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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Tocompare the effect of tooth brushing on surface roughness of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC; GC Gold label 2LC Light Cured Universal Restorative) and Glass Hybrid (GH; GC EQUIA SYSTEM- EQUIA Forte™ Fil and EQUIA Forte™ Coat) restorative material at 1- and 3-months interval simulated by tooth brushing. Material and Methods: RMGIC and GH material specimens (20 each) were prepared according to manufacturer instructions in 10mm × 2 mm dimensions using a mylar strip. A specially designed toothbrush simulator was used along with Oral B Pro 2 2000N powered toothbrush and Colgate Total dentifrice (Colgate-Palmolive India limited; Relative dentin abrasivity - RDA:70- Low abrasive) to perform brushing strokes. Specimens were subjected to surface roughness analysis before and after simulated tooth brushing at baseline, 1, and 3 months. Results: The intragroup comparison was done using repeated-measures ANOVA. Intergroup comparisons were done using an independent sample t-test and General Linear Model (ANCOVA). Surface roughness increased from baseline through 3 months in both RMGIC and GH groups. The mean surface roughness in RMGIC group was significantly higher than GH group at baseline 1 and 3-months, respectively (p<0.001, <0.001, and <0.001). Interaction between group and baseline surface roughness was not significant (p=0.466). The estimated marginal means were significantly higher in RMGIC than GH group (p=0.008). Conclusion: The surface roughness of both RMGIC and GH restorative increased from baseline to 1 month and 3 months after the simulated toothbrushing protocol. GH exhibited significantly lower surface roughness than RMGIC at all the tested intervals.


Subject(s)
Surface Properties , Toothbrushing/instrumentation , Microscopy, Atomic Force/instrumentation , Dental Materials , Glass Ionomer Cements , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 43-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880950

ABSTRACT

Cellular mechanics, a major regulating factor of cellular architecture and biological functions, responds to intrinsic stresses and extrinsic forces exerted by other cells and the extracellular matrix in the microenvironment. Cellular mechanics also acts as a fundamental mediator in complicated immune responses, such as cell migration, immune cell activation, and pathogen clearance. The principle of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and its three running modes are introduced for the mechanical characterization of living cells. The peak force tapping mode provides the most delicate and desirable virtues to collect high-resolution images of morphology and force curves. For a concrete description of AFM capabilities, three AFM applications are discussed. These applications include the dynamic progress of a neutrophil-extracellular-trap release by neutrophils, the immunological functions of macrophages, and the membrane pore formation mediated by perforin, streptolysin O, gasdermin D, or membrane attack complex.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Atomic Force , Neutrophils
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18440, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249159

ABSTRACT

In this study, naftifine (a topical antifungal drug) loaded poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) nanofibrous mats were prepared using the single-needle electrospinning technique. The produced nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapor. The morphology and diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed the smoothness of the nanofibers and indicated that the fiber diameter increased with crosslinking and drug loading. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the uniform production of the scaffolds, and elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the uniform distribution of the drug within the nanofibers. An attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy study demonstrated that naftifine has sufficient secondary interactions with the polymer blend. The crosslinking treatment decreased the burst drug release effectively and the release mechanism followed Korsmeyer-Peppas Super Case-II transport. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of naftifine-loaded PVA/SA nanofibers as a topical antifungal drug delivery system.


Subject(s)
Administration, Topical , Nanofibers/analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Microscopy, Atomic Force/instrumentation , Alginates/adverse effects , Drug Liberation
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of a hydrofluoric acid (HA; solution of hydrogen fluoride [HF] in water)-based smart etching (SE) solution at an elevated temperature on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics in terms of bond strength and morphological changes.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty sintered Y-TZP specimens were prepared for shear bond strength (SBS) testing. The bonding surface of the Y-TZP specimens was treated with 37% phosphoric acid etching at 20°C–25°C, 4% HA etching at 20°C–25°C, or HA-based SE at 70°C–80°C. In all groups, zirconia primers were applied to the bonding surface of Y-TZP. For each group, 2 types of resin cement (with or without methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate [MDP]) were used. SBS testing was performed. Topographic changes of the etched Y-TZP surface were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results were analyzed and compared using 2-way analysis of variance.RESULTS: Regardless of the type of resin cement, the highest bond strength was measured in the SE group, with significant differences compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In all groups, MDP-containing resin cement yielded significantly higher bond strength values than MDP-free resin cement (p < 0.05). It was also shown that the Y-TZP surface was etched by the SE solution, causing a large change in the surface topography.CONCLUSIONS: Bond strength significantly improved when a heated HA-based SE solution was applied to the Y-TZP surface, and the etched Y-TZP surface was more irregular and had higher surface roughness.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Hot Temperature , Hydrofluoric Acid , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e10058, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132498

