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1.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 176-180, mayo-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255021

ABSTRACT

La microendodoncia involucra la visualización a través de un microscopio operatorio de todas las fases del tratamiento de conductos y procedimientos de cirugía apical y correctiva por parte del endodoncista. Existe sobrada evidencia acerca de las mejoras que puede aportar la magnificación al tratamiento; la literatura demuestra que la capacidad del operador mejora si su visión del campo gana claridad y precisión, ambos recursos pueden ser proporcionados por el microscopio operatorio, aunado a que posibilita diagnósticos más certeros junto con mejoras en el pronóstico, lo que permite evitar posibles complicaciones. La calidad de los tratamientos endodóncicos involucra infinidad de factores, cada uno relevante en sí mismo pero, en determinados casos, el microscopio puede significar la diferencia entre un tratamiento exitoso o un fracaso clínico. En la actualidad, se ha convertido en un tema de lo más relevante, por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar la literatura con el fin de ayudar al entendimiento basado en evidencia científica de los criterios que determinan la relevancia del uso del microscopio en el ámbito endodóncico (AU)


Microendodontics involves the visualization through an operating microscope of all phases of root canal treatment and apical and corrective surgery procedures by the endodontist. There is plenty of evidence about the improvements that magnification can provide, the literature shows that the operator's ability improves if his vision of the field gains clarity and precision, both resources can be provided by the operating microscope, added to the fact that it enables more accurate diagnoses together with improvements in the prognosis allowing to avoid possible complications. The quality of endodontic treatments involves countless factors, each relevant in itself, but in certain cases the microscope can mean the difference between a successful treatment or a clinical failure. At present, it has become a very relevant topic, so the objective of this work is to review the literature in order to help understand the criteria that determine the relevance of the use of the microscope in the endodontic field based on scientific evidence (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Therapy/trends , Image Enhancement/instrumentation , Microscopy/methods , Periapical Diseases/diagnosis , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Diseases/diagnosis
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 209-213, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the lymphatic vessels in orbital specimens from human cadavers using light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. Methods: A postmortem study included 10 orbital specimens from 10 human cadavers. The orbital specimens were obtained no later than 12 hours after death. The orbital specimens were dissected into lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and oculomotor muscles. The histologic criteria to qualify as a lymphatic vessel were thin-walled channels of endothelium without a well-developed basal membrane and with an erythrocyte-free, irregular lumen. The immunohistochemical criteria were irregularly shaped, thin-walled vessels with an erythrocyte-free, irregular lumen and immunopositivity for podoplanin D2-40. Results: The lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and extraocular muscle sections were positively stained with podoplanin D2-40. Conclusions: This study demonstrated lymphatic vessels in the human orbit, more precisely, in the lacrimal gland, dura mater of the optic nerve, adipose tissue, and extrinsic oculomotor muscles via light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivos: Identificar vasos linfáticos em espécimes orbitários de cadáveres humanos através de microscopia óptica e análise imunohistoquímica. Métodos: Um estudo postmortem incluiu dez espécimes orbitários provenientes de dez cadáveres humanos. Todos os espécimes orbitários foram obtidos até 12 horas após a morte com uma técnica cirúrgica de exenteração orbitária e dissecados em glândula lacrimal, nervo óptico, gordura órbitária e músculos extraoculares. Para classificar como um vaso linfático, os critérios histológicos incluíram vasos endoteliais de parede única sem membrana basal bem desenvolvida, irregulares e lúmen sem hemácias, e os critérios imunohistoquímicos incluíram vasos endoteliais de parede única, com formato irregular e lúmen sem hemácias e reagentes a podoplanina D2-40. Resultados: As lâminas histológicas de glândula lacrimal, nervo óptico, tecido adiposo e músculos extraoculares reagiram positivamente a podoplanina D2-40. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou vasos linfáticos na órbita humana, mais exatamente, na glândula lacrimal, no nervo óptico, na gordura orbitária e nos músculos extrínsecos extraoculares via microscopia óptica e imunohistoquímica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Optic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Lymphatic Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Lacrimal Apparatus/anatomy & histology , Microscopy/instrumentation , Oculomotor Muscles/anatomy & histology
3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 281-285, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286188

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Interest in anatomy dates from the earliest times. Such knowledge was acquired through dissections of animals and human corpses by many researchers. The macroscopic anatomy of the varied structures of the brain were identified over the centuries, and the predominating solid substance was seen as amorphous, and devoid of any specific function, until the Renaissance. René Descartes, a personage with a brilliant and creative mind, conceived the brain, its structure and function, in a distinct manner to what was known at his time. He valued the solid matter and gave it, for the first time, a theoretical minute structure, related to a presumptive function based on the presence of the pineal gland and the animal spirits, underlying cognitive, sensory and motor activities. Such structural view was endorsed, in a given sense, by the microscopic findings of Marcello Malpighi, which begun to change the understanding of the nervous system.


