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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239079, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1413365

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the marginal fit of protocol bars milled from digital models obtained by conventional molding followed by bench scanning or digital molding with an intraoral scanner. Methods: Four morse-cone implants and the mini-pillars were installed in a 3D printed mandible model (master model). Digital models of the master model were obtained by (n=10): (Group A - Conventional) conventional (analog) molding of the master model followed by bench scanning or (Group B - Digital) molding of the master model with an intraoral scanner. All-on-four protocol bars were designed and milled from the digital models for both groups and screwed into the master model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images from the distal, central, and mesial regions of each implant were obtained and the implant-protocol bar marginal fit was measured in an image software (Image J). The mean misfit of each region was analyzed by two-factor ANOVA, Tukey test, and Student's t-test (0,05 = 0.05). Results: The digital approach (B) showed higher misadaptation than the conventional approach (A, p < 0.05), regardless of the region evaluated. In group A, the central region showed higher maladjustment than the mesial region (p<0.05), however, there were no differences among regions of group B (p>0.05). Conclusion: The conventional method of acquiring digital models using the bench scanner produced bars for the All-On-Four protocol with better marginal fit than the digital models obtained with an intraoral scanner


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dental Implants , Computer-Aided Design
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e224013, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354702

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cleaning of mandibular incisors with WaveOne Gold® (WO) under different preparation techniques. Methods: A total of 210 human mandibular incisors were selected and divided into seven groups (n = 30), prepared by WO single-files (Small 20/.07 ­ WOS; Primary 25/.07 ­ WOP; Medium 35/.06 ­ WOM; or Large 45/.05 - WOL) and sequential-file techniques (WOS to WOP; WOS to WOM; and WOS to WOL). Further subdivision was made according to irrigation protocol: control group (manual irrigation - CON), E1 Irrisonic® - EIR, and EDDY® - EDD. Debris removal and the smear layer were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by using Spearman's correlation test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: For debris and smear layer removal, WOS and WOP, EIR differed from CON and EDD (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regardless of the instrumentation used, the agitation of the irrigant solution provided better cleanability. These findings reinforce the need for agitation techniques as adjuvants in cleaning root canal systems in mandibular incisors


Subject(s)
Root Canal Irrigants , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Root Canal Preparation , Endodontics
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21: 67-84, June 20, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396376

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is highly controversial. The main reason for this is its use of very highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP), diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Research using Nano Tracking Analysis has demonstrated the presence of particles in HHPs. This study aims to verify the results of a previous publication that identified the ionic composition of these particles in all dilutions. We used Scanning Electron Microscopy & Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to examine dilutions of a commonly used homeopathic medicine, an insoluble metal, Cuprum metallicum, for the presence of particles (NPs). The homeopathic medicines tested were specially prepared according to the European pharmacopoeia standards. We compared the homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations of copper with simple dilutions and dynamized lactose controls. We observed an ionic diversity common to all preparations including HHPs but also significant differences in the relative quantity of each ion between manufacturing lines of homeopathic copper and lactose controls. The probability that the observed differences could have occurred chance alone (especially above Avogadro limit) can be rejected at p < 0.001. The essential component of these homeopathic medicines is sodium hydrogen carbonate, modulated by some other elements and by its quantity, size and shape. Homeopathic medicines made of Cuprum metallicum do contain material with a specific ionic composition even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing process. This material demonstrates that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations of a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influences the nature of these NPs. Further measurements are needed on other raw materials using the same controls (solvent and simply diluted manufacturing lines) to support these findings. The role of sodium bicarbonate must be carefully studied in the future.


Subject(s)
Dynamization , Homeopathic Pharmacotechniques , Nanoparticles , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cuprum Metallicum , Sodium Bicarbonate , Copper , Lactose
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 488-495, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388010