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore changes in nanoscale elastic modulus of the synovium using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in addition to investigate changes in synovial histomorphology and secretory function in osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham control and ACLT OA groups. All right knee joints were harvested at 4, 8, or 12 weeks (W) after surgery for histological assessment of cartilage damage and synovitis in both the anterior and posterior capsules. AFM imaging and nanoscale biomechanical testing were conducted to measure the elastic modulus of the synovial collagen fibrils. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the synovium. The OA groups exhibited progressive development of disease in the cartilage and synovium. Histopathological scores of the synovium in the OA groups increased gradually. Significant differences were observed between all OA groups except for the posterior 4W group. The synovial fibril arrangement in all OA groups was significantly disordered. The synovial fibrils in all ACLT OA groups at each time point were stiffer than those in the sham controls. OA rats displayed a significantly higher expression of IL-1β and MMP3 in the anterior capsule. In summary, synovial stiffening was closely associated with joint degeneration and might be a factor contributing to synovitis and increased production of proinflammatory mediators. Our data provided insights into the role of synovitis, particularly stiffening of the synovium, in OA pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoarthritis , Cartilage, Articular , Synovial Membrane , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Elastic Modulus
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e098, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039306

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was to evaluate the effect of 2% grape seed extract (GSE) containing phosphoric acid (PhA) on the bond strength to enamel and dentin. The control group was 37% PhA. The following three PhA formulations with 2% GSE and 20% ethanol were obtained: GSE5 = 5% PhA; GSE10 = 10% PhA; and GSE20 = 20% PhA. The enamel and dentin surfaces of molars were etched with the acid solutions, followed by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and composite resin application. The tensile bond strength (TBS) test evaluated the bond to enamel after 24 h, and the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test evaluated the bond to dentin after 24 h and 12-month water storage. Etched enamel and dentin were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The TBS data were submitted to one-way ANOVA, while µTBS data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The TBS (MPa) to enamel did not significantly differ among the control (48.1 ± 15.7), GSE5 (46.1 ± 9.6), GSE10 (49.8 ± 13.6) and GSE20 (44.1 ± 11.9) groups (p = 0.537). The µTBS (MPa) to dentin of the control (28.4 ± 14.4) and GSE20 (24.1 ± 8.1) groups were significantly higher than those of the GSE5 (16.8 ± 7.4) and GSE10 (17.5 ± 6.6) groups at 24 h (p < 0.006). After 12-month storage, only GSE5 (21.0 ± 7.8) and GSE10 (17.6 ± 8.0) did not show significantly decreased μTBS (p > 0.145). SEM micrographs showed a shallower enamel etching pattern for GSE5. AFM images showed the formation of collagenous globular structures for GSE5 and GSE10. The different acid solutions did not influence the TBS to enamel, and the µTBS to dentin was stable over time when dentin was etched with GSE5 and GSE10.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Grape Seed Extract/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180126, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975877