RESUMO. O interesse pela anatomia data desde a mais remota antiguidade. Esse conhecimento foi adquirido por meio de dissecções em animais e cadáveres humanos, por muitos pesquisadores. A anatomia macroscópica de variadas estruturas do cérebro foi identificada com o passar dos séculos, e a substância sólida predominante foi vista como amorfa e destituída de qualquer função específica até o período do Renascimento. René Descartes, um personagem com uma mente brilhante e criativa, concebeu o cérebro, sua estrutura e função, de um modo distinto ao que era conhecido no seu tempo. Ele valorizou e deu à substância sólida, pela primeira vez, uma estrutura teórica formada por elementos minúsculos, relacionada a uma função presuntiva, baseada na presença da glândula pineal e dos espíritos animais, subjacentes às atividades cognitiva, sensorial e motora. Essa vista estrutural foi, de certa maneira, endossada pelos achados microscópicos de Marcello Malpighi, o que começou a modificar a compreensão do sistema nervoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrum , Pineal Gland , Microscopy
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 517-521, Mar.-Apr. 2021. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248950

ABSTRACT

A análise dos padrões morfológicos e morfométricos das microestruturas capilares é uma técnica não invasiva que pode ser utilizada para identificar espécies de mamíferos. Esta técnica pode ser aplicada em diversas áreas da ciência animal, tais como controle de qualidade de alimentos e análises forenses. Dada a dificuldade de obter seções transversais de pelos de guarda para expor o córtex, a maioria dos estudos analisou apenas os componentes medulares e cuticulares do pelo. A inclusão do córtex capilar de guarda em uma análise tricológica pode proporcionar uma descrição mais precisa das raças ou espécies de mamíferos. O presente estudo propõe um novo método para a execução de cortes transversais que expõem o córtex do pelo guarda de mamíferos utilizando um criostato.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Forensic Sciences/trends , Animal Fur/ultrastructure , Hair Analysis/veterinary , Microscopy/methods
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 63-66, jan.-fev. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251317

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Relato de caso não descrito na literatura oftalmológica nacional de múltiplas camadas da membrana de Descemet. Mulher de 59 anos, pseudofácica, com diagnóstico de ceratopatia bolhosa, foi submetida à ceratoplastia penetrante em olho direito, sendo encontrado achado incomum de multiplicidade de camadas da membrana de Descemet, variáveis em forma e espessura, além de corpos ovoides com coloração de metamina de prata de Gocott-Gomori (GMS) negativa. Como a membrana de Descemet tem no seu desenvolvimento um período fetal e outro pós-natal que frequentemente é bem identificável nos cortes histológicos em adultos. No caso apresentado, em que outras camadas estão presentes, há evidência de corpos esféricos que poderiam significar que a potencialidade de produzir outras camadas pode permanecer na fase adulta mais tardia.


ABSTRACT To relate a case not described previously in the national multilateral ophthalmological literature of Descemet's membrane. A 59-year-old pseudophakic woman diagnosed with bullous keratopathy underwent penetrating keratoplasty with an unusual finding of multiple layers of Descemet's membrane, which were variable in shape and thickness. In addition, ovoid bodies with negative Gocott-Gomori (GMS) color were present. Discussion and Conclusion: As Descemet's membrane has a fetal and a postnatal period in its development, it is frequently and well identifiable in histological sections in adults. In the case presented, in which other layers are present, there is evidence of spherical bodies that could mean that the potential to produce other layers may remain into later adulthood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Corneal Edema/diagnosis , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/methods , Descemet Membrane/abnormalities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Diagnosis, Differential , Microscopy/methods
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00472020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143886

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of filter paper (FP) for lesion scraping collection in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosis. METHODS: Lesion scrapings from 48 patients were collected and analyzed for PCR. RESULTS: PCR with FP detected up to three Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes. Considering the direct search by microscopy or PCR of samples collected in STE buffer as standards, the sensitivity of PCR with FP was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FP can be useful for CL diagnosis in remote regions, allowing high sensitivity in the detection of the parasite by PCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Microscopy
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200772, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278459

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eucalyptus species possess anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal properties. In this study, the chemical composition and biological activities of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil (EO) and the leaf and stem anatomy were investigated. EO was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified by GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, and reducing phosphomolybdenum complex. Broth microdilution was used to determine antimicrobial activity. Cytotoxicity was verified against HeLa, HRT-18, and Calu-3 cells by MTT assay. The cytotoxic mechanism was studied by cell DNA content, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation. The microscopic analyzes of the leaves and the stems were performed by light microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The main constituent of the EO was 1,8-cineole (55.24%). The EO showed low antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Calu-3 cells showed a significant reduction in viability with IC50 of 689.79 ± 29.34 μg/mL. EO at 1000 μg/mL decreased the DNA content in Jurkat cells. In general, EO increased cell percentage in sub-G0 and S phases with concomitant reduction of cell percentage in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and provided DNA fragmentation of 29.73%. Anatomical and micromorphological features of the leaves and stems can help in the species identification and its differentiation from other Eucalyptus species.