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the systemic effect of Hancornia speciosa latex on bone neoformation and mineralization in rats. Methods For that, the latex was first collected, and its composition was analyzed. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were used, which were simultaneously submitted to two surgical procedures: extraction of an incisor and creation of a defect with 2 mm in diameter in the parietal bone. The rats were divided into two groups: systemic control (SC) systemic latex (SX) which were administered, orally and daily, 1.5 mL of water or a solution containing 50% of water and 50% of latex by gavage, respectively. After 15 days of the treatment, the animals were euthanized and their samples were collected. Results The results were statistically analyzed, and the level of significance was set at 0.05. We showed that H. speciosa latex contained calcium. The oral and daily administration of the latex for 15 days increased the contents of calcium and phosphorus in the basal bone and newly-formed bone in the mandibular alveolus of rats. Conclusion The present was a pioneer study demonstrating the potential of H. speciosa latex in increasing bone mineralization. Our results may aid in the conception and development of a natural drug.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o efeito sistêmico do látex de Hancornia especiosa na neoformação óssea e mineralização em ratos. Métodos Para isso, primeiro o látex foi coletado, e sua composição foi analisada. No estudo, foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar machos submetidos simultaneamente a dois procedimentos cirúrgicos: extração de incisivo e criação de um defeito de 2 mm de diâmetro no osso parietal. Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos: controle sistêmico (CS) e látex sistêmico (XS), aos quais foi administrado, oral e diariamente, 1,5 mL de água ou uma solução contendo 50% de água e 50% de látex por gavagem, respectivamente. Após 15 dias do tratamento, os animais foram eutanizados, e suas amostras, coletadas. Resultados Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente, e o nível de significância foi fixado em 0,05. Mostramos que o látex de H. speciosa continha cálcio. A administração oral e diária deste látex por 15 dias aumentou o conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo de osso basal e de osso recém-formado no alvéolo mandibular de ratos. Conclusão Este foi um estudo pioneiro, que demonstrou o potencial do látex de H. speciosa no aumento da mineralização óssea. Nossos resultados podem ajudar na concepção e no desenvolvimento de uma droga natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Complementary Therapies , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Durapatite , Apocynaceae/anatomy & histology
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 2-3, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396754

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is controversial because using highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP) beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Previous publications [1,2] using NMR relaxation revealed the involvement of nanobubbles and/or nanoparticles and/or nanometric superstructures in high potentizations. Nano Tracking Analyse (NTA) demonstrated the presence of particles in HHPs [3,4]. WithSEM-EDX [5] we observed an ionic diversity common to all preparations including HHPs and significant differences in the relative quantity of each ion between different homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls. FTIR spectroscopy [6] shows that the molecular composition is that of carbonates, primarily sodium bicarbonate.Methods:To observe the materiality of homeopathic medicines a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. In collaboration with several universities,we canobserve these medications with NMR, NTA, SEM-EDX, FTIR, pH,and EPA. Results:The essential component of all already studied homeopathic medicines is sodium hydrogen carbonate modulated by some other elements in a specific quantity, size,and shape. The probability that the observed results could have occurred just by random chance can be rejected(significantlyabove the Avogadro limit) p < 0,001.Conclusions:The homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific ionic composition even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing process. These results demonstrate that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influencethe nature of these NPs. The role of carbonates and sodium bicarbonate must be carefully studied in the future. Its aqueous solution is alkaline in nature but itis an amphoteric compound, which means that the compound has both acidic as well as alkaline character. The reaction with acids results in sodium salts and carbonic acid and the reaction with the basic solution producescarbonates and water. Specific electric fields are indeed detectable.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Dynamization , Nanoparticles , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sodium Bicarbonate/analysis
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 389-403, mayo 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397080

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the specific interactions between drug and polymers in amorphous spray dried dispersions (SDDs). Four Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II class drugs were evaluated. Binary and ternary SDDs were manufactured with conventional polymers and arabinogalactan. Specific interaction parameters between drug and polymer were determined using theoretical calculations and DSC data. Analytical methods were used to evaluate solid and solution state interactions. Maximum amorphous content for each formulation was calculated using DSC. Flory-Huggins Specific Interaction Parameters were calculated. Negative specific parameters were associated with solid-state interactions and improved capacity of drug in the amorphous state. Ternary SDDs containing drug, polymer, and arabinogalactan displayed similar hydrogen bonding as was observed with binary SDDs. Solution-state interactions observed in binary systems may be used in tertiary systems to improve the amorphous drug capacity and improved dissolution compared to the binary. The resultant tertiary systems are an improvement over binary drug polymer systems.


Este estudio evaluó las interacciones específicas entre el fármaco y los polímeros en dispersiones amorfas secadas por pulverización (SDD). Se evaluaron cuatro fármacos de clase II del Sistema de Clasificación Biofarmacéutica (BCS). Los SDD binarios y ternarios se fabricaron con polímeros convencionales y arabinogalactano. Los parámetros de interacción específicos entre el fármaco y el polímero se determinaron utilizando cálculos teóricos y datos de DSC. Se utilizaron métodos analíticos para evaluar las interacciones del estado sólido y de la solución. El contenido amorfo máximo para cada formulación se calculó usando DSC. Se calcularon los parámetros de interacción específicos de Flory-Huggins. Los parámetros específicos negativos se asociaron con interacciones en estado sólido y una capacidad mejorada del fármaco en el estado amorfo. Los SDD ternarios que contienen fármaco, polímero y arabinogalactano mostraron enlaces de hidrógeno similares a los observados con los SDD binarios. Las interacciones de estado de solución observadas en sistemas binarios pueden usarse en sistemas terciarios para mejorar la capacidad del fármaco amorfo y mejorar la disolución en comparación con el binario. Los sistemas terciarios resultantes son una mejora con respecto a los sistemas de polímeros de fármacos binarios.