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding strength of non-simplified dentin bonding systems (DBS) to dentin irradiated with a diode laser (970 nm) immediately and after 12 months of water storage following either primer or bond application. Material and methods: The experimental design included three different factors: DBS type [AdperTM Scotchbond Multipurpose (MP) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (CSE)], irradiation [without irradiation - control (C), irradiation after primer application (AP), and irradiation after bond application (AB)], and time [initial (I) and after 12 months of water storage (12 m)]. Sixty sound human third molars (n = 10) were obtained, and their flat occlusal dentin areas were prepared and standardized. Laser irradiation was performed in the contact mode perpendicular to the dental surface over an automatically selected scanning area at a pulse energy of 0.8 W, frequency of 10 Hz, and energy density of 66.67 J/cm2. After 7 days of treatment, the specimens were cut, and half of them were subjected to microtensile testing (500 N/0.05 mm/min), whereas the remaining sticks were examined after 12 months of water storage. The obtained data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Tukey test (p<0.05). The observed fracture modes were investigated using a portable digital microscope with a magnification of 40x. Results: Among the utilized DBS, MP generally exhibited higher bond strengths, but did not always differ from CSE under similar conditions. The irradiation factor was statistically significant only for the MP/AB groups. After 12 months of storage, all groups demonstrated a significant reduction in the bond strength, whereas the results of fracture analysis showed a predominance of the adhesive type. Conclusions: The laser treatment of non-simplified DBS was not able to stabilize their bonding characteristics after 12 months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/radiation effects , Resin Cements/radiation effects , Dentin/radiation effects , Lasers, Semiconductor , Reference Values , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Water/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Polymerization/radiation effects
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33(supl.1): e065, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging process for biomaterials and medical devices. Direct Laser Metal Sintering (DLMS) is an AM technique used to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V implant materials with enhanced surface-related properties compared with wrought samples; thus, this technique could influence microbial adsorption and colonization. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different implant production processes on microbial adhesion of periodontal pathogens. Titanium discs produced using two different processes—conventional and AM—were divided into three groups: conventional titanium discs with machined surface (G1), AM titanium discs with chemical treatment (G2) and AM titanium discs without chemical treatment (G3). Subgingival biofilm composed of 32 species was formed on the titanium discs, and positioned vertically in 96-well plates, for 7 days. The proportions of microbial complexes and the microbial profiles were analyzed using a DNA-DNA hybridization technique, and data were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunnett tests (p < 0.05). Lower proportions of the red complex species were observed in the biofilm formed in G2 compared with that in G1 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the proportions of the microbial complexes were similar between G2 and G3 (p > 0.05). Compared with G1, G2 showed reduced levels of Porphyromonas gingvalis , Actinomyces gerencseriae, and Streptococcus intermedius , and increased levels of Parvimonas micra , Actinomyces odontolyticus, and Eikenella corrodens (p < 0.05). The microbial profile of G3 did not differ from G1 and G2 (p > 0.05). The results of this in vitro study showed that titanium discs produced via AM could alter the microbial profile of the biofilm formed around them. Further clinical studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Titanium/pharmacology , Titanium/chemistry , Biofilms/growth & development , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Bacteria/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , DNA Probes , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Biofilms/drug effects , Photoelectron Spectroscopy
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e029, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001599

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Orthodontic bonding systems are submitted to demineralization and remineralization dynamics that might compromise their surface smoothness, and favor biofilm aggregation and caries development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a cariogenic challenge model (in vitro pH-cycling model) on the surface roughness and topography of 3 bonding materials: Transbond™ XT (XT), Transbond™ Plus Color Change (PLUS) and Fuji Ortho™ LC (FUJI), by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Six specimens with standardized dimensions and surface smoothness were fabricated per group, and the materials were manipulated in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. No polishing was necessary. AFM tests were performed before and after pH-cycling, taking 3 readouts per specimen. The roughness results (Ra) were obtained at nanometric levels (nm) and surface records were acquired in two- and three-dimensional images of height and lock-in phase of the material components. The surfaces of all groups analyzed in the study were morphologically altered, presenting images suggestive of matrix degradation and loss of matrix-load integrity. FUJI presented the greatest increase in surface roughness, followed by XT and PLUS, respectively (p≤0.001). Nevertheless, the roughness values found did not present sufficient degradation to harbor bacteria. The surface roughness of all tested materials was increased by pH-cycling. The use of materials capable of resisting degradation in the oral environment is recommended, in order to conserve their integrity and of the surrounding tissues.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
10.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 179-191, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteolytic metastasis is a common destructive form of metastasis, in which there is an increased bone resorption but impaired bone formation. It is hypothesized that the changed mechanical properties of tumor affected bone cells could inhibit its mechanosensing, thus contributing to differences in bone remodeling. METHODS: Here, atomic force microscopy indentation on primary bone cells exposed to 50% conditioned medium from Walker 256 (W) carcinoma cell line or its adaptive tumor (T) cells was carried out. Nitric oxide levels of bone cells were monitored in response to low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibrations. RESULTS: A stronger sustained inhibitive effect on bone cell viability and differentiation by T cells as compared to that of its cell line was demonstrated. This could be attributed to the higher levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the T-conditioned medium as compared to W-conditioned medium. Bone cell elastic moduli in W and T-groups were found to decrease significantly by 61.0% and 69.6%, respectively compared to control and corresponded to filamentous actin changes. Nitric oxide responses were significantly inhibited in T-conditioned group but not in W-conditioned group. CONCLUSIONS: It implied that a change in cell mechanical properties is not sufficient as an indicator of change in mechanosensing ability. Moreover, inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt downstream signaling pathway of TGF-β1 alleviated the inhibition effects on mechanosensing in T-conditioned cells, further suggesting that growth factors such as TGF-β could be good therapeutic targets for osteoblast treatment.