Subject(s)
Terpenes , Biological Phenomena , Oils, Volatile , Myrtaceae , Microscopy
8.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(supl.1): e108, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279879

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: Além de demorada, a mentoria em Medicina ocorre em vários níveis e é complexa, pois pode incluir várias combinações de ensino, prática clínica, atendimento ao paciente e pesquisa. Relato de experiência: Trata-se de um relato de experiência individual de uma mentorada em um programa de residência médica em patologia do Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas, de Manaus, no Amazonas. Descrevem-se os benefícios individuais e coletivos de uma mentoria fora de um programa formal, orientada pelo discernimento e pela maturidade de relacionamento entre mentor e mentorada. Discussão: Discentes de programa de residência médica podem se beneficiar sobremaneira, pessoal e profissionalmente, de mentorias bem conduzidas. Conclusão: No relacionamento de mentoria, são imprescindíveis qualidades como respeito mútuo, discernimento e abnegação, para que o mentorado cresça e desenvolva uma identidade profissional independente, ainda que atrelada à relação de mentoria, e amadurecida, em seu pleno desenvolvimento, a fim de que ele seja um novo mentor e novos alunos sejam beneficiados.


Abstract: Introduction: Mentoring in medicine is time-consuming on several levels and complex, as it can include various combinations of teaching, clinical practice, patient care, and research. Experience report: This report is on the individual experience of a mentee in a medical residency program in Pathology at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital (Manaus-AM). The individual and collective benefits of mentoring outside a formal program are described, guided by the discernment and maturity of the relationship between mentor and mentee. Discussion: Medical residency program students can benefit greatly, both personally and professionally, from well-conducted mentoring. Conclusion: In the mentoring relationship, qualities such as mutual respect, discernment, and selflessness are essential so that the mentee grows and develops a fully developed and independent professional identity, albeit bound to the mentoring relationship, in order for him become a new mentor and to benefit new students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical/methods , Mentoring , Autopsy , Mentors , Internship and Residency , Microscopy
9.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223706

ABSTRACT

A single dose of simvastatin and of artesunate monotherapy cause damage to the reproductive system of schistosomes as well as severe tegumental damage in male worms recovered from mice fed high-fat chow. This study aims to investigate whether treatment with multipledose regimes may offer more antischistosomal activity advantages than single daily dosing in mice fed high-fat chow. For this purpose, nine weeks post-infection, Swiss Webster mice were gavaged with simvastatin (200 mg/kg) or artesunate (300 mg/kg) for five consecutive days and euthanized two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were analyzed using brightfield microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, presenting damages caused by simvastatin and artesunate to the reproductive system of males and females as well as tegument alterations, including peeling, sloughing areas, loss of tubercles, tegumental bubbles and tegument rupture exposing subtegumental tissue. The overall findings in this study revealed the potential antischistosomal activity of simvastatin and artesunate against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, in addition to showing that multiple doses of either monotherapy caused severe damage to the tegument.


Una sola dosis de simvastatina y de artesunato en monoterapia causa daño al sistema reproductivo de los esquistosomas, así como daño tegumental severo en gusanos machos recuperados de ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar si el tratamiento con regímenes de dosis múltiples puede ofrecer más ventajas de actividad antiesquistosomal que la dosis única diaria en ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Para este propósito, nueve semanas después de la infección, los ratones Swiss Webster se alimentaron por sonda con simvastatina (200 mg / kg) o artesunato (300 mg / kg) durante cinco días consecutivos y se sacrificaron dos semanas después del tratamiento. Los gusanos adultos se analizaron utilizando campo claro microscopía, microscopía confocal y microscopía electrónica de barrido, presentando daños causados ​​por simvastatina y artesunato en el sistema reproductivo de machos y hembras, así como alteraciones del tegumento, incluyendo descamación, desprendimiento, pérdida de tubérculos, burbujas tegumentales y rotura del tegumento exponiendo tejido subtegumental. Los hallazgos generales de este estudio revelaron la posible actividad antiesquistosomal de la simvastatina y el artesunato contra los gusanos adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, además de mostrar que dosis múltiples de cualquiera de las dos monoterapia causaron daños graves al tegumento.


Uma única dose de sinvastatina e de monoterapia com artesunato causa danos ao sistema reprodutivo dos esquistossomos, bem como danos graves ao tegumento em vermes machos recuperados de camundongos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se o tratamento com regimes de múltiplas doses pode oferecer mais vantagens da atividade anti-esquistossomótica do que uma única dose diária em ratos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Para tanto, nove semanas após a infecção, camundongos Swiss Webster foram inoculados com sinvastatina (200 mg / kg) ou artesunato (300 mg / kg) por cinco dias consecutivos e sacrificados duas semanas após o tratamento. Vermes adultos foram analisados ​​usando campo claro microscopia, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, apresentando danos causados ​​pela sinvastatina e artesunato ao sistema reprodutivo de homens e mulheres, bem como alterações do tegumento, incluindo descamação, áreas de descamação, perda de tubérculos, bolhas tegumentais e ruptura do tegumento com exposição de tecido subtegumentar. Os achados gerais deste estudo revelaram a potencial atividade anti-esquistossomótica da sinvastatina e do artesunato contra vermes adultos do Schistosoma mansoni, além de mostrar que doses múltiplas de ambas as monoterapias causaram danos graves ao tegumento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Schistosoma mansoni , Simvastatin , Hyperlipidemias , Mice , Microscopy
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879286

