stratified regardless of EBV status and in microsatellite stable (MSS) group, but not in MSI-high group. Significant survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was observed by SPC-Prediction in MSS and EBV-negative gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: SPC, MSI, and EBV statuses could be used in combination to predict the prognosis and responsiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II/III gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , RNA , Stomach Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI) has a better prognosis than CRC with microsatellite stable (MSS). Recent studies have reported biological differences according to tumor location in CRC. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of MSI in patients with right-sided CRC. METHODS: The medical records of 1,009 CRC patients diagnosed at our institute between October 2004 and December 2016 with MSI test results were retrospectively reviewed. The long-term outcomes of CRC patients with MSI were assessed with respect to tumor location using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration for all 1,009 study subjects was 25 months (interquartile range, 15–38). One hundred twenty-four of the study subjects had MSI (12.3%) and 250 had right-sided CRC (24.8%). The patients with MSI and right-sided CRC had better disease-free survival (DFS) than those with MSS as determined by the log-rank test (p=0.013), and this result was significant in females (p=0.035) but not in males with right-sided CRC. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed MSS significantly predicted poor DFS in patients with right-sided CRC (hazard ratio 3.97, 95% CI 1.30–12.15, p=0.016) and in female patients (hazard ratio 4.69, 95% CI 1.03–21.36, p=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows MSI is a useful predictor of DFS in patients with right-sided CRC, especially in female patients.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of intratumoral Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: F. nucleatum DNA was quantitatively measured in a total of 593 CRC tissues retrospectively collected from surgically resected specimens of stage III or high-risk stage II CRC patients who had received curative surgery and subsequent oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (either FOLFOXor CAPOX). Each case was classified into one of the three categories: F. nucleatum–high, –low, or –negative. RESULTS: No significant differences in survival were observed between the F.nucleatum–high and –low/negative groups in the 593 CRCs (p = .671). Subgroup analyses according to tumor location demonstrated that disease-free survival was significantly better in F.nucleatum–high than in –low/negative patients with non-sigmoid colon cancer (including cecal, ascending, transverse, and descending colon cancers; n = 219; log-rank p = .026). In multivariate analysis, F. nucleatum was determined to be an independent prognostic factor in non-sigmoid colon cancers (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.97; p = .043). Furthermore, the favorable prognostic effect of F. nucleatum–high was observed only in a non-microsatellite instability-high (non-MSI-high) subset of non-sigmoid colon cancers (log-rank p = 0.014), but not in a MSI-high subset (log-rank p = 0.844), suggesting that the combined status of tumor location and MSI may be a critical factor for different prognostic impacts of F. nucleatum in CRCs treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral F. nucleatum load is a potential prognostic factor in a non-MSI-high/non-sigmoid/non-rectal cancer subset of stage II/III CRCs treated with oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon, Descending , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , DNA , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Fusobacterium , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762294

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluate the prognostic value of primary tumor location for oncologic outcomes in patients with colon cancer (CC). METHODS: CC patients treated with curative surgery between 2009 and 2012 were classified into 2 groups: right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined based on tumor stage. Propensity scores were created using eight variables (age, sex, T stage, N stage, histologic grade, presence of lymphovascular invasion/perineural invasion, and microsatellite instability status). RESULTS: Overall, 2,329 patients were identified. The 5-year RFSs for RCC and LCC patients were 89.7% and 88.4% (P = 0.328), respectively, and their 5-year OSs were 90.9% and 93.4% (P = 0.062). Multivariate survival analyses were carried out by using the Cox regression proportional hazard model. In the unadjusted analysis, a marginal increase in overall mortality was seen in RCC patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.297; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.987–1.704, P = 0.062); however, after multivariable adjustment, similar OSs were observed in those patients (HR, 1.219; 95% CI, 0.91–1.633; P = 0.183). After propensity-score matching with a total of 1,560 patients, no significant difference was identified (P = 0.183). A slightly worse OS was seen for stage III RCC patients (HR, 1.561; 95% CI, 0.967–2.522; P = 0.068) than for stage III LCC patients. The 5-year OSs for patients with stage III RCC and stage III LCC were 85.5% and 90.5%, respectively (P = 0.133). CONCLUSION: Although the results are inconclusive, tumor location tended to be associated with OS in CC patients with lymph node metastasis, but it was not related to oncologic outcome.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Microsatellite Instability , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 10(2)jul.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003895