Subject(s)
Actins , Bone Neoplasms , Bone Remodeling , Bone Resorption , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Culture Media, Conditioned , Elastic Modulus , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nitric Oxide , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Sensitivity Training Groups , T-Lymphocytes , Vibration , Walkers
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various protocols and systems for finishing and polishing monolithic zirconia on surface topography, phase transformation, and bacterial adhesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated and then treated with three finishing and polishing systems (Jota [JO], Meisinger [ME], and Edenta [ED]) using four surface treatment protocols: coarse finishing alone (C); coarse finishing and medium polishing (CM); coarse finishing and fine polishing (CF); and coarse finishing, medium polishing, and fine polishing (CMF). Surface roughness, crystal phase transformation, and bacterial adhesion were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and streptococcal biofilm formation assay, respectively. One-way and two-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze the results (α=.05). RESULTS: In this study, the surface treatment protocols and systems had significant effects on the resulting roughness. The CMF protocol produced the lowest roughness values, followed by CM and CF. Use of the JO system produced the lowest roughness values and the smallest biofilm mass, while the ME system produced the smallest partial transformation ratio. The ED group exhibited the highest roughness values, biofilm mass, and partial transformation ratio. CONCLUSION: Stepwise surface treatment of monolithic zirconia, combined with careful polishing system selection, is essential to obtaining optimal microstructural and biological surface results.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Clinical Protocols , Dental Polishing , Microscopy, Atomic Force , X-Ray Diffraction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the surface composition, roughness, and relative friction of metal clips from various ceramic self-ligating brackets. METHODS: Six kinds of brackets were examined. The control group (mC) consisted of interactive metal self-ligating brackets while the experimental group (CC, EC, MA, QK, and WA) consisted of interactive ceramic self-ligating brackets. Atomic force microscopy-lateral force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to analyze the surface of each bracket clip. RESULTS: All the clips in the experimental groups were coated with rhodium except for the QK clip. The results showed that the QK clip had the lowest average roughness on the outer surface, followed by the MA, EC, WA, and CC clips. However, the CC clip had the lowest average roughness on the inner surface, followed by the QK, WA, MA, and EC clips. The QK clip also had the lowest relative friction on the outer surface, followed by the MA, EC, CC, and WA clips. Likewise, the CC clip had the lowest relative friction on the inner surface, followed by the QK, WA, MA, and EC clips. CONCLUSIONS: The surface roughness and relative friction of the rhodium-coated clips were generally higher than those of the uncoated clips.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Friction , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Rhodium , Spectrum Analysis
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 483-491, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974179