ABSTRACT

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a rapidly developing hybrid biomedical imaging technology, which is capable of providing structural and functional information of biological tissues. Due to inevitable motion of the imaging object, such as respiration, heartbeat or eye rotation, motion artifacts are observed in the reconstructed images, which reduce the imaging resolution and increase the difficulty of obtaining high-quality images. This paper summarizes current methods for correcting and compensating motion artifacts in photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT), discusses their advantages and limits and forecasts possible future work.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Microscopy , Motion , Photoacoustic Techniques , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Dent. press endod ; 10(3): 81-87, Sept-Dec.2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348049

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A identificação de possíveis variações anatômicas é decisiva para o correto diagnóstico e planejamento da terapia endodôntica. Objetivo: Relatar o tratamento endodôntico de um dente #37, no qual foi identificado um terceiro canal na raiz mesial (canal mesio-mediano, CMM). Caso clínico: Dente #37 com diagnóstico de pulpite irreversível sintomática, foi encaminhado para realizar tratamento endodôntico. Durante o acesso coronário, e com auxílio de microscópio operatório (MO), foram identificadas trincas coronárias. Foi solicitada uma tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC), a partir da qual foi descartada a presença de trinca radicular. A TCFC possibilitou, também, identificar a presença de um terceiro canal na raiz mesial, localizado entre os canais mesiovestibular e mesiolingual. O tratamento endodôntico foi executado pelo sistema reciprocante WaveOne GOLD. A solução irrigadora de escolha para o preparo químico-mecânico foi o hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Imediatamente antes da obturação, os canais foram irrigados com EDTA a 17%, para auxiliar na remoção da smear layer e, em seguida, foi realizada nova irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Os canais foram secos com pontas de papel absorvente e obturados pela técnica de onda contínua de condensação. Resultados: Os canais radiculares do dente #37 foram devidamente instrumentados e obturados. A paciente não apresentou qualquer sintomatologia pós-operatória, sendo encaminhada para a reabilitação protética final. Conclusão: A TCFC e o microscópio operatório foram decisivos para o correto planejamento do caso, tanto em relação à trinca observa- da quanto à detecção do canal mesiomediano (AU).


Introduction: Identification of possible anatomical variations is crucial for the correct diagnosis and planning of endodontic therapy. Objective: To report the endodontic treatment of tooth #37, in which a third canal was located in the mesial root (middle mesial canal - MMC). Methods: Tooth #37 was diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and referred for endodontic treatment. Coronary cracks were found during coronal access using a dental operating microscope (DOM). A cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was requested. CBCT revealed cracks involving the pulp chamber floor and a third root canal in the mesial root, between the mesiobuccal and the mesiolingual canals. Endodontic treatment was performed with the WaveOne GOLD reciprocating system. The chemical-mechanical preparation was performed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer, followed by another irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. The canals were dried with absorbent paper points. The root canal obturation was performed with the continuous wave of condensation technique. Results: The root canals of tooth #37 were correctly instrumented and obturated. The patient did not present with any postoperative symptoms, and was referred for final prosthetic rehabilitation. Conclusion: CBCT and DOM were paramount for the correct planning of the case, as regards the presence of cracks and the detection of the middle mesial canal (AU).


Subject(s)
Pulpitis , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Molar , Therapeutics , Microscopy
12.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(3): 113-118, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147645

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar cualitativamente la biocompatibilidad y la capacidad osteogénica de dos selladores endodónticos a base de silicato de calcio: el biocerámico Bio-C Sealer (BIOc) y MTA Densell Sealer (MTAd). Materiales y métodos: En la tibia izquierda de 30 ratas Wistar macho se implantó un tubo de silicona obturado con BIOc. De igual forma, en la tibia derecha de cada una se implantó un tubo de silicona obturado con MTAd. Los animales fueron eutanasiados en grupos de 10 a los 7, 30 y 90 días. Las tibias fueron procesadas para su análisis histológico y analizadas con microscopía óptica. Según lo observado, fueron clasificadas en tres categorías: 1: Presencia de cápsula fibrosa sana y neoformación ósea, sin células inflamatorias; 2: Cápsula fibrosa con o sin células inflamatorias, formación inicial de trabéculas óseas y presencia de células inflamatorias en los tejidos circundantes; 3: Ausencia de cápsula y/o tejido óseo y presencia de numerosas células inflamatorias. Los resultados fueron analizados con las pruebas de McNemar y de Kruskal-Wallis (P<0,05). Resultados: A los 7 días, los tejidos en contacto con BIOc y MTAd reaccionaron según la categoría 3. A los 30 días, todos los casos correspondieron a la categoría 2. A los 90 días, los 10 implantes de BIOc fueron clasificados según la categoría 1. MTAd presentó nueve casos de categoría 1 y un caso de categoría 2. No hubo diferencias significativas entre ambos selladores dentro de cada uno de los períodos de observación (P>0,05), pero sí las hubo cuando se compararon los resultados obtenidos entre períodos de observación (P<0,05). Conclusión: Al finalizar el ensayo, Bio-C Sealer y MTA Densell Sealer se comportaron como materiales biocompatibles y osteogénicos en tibias de rata (AU)