Subject(s)
Polymers/chemistry , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Biological Availability , Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 134-137, maio 05,2022. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370811

ABSTRACT

Introduction: although reports on dental erosion have appeared in literature for a long time, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians about this matter. Potential risk factors for loss of dental hard tissue are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acid foods and beverages. Case report: an atypical tooth wear on the buccal surfaces of the mandibular teeth in a 45-year-old woman referred for orthodontic treatment, associated with the frequent consumption of whiskey and lemon, is reported. A comprehensive approach, such as the recognition of dental erosion joined with a careful investigation about eating habits was performed. Ultrastructural examination of replicas of the teeth showed practically structureless enamel and dentin surfaces. Conclusion: the screening for dental erosion in patients seeking orthodontic treatment is advisable to be a usual procedure. Recommendations for treatment and prophylactic measures are made emphasizing the need of multiprofessional attention.


Introdução: embora relatos sobre erosão dentária já apareçam há bastante tempo na literatura, existe atualmente interesse crescente entre pesquisadores e clínicos sobre esse assunto. Fatores que representam riscos potenciais para a perda de tecido duro do dente são as mudanças no estilo de vida e no padrão de alimentação, com o aumento no consumo de alimentos e bebidas ácidas. Relato de caso: lesões atípicas de desgaste dentário na superfície vestibular das unidades inferiores, em uma mulher com 45 de idade, encaminhada para tratamento ortodôntico, associadas ao consumo frequente de uísque e limão, foram relatadas. Uma abordagem abrangente, como o reconhecimento da erosão dentária, em conjunção com a investigação cuidadosa dos hábitos alimentares, foi realizada. O exame por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, realizada em réplicas dos dentes, revelou superfícies de esmalte e dentina praticamente desprovidos de elementos estruturais. Conclusão: sugere-se que uma avaliação direcionada à busca por erosão dentária em pacientes que procuram por tratamento ortodôntico seja um procedimento rotineiro. A atenção multiprofissional, envolvendo o tratamento e o uso de medidas preventivas, é essencial para a adequada atuação junto ao paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Alcoholic Beverages/adverse effects , Acidity , Tooth Erosion/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
8.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 56: e20210552, 2022. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1365410

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the microbiological and microstructural part of indwelling urinary catheters and their association with urinary tract infection prevention. Method: This is a cross-sectional study, from June to December 2020, in which 42 indwelling urinary catheter tips and sterile urine samples were collected for analysis of crystals in optical microscopy and biofilms in scanning electron microscopy. Culture analysis and specification of the type of bacteria were performed. Results: It was found that 35.71% of the samples had mature biofilm adhered to the catheter tip. Biofilms of Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterobacter cloacae stood out. The presence of magnesium-ammonium-phosphate crystal was associated with the presence of urinary tract infection and with Proteus mirabilis. There was a significant association (p = 0.001) between the use of prophylactic antibiotics versus urine culture >105 CFU/mL. Conclusion: The analyzes contributed to clinical practice, as it reinforces the development of effective and monitored strategies on cultures and urinary tract infection prevention associated with indwelling urinary catheters.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la parte microbiológica y microestructural de los catéteres urinarios permanentes y su asociación con la prevención de la infección del tracto urinario. Método: Transversal, de junio a diciembre de 2020, en el que se recolectaron 42 puntas de sonda urinaria permanente y muestras de orina estéril para análisis de cristales en microscopía óptica y biopelículas en microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se realizaron análisis de cultivo y especificación del tipo de bacteria. Resultados: Se encontró que el 35,71% de las muestras presentaban biopelícula madura adherida a la punta del catéter. Se destacaron las biopelículas de Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium y Enterobacter cloacae. La presencia de cristales de fosfato de magnesio-amonio se asoció con la presencia de infección del tracto urinario y con Proteus mirabilis. Hubo una asociación significativa (p = 0,001) entre el uso de antibióticos profilácticos versus urocultivo >105 UFC/mL. Conclusión: Los análisis contribuyeron a la práctica clínica, ya que refuerzan el desarrollo de estrategias efectivas y monitoreadas sobre cultivos y prevención de la infección del tracto urinario asociada a los catéteres urinarios permanentes.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a parte microbiológica e microestrutural dos cateteres vesicais de demora e sua associação com a prevenção de infecção do trato urinário. Método: Transversal, entre junho e dezembro de 2020, em que foram coletadas 42 pontas cateteres vesicais de demora e amostras de urina estéril para análise de cristais em microscopia óptica e de biofilmes em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Fez-se analise de cultura e especificação do tipo de bactérias. Resultados: Verificou-se que 35,71% das amostras apresentaram o biofilme maduro aderido à ponta do cateter. Destacaram-se biofilmes de Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium e Enterobacter cloacae. A presença do cristal magnésio-amônio-fosfato foi associada à presença de infecção do trato urinário e ao Proteus mirabilis. Verificou-se associação significativa (p = 0,001) entre o uso de antibiótico profilático versus a urocultura >105 UFC/mL. Conclusão: As análises contribuíram para a prática clínica, pois reforçam a elaboração de estratégias efetivas e monitoradas sobre culturas e prevenção de infecção do trato urinário associada ao cateter vesical de demora.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Catheters , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19660, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394027