ABSTRACT

Abstract It evaluated the effect of aging by Low Temperature Degradation (LTD), executed after post- processing surface treatments (polishing, heat treatment and glazing), on the surface characteristics (micromorphology and roughness) and on the structural stability (phase transformation and mechanical behavior-flexural strength and structural reliability) of a ground yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic. Discs of Y-TZP (VITA In-Ceram YZ) were manufactured (ISO:6872-2015; 15 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness) and randomly assigned into 10 groups according two factors: "aging" in 2 levels (with or without) and "surface treatment" in 5 levels (Ctrl: as-sintered; Gr: grinding with coarse diamond bur; Gr + HT: grinding plus heat treatment; Gr + Pol: grinding plus polishing; Gr + Gl: grinding plus glazing). Roughness (n=30), biaxial flexural test (n=30), phase transformation (n=2), and surface topography (n=2) analyses were performed. Aging led to an intense increase in monoclinic (m) phase content for all the tested conditions, being the as-sintered samples (Ctrl= 65.6%) more susceptible to the t-m phase transformation. Despite of increasing the m-phase content, aging was not detrimental for characteristic strength (except to the grinding condition). There was no significant reduction in the Weibull modulus after surface treatments. Additionally, heat treatment and glazing after grinding led to a decrease in characteristic strength, while polishing presented the highest characteristic strength values. Thus, polishing is mandatory after grinding the Y-TZP ceramic, while performing glazing or heat-treatment alone after grinding lead to the worst mechanical performance.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do envelhecimento através da degradação a baixas temperaturas (low temperaturare degradation - LTD) após a realização de tratamentos de superfície pós- sinterização (polimento, tratamento térmico e glaze) nas características superficiais (micromorfologia e rugosidade), e na estabilidade estrutural (transformação de fase e comportamento mecânico - resistência flexural e confiabilidade estrutural) de uma cerâmica de zircônia tetragonal policristalina estabilizada por ítria (Y-TZP) desgastada. Discos de cerâmica Y-TZP (VITA In-Ceram YZ) foram confeccionados (ISO:6872-2015; 15mm de diâmetro e 1,2 ± 0,2mm de espessura) e randomicamente divididos em 10 grupos de acordo com dois fatores: "envelhecimento" (com e sem) e "tratamento de superfície" (Ctrl - sem tratamento; Gr - desgaste com ponta diamantada grossa; Gr + HT - desgaste mais tratamento térmico; Gr + Pol - desgaste mais polimento; Gr + Gl - desgaste mais glazeamento). Foram realizadas as análises de rugosidade (n=30), flexão biaxial (n=30), transformação de fase (n=2) e topografia de superfície (n=2). O envelhecimento levou a um aumento intenso no conteúdo de fase monoclínica (m) em todas as condições testadas, sendo observada uma maior susceptibilidade de transformação de fase t-m nas amostras do grupo controle (Ctrl= 65.6%). Apesar de provocar elevada transformação de fase, o envelhecimento não apresentou efeitos negativos nos desfechos avaliados. Não houve redução significativa do módulo de Weibull após os tratamentos. Além disso, o tratamento térmico e o glaze após desgaste levaram a uma redução da resistência característica, enquanto que o grupo polimento apresentou o mais alto valor de resistência característica. O glaze e o tratamento térmico geraram o pior desempenho mecânico, portanto a realização do polimento após desgaste de uma cerâmica Y-TZP é obrigatória.


Subject(s)
Yttrium/chemistry , Zirconium/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Polishing/methods , Surface Properties , X-Ray Diffraction , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Flexural Strength , Hot Temperature
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 492-499, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974174

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of different hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations on the bond strength between a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic and a resin cement. Eighty ceramic-blocks (12×7×2 mm) of IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) were produced and randomly assigned to 8 groups, considering 2 study factors: HF concentration in 4 levels, i.e., 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), and 10% (HF10), and storage in 2 levels, i.e., baseline (tests were performed 24 h after cementation), and aged (storage for 150 days + 12,000 thermal-cycles at 5°C and 55°C). Acid etching (20 s) was performed, followed by washing, drying, and silanization. Four resin cement cylinders (ϕ= 0.96 mm) were built-up from starch matrices on each ceramic sample (n= 40). Additional ceramic samples were etched and analyzed for contact angle, micro-morphology, and roughness. In baseline condition (without aging), the HF3, HF5, and HF10 groups showed similar bond strength values (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), and HF1 (11.2 MPa) presented lower values than HF5, being that statistically different (p= 0.012). After aging, all the mean bond strengths statistically decreased, being that HF3, HF5, and HF10 (7.8 - 11 MPa) were similar and higher than HF1 (1.8 MPa) (p= 0.0001). For contact angle, HF3, HF5, and HF10 presented similar values (7.8 - 10.4°), lower than HF1 and CTRL groups. HF5 and HF10 presented rougher surfaces than other conditions. For better bond strength results, the tested ceramic may be etched by HF acid in concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido fluorídrico (HF) na resistência de união entre uma cerâmica vítrea à base de dissilicato de lítio e um cimento resinoso. Oitenta blocos cerâmicos (12×7×2 mm) de IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) foram produzidos e distribuídos aleatoriamente em 8 grupos, considerando 2 fatores de estudo: concentração de HF em 4 níveis, isto é, 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), e 10% (HF10), e armazenamento em 2 níveis, isto é, condição inicial (testes foram realizados 24 h após a cimentação), e envelhecidos (150 dias de armazenamento + 12.000 ciclos térmicos a 5°C e 55°C). Condicionamento ácido (20 s) foi realizado, seguido por lavagem, secagem e silanização. Quatro cilindros de cimento resinoso (ϕ= 0.96 mm) foram construídos a partir de matrizes de amido em cada amostra cerâmica (n= 40). Amostras cerâmicas adicionais foram condicionadas e analisadas quanto ao ângulo de contato, micro-morfologia e rugosidade. Na condição inicial (sem envelhecimento), os grupos HF3, HF5, e HF10 mostraram valores de resistência de união similares (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), e HF1 apresentou valores menores que HF5, sendo estatisticamente diferente (p= 0.012). Após o envelhecimento, todas as médias de resistência de união diminuíram estatisticamente, sendo que HF3, HF5 e HF10 foram similares e maiores que HF1 (p= 0.0001). Para o ângulo de contato, HF3, HF5 e HF10 apresentaram valores similares (7.8 - 10.4°), menores que os grupos HF1 e CTRL. HF5 e HF10 apresentaram superfícies mais rugosas que as outras condições. Para melhores resultados de resistência de união, a cerâmica testada pode ser condicionada com ácido fluorídrico nas concentrações de 3%, 5% e 10%.