Aim: To analyze the biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity of two silicate-based endodontic sealers, the bioceramic Bio C-Sealer (BIOc) and the MTA-based sealer MTA Densell (MTAd). Materials and methods: Silicone tubes filled with BIOc were implanted in the left tibias of 30 white male Wistar rats (one per tibia). In similar fashion, tubes filled with MTAd were implanted in the right tibias. The animals were euthanized in groups of 10 at 7, 30 and 90 days postoperatively. The tibias were removed, processed for histology and analysed under optical microscopy. The observations were classified in three categories: 1: Presence of a healthy fibrous capsule and newly formed bone trabeculae without inflammatory cells. 2: Fibrous capsule with or without inflammatory cells, initial formation of bone trabeculae and presence of inflammatory cells in the surrounding tissues. 3: Absence of a fibrous capsule and/or bone formation with the presence of numerous inflammatory cells. Data was analyzed by the McNemar and the Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05). Results: At 7 days: The tissues in contact with BIOc and MTAd reacted as category 3. At 30 days: All cases were classified as category 2. At 90 days: All BIOc cases were in category 1 while MTAd presented nine cases of category 1 and one case of category 2. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both sealants BIOc and MTAd in each period group. However, there were significant differences (P<0.05) when the results between periods were compared. Conclusion: At the end of the experiment both, BIOc and MTAd behaved as biocompatible and osteogenic materials in the rats' tibias (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Root Canal Filling Materials , Biocompatible Materials , Ceramics , Osteogenesis , Silicones , Materials Testing , Calcarea Silicata , Rats, Wistar , Silicates , Microscopy
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1571-1576, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134480

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the clinical and radiographic examination (CRE) method compared to the examination with the dental operating microscope (DOM) on the detection of anatomical features of mesiobuccal canals in maxillary first molars. One hundred maxillary first molars were selected to assess the number of canals orifice entrances, accessibility, and ending of their mesiobuccal canals using the CRE method and the examination with the DOM. The diagnostic tests of the CRE exhibited, in general, high levels of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. However, low levels of these outcomes occurred, mainly, on the detection of the number of canals entrance orifices of the mesiobuccal root. The statistically significant differences (p<0.05) occurred for accessibility and ending of canals in 61 of the 62 cases (out of 100) when two of them were present: 2 accessible root canals (48 cases; 77.42 %), and 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible canals (13 cases; 20.97 %); 1 foramen after fusion (18 cases; 29.03 %), 2 foramens (30 cases; 48.39 %), and 1 foramen and 1 blind foramen (13 cases; 20.97 %). This study proves that the clinical and radiographic method (still the most commonly used worldwide) can't be trusted absolutely in situations of complex internal anatomy regarding the mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary first molars.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad del método de examen clínico y radiográfico (ECR) en comparación al examen con el microscopio quirúrgico dental (MQD) en la detección de características anatómicas de los canales mesiovestibulares en primeros molares maxilares.Se seleccionaron 100 primeros molares maxilares para evaluar el número de entradas de los canales, la accesibilidad y la terminación de sus canales mesiovestibulares utilizando el método ECR y el examen con el MQD.Las pruebas de diagnóstico del ECR exhibieron, en general, altos niveles de precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad. Sin embargo, también hubo niveles bajos de estos resultados, principalmente, en la detección del número de orificios de entrada a los canales de las raíces mesiovestibulares. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) para la accesibilidad y terminación de los canales en 61 de los 62 casos (del total de 100), cuando dos de ellos estaban presentes: 2 canales radiculares accesibles (48 casos, 77,42 %), y 1 accesible y 1 inaccesible (13 casos, 20,97 %). Después de la fusión, un orificio (18 casos, 29,03 %), 2 orificios (30 casos, 48,39 %) y 1 orificio más otro, ciego (13 casos, 20,97 %). Este estudio demuestra que no se puede confiar plenamente en el método clínico y radiográfico (todavía el más utilizado en todo el mundo), cuando existe una anatomía interna compleja de los canales de la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares superiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Molar/anatomy & histology , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Dental , Sensitivity and Specificity , Maxilla , Microscopy/methods , Microsurgery
14.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e955, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156574

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas del síndrome pseudoexfoliativo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de 109 ojos correspondientes a 55 pacientes atendidos en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular y en el Servicio de Glaucoma del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" entre julio del año 2016 y septiembre de 2017. Para su caracterización se realizaron determinaciones a través de la gonioscopia, la tonometría, la paquimetría, la microscopia endotelial, el fondo de ojo y la medición de la agudeza visual. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 74,6 años, con predominio del sexo masculino (60 por ciento) y la piel blanca (78,2 por ciento), con antecedentes frecuentes de enfermedad vascular, particularmente hipertensión arterial (65,5 por ciento). El 92,7 por ciento presentaba catarata bilateral con predominio nuclear. Todos los pacientes tenían ángulo camerular abierto y la presión intraocular era alta en el 36,4 por ciento de los casos. La presencia de glaucoma fue del 56,4 por ciento, más frecuente el unilateral (38,2 por ciento). En relación con el endotelio corneal, la celularidad estaba disminuida en el 40 por ciento, con polimegatismo (58,2 por ciento) y pleomorfismo (72,7 por ciento). Conclusión: No se encuentra relación entre las alteraciones corneales, la edad, la presión intraocular y la presencia de material pseudoexfoliativo(AU)