ABSTRACT

Abstract In an attempt to increase molecular stability and provide controlled release, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was encapsulated into polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles. Both VEGF-free and VEGF-loaded PCL nanoparticles were formulated by w/o/w double emulsion of the dichloromethane-water system in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and rat serum albumin. To achieve the optimal formulation concerning particle size and monodispersity, studies were carried out with different formulation parameters, including PVA concentration, homogenization time and rate. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed respectively that particles had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and particle size varying between 58.68-751.9 nm. All of the formulations were negatively charged according to zeta potential analysis. In vitro release study was performed in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C and released VEGF amount was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. At the end of the 35th day, 10% of total encapsulated VEGF was released with a sustained-release profile, which fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. The bioactivation of the nanoparticles was evaluated using XTT and ELISA methods. As a result, the released VEGF was biologically active and also VEGF loaded PCL nanoparticles enhanced proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in cell culture.


Subject(s)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Nanoparticles/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19519, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383984

ABSTRACT

Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most known nanomaterials being used for several purposes, including medical applications. In this study, Calendula officinalis L. flower extract and silver nitrate were used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles under red, green and blue light-emitting diodes. AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Electrophoretic Mobility, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Isotropic and anisotropic silver nanoparticles were obtained, presenting hydrodinamic diameters ranging 90 - 180 nm, polydispersity (PdI > 0.2) and moderate stability (zeta potential values around - 20 mV)


Subject(s)
Silver , Silver Nitrate/agonists , Calendula/adverse effects , Flowers/genetics , Nanoparticles/analysis , Spectrophotometry/methods , X-Ray Diffraction/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Light
11.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2022. 78 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1397436

ABSTRACT

Este estudo, desenvolvido em duas etapas, avaliou a ação remineralizadora da biopartícula α-wollastonita (BP), a partir da reação com H3PO4 residual Si-O-Ca + H3PO4 → SiO2 + Ca5(PO4)3(OH)n + H2O, na resistência longitudinal de união e características da interface adesiva, quando aplicada na forma de suspensão (etanol 99,5% + 10% de BP em peso) na superfície dentinária previamente condicionada com H3PO4 37%. Na primeira etapa foi realizado um estudo piloto onde, pelas características de precipitação, foi identificada a melhor concentração de biopartículas a serem inseridas na formulação da suspensão. Na segunda etapa, duzentas coroas hígidas de incisivos bovinos foram embutidas em resina acrílica, polidas para padronizar a smear layer e divididas aleatoriamente em 2 grupos (n=100), segundo a estratégia adesiva: A - controle (H3PO4 + Single Bond™ Universal (SB)); WAS ­ (H3PO4 + BP em suspensão + SB). Blocos de resina composta (Filtek Z250; 3M/ESPE) de 4mm foram confeccionados por técnica incremental sobre as áreas tratadas em todos os grupos, utilizando uma matriz de silicona. As amostras foram então seccionadas para obtenção de palitos retangulares (aproximadamente 1mm2 ), armazenadas em água deionizada a 4ºC em recipientes individuais e divididas em 2 subgrupos (n=50) de acordo com o tempo de armazenamento de 24 h (imediato) e 12 meses (longitudinal), seguidos do teste de resistência adesiva à microtração (10 kgf, 0,5mm/min). Os dados foram submetidos ao teste ANOVA 2 fatores (p< 0,05) e teste de Weibull 2 parâmetros. As interfaces adesivas foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) para avaliar a morfologia da interface resina-dentina, e analisadas por espectroscopia FTIR, para compreensão das interações químicas formadas na superfície dentinária. Os Resultados evidenciaram maiores valores estatisticamente significativos de resistência de união (MPa) para o grupo WAS (37,39 ± 7,48), tratado com BP e armazenado por 24 h, em comparação ao grupo A armazenado por 24 h (27,58 ± 6,43); e, para o grupo WAS armazenado por 12 meses (32,05 ± 10,64) em comparação ao grupo A armazenado por 12 meses (22,84 ± 5,76). Dados do FTIR evidenciaram o efeito da α-wollastonita na preservação do colágeno. A biopartícula mostrou ser promissora na manutenção longitudinal da qualidade da interface adesiva. (AU)