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Shear Strength
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e107, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974451

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect, degree of conversion (% DC), Vickers hardness (VH), and surface morphology of composite resins. Eleven resins, nine bulk-fill resins, and two conventional resins were evaluated. Each material was sampled to evaluate DC (using FTIR), VH, cytotoxicity (using MTT and Neutral Red - NR test), surface morphology (using SEM and AFM), and organic filler (using EDS). All statistical tests were performed with SPSS and the level of significance was set at 0.05. MTT revealed that the materials presented low or no cytotoxic potential in relation to the control. Opus was the resin with the lowest cell viability at a 1:2 concentration at 72 h (32%) and at 7 days (43%), but that significantly increased when the NR test was applied at a 1:2 concentration after 7 days. Thickness and surface subjected to polymerization had no influence on DC, and differences were observed only between the materials. In the microhardness test, statistical differences were observed between the evaluated thicknesses. The bulk-fill resins analyzed in this study exhibited low and/or no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, except for Opus, which showed moderate cytotoxicity according to the MTT assay. When the NR test was used, results were not satisfactory for all composites, indicating the need for different methodologies to evaluate the properties of these materials. The assessed resins demonstrated acceptable physicomechanical properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Composite Resins/toxicity , Composite Resins/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Polymerization , Hardness Tests
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691371

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the primary effective component of the Chinese herb medicine Astragalus membranaceus (frequently used for its anti-hepatic fibrosis effects), on nanoscale mechanical properties of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using endothelial cell medium as the control, 5 experimental groups were established utilizing different concentrations of APS, i.e. 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL. By using atomic force microscopy along with a microcantilever modified with a silicon dioxide microsphere as powerful tools, the value of Young's modulus in each group was calculated. SAS 9.1 software was applied to analyze the values of Young's modulus at the pressed depth of 300 nm. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe the surface microtopography of the SECs.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The value of Young's modulus in each APS experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group: as APS concentration increased, the value of Young's modulus presented as an increasing trend. The difference between the low-concentration (12.5 and 25 μg/mL) and high-concentration (200 μg/mL) groups was statistically significant (P<0.05), but no significant differences were observed between moderateconcentration (50 and 100 μg/mL) groups versus low- or high-concentration groups (P>0.05). Surface topography demonstrated that APS was capable of increasing the total area of fenestrae.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The values of Young's modulus increased along with increasing concentrations of APS, suggesting that the stiffness of SECs increases gradually as a function of APS concentration. The observed changes in SEC mechanical properties may provide a new avenue for mechanistic research of anti-hepatic fibrosis treatments in Chinese medicine.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Biomechanical Phenomena , Elastic Modulus , Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Liver , Cell Biology , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microspheres , Nanotechnology , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , Rats , Silicon Dioxide , Chemistry , Surface Properties
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742378