Objective: Determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Methods: A study was conducted of 109 eyes of 55 patients attending the Ocular Microsurgery Center and Glaucoma Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from July 2016 to September 2017. Characterization was based on determinations made by gonioscopy, tonometry, pachymetry, endothelial microscopy, funduscopy and visual acuity measurement. Results: Mean age was 74.6 years, with a predominance of the male sex (60 percent), white skin (78.2 percent) and frequent antecedents of vascular disease, particularly arterial hypertension (65.5 percent). All the patients had cataract, which was predominantly bilateral and nuclear in 92.7 percent. In all cases the chamber angle was open, whereas intraocular pressure was high in 36.4 percent. 56.4 percent of the patients had glaucoma, which was more commonly unilateral (38.2 percent). Regarding the corneal endothelium, cellularity was reduced in 40 percent, with polymegethism (58.2 percent) and pleomorphism (72.7 percent). Conclusion: No relationship was found between corneal alterations, age and intraocular pressure, and the presence of pseudoexfoliative material(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Visual Acuity , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Exfoliation Syndrome/epidemiology , Gonioscopy/methods , Intraocular Pressure , Microscopy/methods
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1054-1062, Dec. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155044

ABSTRACT

Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a wild mammal distributed in Central and South America; nowadays, it is classified as an endangered species. Research about the macroscopic and histomorphological aspects of its respiratory tract is scarce, and, sometimes, it limits the treatment provided to sick animals and impairs species preservation. Thus, the present study aims to describe the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of its lower respiratory tract, including trachea and lungs. To do so, 12 adult giant anteaters from "Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia" (CETAS-GO), Goiás State, Brazil, were used in the research after natural death or euthanasia. Three of these animals were used for macroscopic assessments; they were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and dissected. Trachea and lung tissue samples were collected from nine animals right after death and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histomorphological analysis; they were processed, embedded in paraffin, and inked with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Masson's trichrome. The macroscopic analysis showed that the trachea in this species is proportionally short and presents from 19 to 27 tracheal cartilages. The right lung presents four lobes and the left one, two. The microscopic analysis evidenced respiratory epithelium of the ciliated cylindrical pseudostratified type, without evident goblet cells in the mucosa layer of the trachea and bronchi. The pulmonary visceral pleura is thick, similar to other large domestic mammals - complete septa extend from the pulmonary visceral pleura. In conclusion, the macroscopy and histomorphology of giant anteater's lower respiratory tract, represented by trachea and lungs, are similar to that of other domestic and wild mammals. Pulmonary histomorphology is mainly similar to that of pigs and ruminants: it has thick visceral pleura that emits complete septa of conjunctive tissue, which enable lobular parenchymal architecture.(AU)


O tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) é um mamífero silvestre com distribuição na América Central e do Sul e, atualmente, encontra-se classificado como ameaçado de extinção. Pesquisas acerca dos aspectos macroscópicos e histomorfológicos do seu sistema respiratório são escassas, o que, por vezes, limita o tratamento e o manejo de eventuais animais doentes, bem como a preservação da espécie. Desse modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a morfologia macroscópica e microscópica do aparelho respiratório inferior do tamanduá-bandeira, incluindo traqueia e pulmões. Para tanto, foram utilizados 12 tamanduás-bandeiras adultos, provenientes do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia (CETAS-GO), Goiás, Brasil, após morte natural ou eutanásia. Destes, três foram utilizados para o estudo macroscópico, sendo fixados em formalina tamponada a 10% e dissecados. Para a análise histomorfológica, amostras teciduais da traqueia e do pulmão foram colhidas de nove animais logo após o óbito, fixadas em formalina tamponada a 10%, processadas, incluídas em parafina e coradas com hematoxilina e eosina (HE), ácido periódico-Schiff (PAS) e tricrômico de Masson. À análise macroscópica notou-se que a traqueia é proporcionalmente curta, apresentando 19 a 27 cartilagens traqueais. O pulmão direito apresenta quatro lobos e o esquerdo dois. À análise microscópica foi constatado epitélio respiratório do tipo pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado, sem células caliciformes evidentes na camada mucosa da traqueia e dos brônquios. A pleura visceral pulmonar é espessa, assim como nos grandes mamíferos domésticos, e, a partir desta, estendem-se septos completos. Conclui-se que a macroscopia e a histomorfologia do sistema respiratório inferior do tamanduá-bandeira, representado pela traqueia e pulmões, são semelhantes àquelas de outros mamíferos domésticos e silvestres. A histomorfologia pulmonar é especialmente semelhante à de suínos e ruminantes, com a pleura visceral espessa e emitindo septos completos de tecido conjuntivo, que conferem arquitetura parenquimal lobular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System , Trachea , Eutheria/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Microscopy
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2007-2016, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1142311