This study, developed in two stages, evaluated the remineralizing action of the αwollastonite (BP) bioparticle, from the reaction with residual Si-O-Ca + H3PO4 → SiO2 + Ca5(PO4)3(OH)n + H2O, on the longitudinal bond strength and characteristics of the adhesive interface, when applied as a suspension (99.5% ethanol + 10% BP by weight) on the dentin surface previously etched with 37% H3PO4. In the first stage, a pilot study was carried out where, due to the precipitation characteristics, the best concentration of bioparticles to be inserted in the suspension formulation was identified. In the second step, two hundred sound bovine incisor crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, polished to standardize the smear layer and randomly divided into 2 groups (n=100), according to the adhesive strategy: A - control (H3PO4 + Single Bond™ Universal (SB)); WAS ­ (H3PO4 + BP in suspension + SB). Composite resin blocks (Filtek Z250; 3M/ESPE) of 4 mm were made by incremental technique on the treated areas in all groups, using a silicone matrix. The samples were then sectioned to obtain rectangular sticks (approximately 1mm2 ), stored in deionized water at 4ºC in individual containers and divided into 2 subgroups (n=50) according to the storage time of 24 h (immediate) and 12 months (longitudinal), followed by the microtensile bond strength test (10 kgf, 0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (p<0.05) and 2-parameter Weibull test. The adhesive interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphology of the resin-dentin interface, and analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, to understand the chemical interactions formed on the dentin surface. The results showed higher statistically significant values of bond strength (MPa) for the WAS group (37.39 ± 7.48), treated with BP and stored for 24 h, compared to group A stored for 24 h (27, 58 ± 6.43); and for the WAS group stored for 12 months (32.05 ± 10.64) compared to group A stored for 12 months (22.84 ± 5.76). FTIR data evidenced the effect of α-wollastonite on collagen preservation. The bioparticle showed promise in the longitudinal maintenance of the quality of the adhesive interface (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acrylic Resins , Analysis of Variance , Composite Resins , Dental Cements , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Collagen
12.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 51: e20210024, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377169

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Screw-retained restorations have a screw access hole (SAH) sealed with resin composite aiming at safe-guarding the aesthetic features of the ceramic veneer. The loss or wear of the resin composite applied in sealing the SAH is among the most common complications in implant prosthodontics, as the fracture of ceramic veneer. Objective: Evaluate the influence of sealant materials on the fracture resistance of resin composite applied in sealing screw access hole in screwed (SAH) implants. Material and method: The samples were produced from UCLA abutments in metallic NiCr alloy with subsequent application of ceramic. After asperisation and conditioning ceramic surface, was applied silane and dentin adhesive, before sealing the conduits with resin composites Z100 and P60. Nine groups (n=10) were evaluated: sealing with Z-100 (ZNC) and P-60 (PNC) without obturation of SAH; sealing with Z100 (ZCP) and P-60 (PCP) with absorbent cotton; Z100 (ZPT) and P60 (PPT) with polytetrafluoroethylene; Z100 (ZGP) and P60 (PGP) with gutta-percha and a cemented ceramic crown (ICS). After the fracture resistance test, the data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<.05). Result: The fracture mode was evaluated by scanning electron microscope. Irrespective of the filling material, the highest mean values of fracture resistance were observed in the sealing with P60 (p=.002). When combined with resins composed of a sealing material, the results obtained were: ZGP: 805.5N/ PGP: 929.5N