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment and RGD peptide coating for enhancing cellular attachment and proliferation over titanium (Ti) surfaces. The surface structure of CAP-treated and RGD peptide-coated Ti discs were characterized by contact angle goniometer and atomic force microscopy. The effect of such surface modification on human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) adhesion and proliferation was assessed by cell proliferation and DNA content assays. Besides, hMSCs' adhesion and morphology on surface modified Ti discs were observed via fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. RGD peptide coating following CAP treatment significantly enhanced cellular adhesion and proliferation among untreated, CAP-treated and RGD peptide-coated Ti discs. The treatment of Ti surfaces with CAP may contribute to improved RGD peptide coating, which enables increased cellular integrations with the Ti surfaces.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cell Proliferation , DNA , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plasma , Plasma Gases , Titanium
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study is to examine the effects of a nano-structured alumina coating on the adhesion between resin cements and zirconia ceramics using a four-point bending test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 pairs of zirconium bar specimens were prepared with dimensions of 25 mm × 2 mm × 5 mm and cementation surfaces of 5 mm × 2 mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups of 20 pairs each. The groups are as follows: Group I (C) – Control with no surface modification, Group II (APA) – airborne-particle-abrasion with 110 µm high-purity aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles, Group III (ROC) – airborne-particle-abrasion with 110 µm silica modified aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃ + SiO2) particles, Group IV (TCS) – tribochemical silica coated with Al2O3 particles, and Group V (AlC) – nano alumina coating. The surface modifications were assessed on two samples selected from each group by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The samples were cemented with two different self-adhesive resin cements. The bending bond strength was evaluated by mechanical testing. RESULTS: According to the ANOVA results, surface treatments, different cement types, and their interactions were statistically significant (P < .05). The highest flexural bond strengths were obtained in nanostructured alumina coated zirconia surfaces (50.4 MPa) and the lowest values were obtained in the control group (12.00 MPa), both of which were cemented using a self-adhesive resin cement. CONCLUSION: The surface modifications tested in the current study affected the surface roughness and flexural bond strength of zirconia. The nano alumina coating method significantly increased the flexural bond strength of zirconia ceramics.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide , Cementation , Ceramics , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements , Silicon Dioxide , Zirconium
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the surface topography of intact WaveOne (WO; Dentsply Sirona Endodontics) and WaveOne Gold (WOG; Dentsply Sirona Endodontics) nickel-titanium rotary files and to evaluate the presence of alterations to the surface topography after root canal preparations of severely curved root canals in molar teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight severely curved canals of extracted molar teeth were divided into 2 groups (n = 24/each group). In group 1, the canals were prepared using WO and in group 2, the canals were prepared using WOG files. After the preparation of 3 root canals, instruments were subjected to atomic force microscopy analysis. Average roughness and root mean square values were chosen to investigate the surface features of endodontic files. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tamhane's tests at 5% significant level. RESULTS: The surface roughness values of WO and WOG files significantly changed after use in root canals (p < 0.05). The used WOG files exhibited higher surface roughness change when compared with the used WO files (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using WO and WOG Primary files in 3 root canals affected the surface topography of the files. After being used in root canals, the WOG files showed a higher level of surface porosity value than the WO files.


Subject(s)
Dental Pulp Cavity , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Molar , Porosity , Root Canal Preparation , Tooth
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanical deformability of cancer cells has attracted particular attention as an emerging biomarker for the prediction of anti-cancer drug sensitivity. Nevertheless, it has not been possible to establish a general rubric for the identification of drug susceptibility in breast cancer cells from a mechanical perspective. In the present study, we investigated the mechanical alteration associated with resistance to adjuvant therapy in breast cancer cells. METHODS: We performed an ‘atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomechanical study’ on ‘drug-sensitive (MCF-7)’ and ‘drug-resistant (MCF-7/ADR)’ breast cancer cells. We also conducted cell viability tests to evaluate the difference in doxorubicin responsiveness between two breast cancer cell lines. We carried out a wound closure experiment to investigate the motility changes associated with chemotherapeutic resistance. To elucidate the changes in molecular alteration that accompany chemotherapeutic resistance, we investigated the expression of vinculin and integrin-linked kinase-1–which are proteins involved in substrate adhesion and the actin cytoskeleton–using Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: A MTT assay confirmed that the dose-dependent efficacy of doxorubicin was reduced in MCF-7/ADR cells compared to that in MCF-7 cells. The wound assay revealed enhanced two-dimensional motility in the MCF-7/ADR cells. The AFM mechanical assay showed evidence that the drug-resistant breast cancer cells exhibited a significant decrease in mechanical deformability compared to their drug-sensitive counterparts. The mechanical alteration in the MCF-7/ADR cells was accompanied by upregulated vinculin expression. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results manifestly showed that the altered mechanical signatures–including mechanical deformability and motility–were closely related with drug resistance in the breast cancer cells. We believe that this investigation has improved our understanding of the chemotherapeutic susceptibility of breast cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Actins , Biophysics , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Doxorubicin , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Elastic Modulus , MCF-7 Cells , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Vinculin , Wounds and Injuries
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