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the accuracy of assessing stallion sperm motility using a light microscope, a cell phone camera, and a free computer-assisted semen analysis (FCASA) package for ImageJ. The total motility of frozen (n=22) and cooled (n=48) equine semen was determined by FCASA and compared to the results of subjective visual analysis (SVA) by two technicians. Frozen samples were also evaluated by a commercial computer-assisted semen analysis (CCASA) system. The Friedman test revealed no significant differences (P>0.05) between cooled samples analyzed by FCASA (38.0) and SVA (technician 1, 40.0; technician 2, 40.0), nor between frozen samples analyzed by FCASA (23.36 ± 15.9), SVA (25.5 ± 18.8 and 25.8 ± 18.5), and CCASA (25.2 ± 18.3). However, mean FCASA results were underestimated by 7.2% compared with CCASA. The correlation between FCASA and CCASA was significant and strong (P<0.0001, r=0.95). Chi-squared tests indicated that FCASA provided similar results (P=0.14) to the reference method (CCASA), but SVA had lower accuracy (P=0.04). ImageJ analysis of cell phone videos captured under a light microscope can be used for estimation of stallion sperm motility with comparable accuracy to commercial systems.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi testar as configurações necessárias para avaliar a motilidade espermática total de garanhões, mediante o uso de ImageJ, microscópio óptico e câmera de celular. Os valores de motilidade total das amostras de sêmen equino congeladas (22) e refrigeradas (48) foram comparados por análise visual (SVA) e pelo plugin do ImageJ (CASAF). Amostras congeladas também foram comparadas por um CASA comercial (CCASA). O teste de Friedman não resultou em diferença estatística (P>0,05) entre as 48 amostras analisadas com CASAF (38,0) e SVA de dois avaliadores (40,0 e 40,0). A comparação das 22 amostras congeladas entre CASAF (23,36±15,9), SVA (25,5±18,8 e 25,8±18,5) e CCASA (25,2±18,3) também não resultou em diferença estatística, sendo que a média dos resultados obtidos com CASAF subestimou a obtida com o CCASA em 7,2%. A correlação entre CASAF e CCASA foi significativamente elevada (r=0,95, P<0,0001). O teste de qui-quadrado resultou em proporção de acertos semelhantes entre o CASAF e o CCASA (P=0,14), enquanto SVA resultou em proporção diferente (P=0,04), indicando menor acurácia. O uso de microscópio óptico e câmera de celular foi útil para obter vídeos de sêmen de garanhões a serem analisados com ImageJ, proporcionando resultados de motilidade total equiparáveis a sistemas comerciais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Sperm Motility , Semen Analysis/methods , Smartphone/instrumentation , Horses/physiology , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Microscopy/veterinary
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1197-1200, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134424

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Histological techniques are the study of animal and human tissues through staining and examining them under a microscope. To demonstrate the axonal degeneration and demyelination in histological studies, the Luxol Fast Blue staining is gold standard techniques. In this study, a new histochemical method based on modified Luxol Fast Blue for the staining of the myelin sheath in sciatic nerve tissues described. The sciatic nerves of rats were removed and then the sciatic nerve was immersed in 10 % formaldehyde for one week and embedded in paraffin block. Next, thin sections (5 µm) were cut, using a microtome and stained with conventional and modified Luxol Fast Blue. Our results showed that a new method of modified Luxol Fast Blue staining can accurately identify the myelin in the sciatic nerve fibers. The current study showed that the Luxol Fast Blue combination with Light Green has a good effect on myelin coloration, and the results of this study are comparable to LFB combination with Sirius red.


RESUMEN: Las técnicas histológicas son el estudio de tejidos animales y humanos mediante tinción y examen bajo un microscopio. Para demostrar la degeneración axonal y la desmielinización en estudios histológicos, la tinción Luxol Fast Blue es una técnica estándar de oro. En este estudio, se describe un nuevo método histoquímico basado en Luxol Fast Blue modificado para la tinción de mielina en los tejidos del nervio ciático. Se seccionaron los nervios ciáticos de ratas y luego el nervio ciático se sumergió en formaldehído al 10 % durante una semana y se fijó en bloque de parafina. Posteriormente, se cortaron secciones delgadas (5 µm) usando un microtomo y se tiñeron con Luxol Fast Blue convencional y modificado. Nuestros resultados mostraron que un nuevo método de tinción Luxol Fast Blue modificado puede identificar con precisión la mielina en las fibras del nervio ciático. El estudio actual mostró que la combinación Luxol Fast Blue con Light Green es un buen efecto sobre la coloración de mielina, y los resultados de este estudio son comparables a la combinación LFB con Sirius red.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Staining and Labeling/methods , Myelin Sheath , Paraffin , Histological Techniques , Formaldehyde , Microscopy/methods
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1296-1301, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134439

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La Microscopía Virtual es una herramienta tecnológica que permite la visualización de imágenes digitales microscópicas de gran resolución a través de un computador imitando la funcionalidad de un microscopio óptico tradicional. El presente trabajo presenta nuestra experiencia en el uso de esta modalidad de trabajo, útil hoy en día, en medio de la pandemia por Covid-19.