ABSTRACT

Los microsatélites son secuencias cortas repetidas en tándem, frecuentes y diversas en los genomas de todas las especies, constituyendo importantes marcadores en múltiples áreas de investigación basadas en la genómica. Se han encontrado asociaciones de estos marcadores a un número importante de enfermedades en humanos. En el desarrollo de vacunas se ha demostrado cómo los patógenos pueden evadir la respuesta inmune simplemente alterando la composición de las secuencias repetidas en sus genes. Existen numerosas aplicaciones informáticas destinadas a la detección de estas secuencias, no obstante, éstas no cubren todas las expectativas debido a la divergencia de criterios y enfoques aplicados a la solución del problema de su detección. MIDAS implementa una solución no heurística basada en dos algoritmos combinatorios en serie: el primero detecta microsatélites exactos, y el segundo, de permitirlo los parámetros del modelo, extiende las secuencias a su versión inexacta óptima. La aplicación tiene como entrada la secuencia genómica en formato GBFF o FASTA y su salida brinda las posiciones de los microsatélites en la secuencia genómica, así como tamaños, alineamientos, flancos, posiciones, etc. El algoritmo tiene una elevada eficiencia y es exhaustivo, detectando todas las posibles secuencias repetidas independientemente de su composición nucleotídica(AU)


Microsatellites are tandem repeat, frequent and diverse short sequences in the genomes of all species, constituting important markers in multiple areas of genomics-based research. Associations of these markers have been found in a significant number of human diseases. Vaccine development has shown how pathogens can evade the immune response by simply altering the composition of repeat sequences in their genes. There are numerous computer applications for the detection of these sequences, but they do not meet all expectations due to the divergence of criteria and approaches applied to solving the problem of their detection. MIDAS implements a non-heuristic solution based on two combinatorial algorithms in series: the first one detects exact microsatellites, and the second one, if the model parameters allow it, extends the sequences to their optimal inaccurate version. The application has as input the genomic sequence in GBFF or FASTA format and its output provides the microsatellite positions in the genomic sequence, as well as sizes, alignments, flanks and other statistics. The algorithm is highly efficient and comprehensive, detecting all possible repeat sequences regardless of their nucleotide composition(AU)


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Medical Informatics Applications , Microsatellite Instability , Data Mining/methods
18.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 36(1): 9-16, Junio 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998708

ABSTRACT

Mundialmente, el cáncer colo-rectal constituye la tercera neoplasia más común en hombres y la segunda en mujeres. Las vías de tumorogénesis, nos permite subclasificar a los pacientes y protocolizar tratamientos. Lainestabilidad microsatelital constituye una de estas vías; se presenta en un 15% a 20% en el carcinoma colo-rectal y su presencia se asocia a un mejor pronóstico. Objetivo:Determinar la frecuencia de inestabilidad microsatelital y su distribución de acuerdo a los factores pronósticos en biopsias de pacientes con cáncer colo-rectal atendidos en el Instituto del Cáncer SOLCA-Cuenca durante el periodo 2004-2014".Método:Es un estudio de tipo observacional, analítico. Se estudiaron 240 pacientes con cáncer colo-rectal, diagnosticados en Departamento de Patología del Instituto del Cáncer Solca Cuenca y que disponían de su material de biopsias en donde se realizaron las técnicas de inmunohistoquímica con 4 marcadores MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2. Resultados:El 37.9% correspondió a hombres y el 62.1% a mujeres. La media de edad fue 66.2 años. El 58.75% (n= 141) tuvieron localización en colon. Se observó falta de expresión proteica en un 24.2 % (58 pacientes). En cuanto a que proteínas, el 68.96% (40 casos) fueron MLH1/PMS2; 1.72 % (1 caso) MSH2/MSH6.De los casos que no expresaron las proteínas el 87.93% se localizaron en el colon; 79.3% fueron adenocarcinoma; 58.6% fueron grado moderado y 37.9% fueron etapa II. En el análisis bivariado se estableció asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la inestabilidad microsatelital con localización del tumor (OR 7 . 4 ; IC 3.2-17) y el grado de diferenciación (OR 2.8; IC 1.5- 5.4). Conclusiones: Se recomienda el uso protocolizado dentro del tratamiento del cáncer colo-rectal.


Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common neoplasm in men and the second in women. Tumorigenesis pathways allow us to sub-classify patients and protocolize treatments. The microsatellite instability constitutes one of these pathways; it is present in a 15% to 20% in colorectal carcinoma; its presence is associated with a better prognosis.Objective:To determine the frequency of microsatellite instability and its distribution according to prognostic factors in biopsies of patients with colorectal cancer in the Solca-Cuenca Cancer Institute during the period 2004-2014. Method:It is an observational, analytical study. About 240 patients with colorectal cancer were studied, they were diagnosed in the Pathology Department of the Cuenca Cancer Institute and who had their biopsy material where the immunohistochemical techniques were performed with 4 markers MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2.Results:The 37.9% corresponded to men and 62.1% to women. The average age was 66.2 years. The 58.75% (n = 141) had localization in the colon. A lack of protein expression was observed in 24.2% (58 patients). Regarding to proteins, 68.96% (40 cases) were MLH1 / PMS2; 1.72% (1 case) MSH2 / MSH6. About the cases that did not express the proteins, 87.93% were located in the colon; 79.3% were adenocarcinoma; 58.6% were moderate grade and 37.9% were stage II. In the bivariate analysis, a statistically significant association was established between microsatellite instability with tumor location (OR 7 . 4 , CI 3.2-17) and degree of differentiation (OR 2.8, CI 1.5- 5.4). Conclusions:The protocolized use is recommended within the treatment of colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms , Microsatellite Instability , Carcinogenesis , Prognosis , Therapeutics , Immunohistochemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691329

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third tumor in the world, and nearly half of the stage II( and III( patients undergoing radical resection develop relapse. At present, the survival benefit of follow-up strategy is still unclear, partly due to the neglect of the risk of recurrence and the factors affecting prognosis. Studies found that microsatellite status, BRAF and RAS genotype had certain value for prognosis of colorectal cancer patients after radical resection, but there were differences in prediction among these three factors. Patients with high-frequency microsatellite instability in stage II( have good prognosis, so the follow-up strategy in this set of patients can be appropriately simplified. Locally advanced colorectal cancer patients with BRAF-V600E mutations usually have poor survival after recurrence, and survival benefit appears minimal by intensive follow-up strategy. Besides, standard follow-up strategy, or less intensive follow-up strategy seems an acceptable option for patients with this subtype. In contrast, for patients with wild-type BRAF and RAS in stage II( or III(, the prognosis is usually good after recurrence. Such patients are sensitive to both systemic treatment and local therapy. Therefore, for patients with wild-type BRAF and RAS, early detection of recurrence by intensive follow-up strategy can potentially increase the possibility of second radical resection and prolong survival. It is of clinical significance to explore the feasibility of individualized follow-up strategy for patients with different biological characteristics. In addition, the establishment of individual risk prediction model should take clinical, pathological and molecular features into consideration. Combination of TNM staging and molecular markers for more stratified management and establishment of individualized follow-up system are clinically meaningful in the future.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Mutation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , Genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713662

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality and the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignant diseases. While continued efforts have been focused on GC treatment, the introduction of trastuzumab marked the beginning of a new era of target-specific treatments. Considering the diversity of mutations in GC, satisfactory results obtained from various target-specific therapies were expected, yet most of them were unsuccessful in controlled clinical trials. There are several possible reasons underlying the failures, including the absence of patient selection depending on validated predictive biomarkers, the inappropriate combination of drugs, and tumor heterogeneity. In contrast to targeted agents, immuno-oncologic agents are designed to regulate and boost immunity, are not target-specific, and may overcome tumor heterogeneity. With the successful establishment of predictive biomarkers, including Epstein-Barr virus pattern, microsatellite instability status, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, as well as ideal combination regimens, a new frontier in the immuno-oncology of GC treatment is on the horizon. Since the field of immuno-oncology has witnessed innovative, practice-changing successes in other cancer types, several trials on GC are ongoing. Among immuno-oncologic therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors are the mainstay of clinical trials performed on GC. In this article, we review target-specific agents currently used in clinics or are undergoing clinical trials, and highlight the future clinical application of immuno-oncologic agents in inoperable GC.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Immunotherapy , Microsatellite Instability , Mortality , Patient Selection , Population Characteristics , Stomach Neoplasms , Trastuzumab
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