SUMMARY: Virtual Microscopy is a technological tool that allows the visualization of high resolution microscopic digital images through a computer, imitating the functionality of a traditional light microscope. The present work presents our experience in the use of this working modality, useful today, in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Microscopy/methods , Virtual Reality , Microscopy/trends
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1018-1025, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124891

ABSTRACT

The equine placenta is a simple apposition of fetal and maternal tissues, becoming more complex with the formation of microcotyledons around days 75 and 100 of gestation. The present study aimed to describe the gross and microscopic morphology of early equine placenta. Embryonic/fetal membranes from thirty-seven mares were submitted to macroscopic description, light, scanning and transmission microscopy. Overall the gross characteristics of membranes were similar with already described for older stages. However, transmission electron microscopy evidenced high metabolic rate in chorion and allantois, and high secretion profile in amnion and even higher in yolk sac. Gene ontologies enrichment, using published data, pointed several common ontologies in allantoic and amniotic fluids, related to oxygen and iron transport, extracellular space and high-density lipoprotein receptor binding. Overall, the morphological and ontology enrichment could indicate allantois and amnion crosstalk.


La placenta equina es una simple aposición de tejidos fetales y maternos, que se vuelve más compleja con la formación de microcotiledones alrededor de los días 75 y 100 de gestación. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la morfología macroscópica y microscópica de la placenta equina temprana. Las membranas embrionarias / fetales de treinta y siete yeguas fueron sometidas a descripción macroscópica, luz, escaneo y microscopía de transmisión. En general, las características generales de las membranas fueron similares a las ya descritas para las etapas más antiguas. Sin embargo, la microscopía electrónica de transmisión mostró una alta tasa metabólica en corion y alantoides, y un alto perfil de secreción en amnios e incluso mayor en el saco vitelino. El enriquecimiento de ontologías génicas, utilizando datos publicados, señaló varias ontologías comunes en fluidos alantoideos y amnióticos, relacionados con el transporte de oxígeno y hierro, espacio extracelular y unión a receptores de lipoproteínas de alta densidad. En general, el enriquecimiento morfológico y ontológico podría indicar alantoides y diafonía de amnios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/anatomy & histology , Horses , Placenta/ultrastructure , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Chorion , Allantois , Amnion , Microscopy/methods
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 131-136, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115827

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La otoesclerosis es una enfermedad de presumible origen metabólico que determina la fijación de la cadena osicular. La estapedostomía con instalación de prótesis es la cirugía de elección en la actualidad para esta patología. OBJETIVO: Describir experiencia y resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de pacientes con otoesclerosis en el Hospital del Salvador entre los años 2012 y 2018. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo mediante revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente en nuestro servicio desde enero de 2012 hasta septiembre de 2018 con sospecha de otoesclerosis. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron en total 52 cirugías a 45 pacientes, 40 vía microscópica, 10 vía endoscópica y 2 mixtas, se utilizaron dos modelos de prótesis, Schuknecht - type piston and wire y Stapes-Prothesen. El promedio tonal puro (PTP) por vía aérea prequirúrgico fue de 65 dB, con una diferencia ósea-aérea (gap) promedio de 36 dB. El PTP promedio posquirúrgico fue de 35 dB con gap promedio de 9 dB, logrando en promedio una mejoría de 31 dB en la vía aérea y 27 dB de cierre de gap. El 92% de los pacientes intervenidos lograron mejoría con respecto al gap posoperatorio. CONCLUSIÓN: La estapedostomía es una intervención que si bien no está exenta de complicaciones, ha demostrado ser segura y tener buenos resultados auditivos en la mayoría de los pacientes.


INTRODUCTION: Otosclerosis is a presumable metabolic disease that determines ossicular chain fixation. Stapedotomy with prosthesis installation is the surgery of choice for this pathology at present. AIM: To describe the experience and results of the surgical treatment of patients with otosclerosis in the Hospital del Salvador between 2012 and 2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical records were reviewed of patients treated surgically in our department from January 2012 to September 2018 with suspicion of otosclerosis. RESULTS: A total of 52 surgeries were performed in 45 patients, 42 via microscopy and 10 via endoscopy, two models of prostheses were used Schuknecht - type piston and wire y Stapes-Prothesen. The pure tonal average (PTP) by pre-surgical air was 65 dB, with an average air gap (gap) of 36 dB. The average post-surgical PTP was 35 dB with an average gap of 9 db, achieving on average an improvement of 31 dB in the airway and 27 dB of gap closure. 92% of the patients who underwent surgery improved with respect to the postoperative gap. CONCLUSION: The stapedotomy is an intervention that although not free of complications, has been shown to be safe and have good hearing results in most patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Otosclerosis/surgery , Stapes Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications , Prostheses and Implants , Stapes Surgery/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Endoscopy , Microscopy
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