Introdução: As próteses parafusadas possuem orifício de acesso ao parafuso (SAH), os quais são selados com resina composta. Sua perda ou desgaste está entre as complicações mais comuns em próteses sobre implantes, associadas a fratura da lâmina cerâmica. Objetivo: Assim, é importante avaliar a influência dos materiais de selamento na resistência à fratura de resina composta aplicada ao SAH no selamento de prótese sobre implantes parafusadas. Material e método: As amostras foram produzidas utilizando pilares UCLA em liga metálica de NiCr com posterior aplicação de cerâmica. Após asperização e condicionamento da superfície cerâmica, foram aplicados silano e adesivo dentinário, antes da selagem dos condutos com as resinas compostas Z100 e P60. Foram avaliados nove grupos (n = 10): selamento com Z-100 (ZNC) e P-60 (PNC) sem selamento do SAH; selamento com Z100 (ZCP) e P-60 (PCP) com algodão absorvente; Z100 (ZPT) e P60 (PPT) com politetrafluoroetileno; Z100 (ZGP) e P60 (PGP) com guta-percha e coroa de cerâmica cimentada (ICS). Após o teste de resistência à fratura, os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA de dois fatores e testes Tukey HSD (p<0,05). O tipo de fratura foi avaliado por microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Resultado Independentemente do material obturador, os maiores valores médios de resistência à fratura foram observados no selamento com P60 (p=0,002). Quando combinados com resinas compostas por um material de selamento, os resultados obtidos foram: ZGP: 805,5N/ PGP: 929,5N

Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Composite Resins , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported , Dental Implantation , Flexural Strength , Mouth Rehabilitation
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20149, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403746

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Brazilian native species Cestrum intermedium, known as mata-boi, induces hepatotoxicity and death when ingested by cattle. While most studies on this species focus on toxicological features, our study is the first to describe the anatomy and in vitro biological activities of Cestrum intermedium. We investigated adult leaves and stems by histochemistry, described their anatomy, performed physical-chemical analysis, determined in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and identified secondary metabolites. A few noteworthy anatomical features were the anomocytic stomata on the abaxial surface and the absence of trichomes, in addition to the circular shaped petiole with two projections on the adaxial surface. Histochemical analysis showed chemical markers such as alkaloids, usually reported as toxic, and terpenoids. Potassium nitrate (ATR-FTIR) and lupeol palmitate (NMR) were detected on the crude stem extract. Thermogravimetric and physical-chemical analysis provided fingerprint parameters for the species. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans were weakly inhibited by extract samples. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions presented high phenolic content, which resulted in in vitro antioxidant activity. These novel features expand the knowledge about this species, considering that previous studies mainly focused on its toxicity. Our study also provided characteristics that may help in avoiding misidentification between Cestrum members, especially when taxonomic keys cannot be employed, as in the absence of flowers and fruits.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Solanaceae/anatomy & histology , Solanaceae/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Terpenes/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Root canal therapy is the most effective and common method for pulpitis and periapical periodontitis. During the root canal preparation, chemical irrigation plays a key role. However, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the widely used irrigation fluid, may impact the bonding strength between dentin and restorative material meanwhile sterilization and dissolving. Therefore, it's important to explore the influence of NaOCl on the adhesion between dentin and restoration materials to ensure clinical efficacy. This study aims to explore the effect of NaOCl on dentine adhesion and evaluate the effect of dentine adhesion induced by sodium erythorbate (ERY), and to provide clinical guidance on dentin bonding after root canal therapy.@*METHODS@#Seventy freshly complete extracted human third molars aged 18-33 years old, without caries and restorations were selected. A diamond saw was used under running water to achieve dentine fragments which were divided into 10 groups with 14 fragments in each group: 2 control [deionized water (DW)±10% ERY] and 8 experimental groups (0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% NaOCl±10% ERY). The dentine specimens in the control group (treated with DW) and the experimental groups (treated with 0.5% NaOCl, 1% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, and 5.25% NaOCl) were immersed for 20 min using corresponding solutions which were renewed every 5 min. The other 5 groups were immersed in 10% ERY for 5 min after an initial washing with DW for 1 min. Then, we selected 4 dentine fragments from all 14 fragments in each group and the numbers and diameters of opening dentinal tubules were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The other 10 dentine fragments from each group were used to make adhesive samples by using self-etch adhesive wand composite resin. All the above adhesive samples were sectioned perpendicular to the bonded interface into 20 slabs with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm×1 mm using a diamond saw under the cooling water, and then the morphology of 10 slabs in each group's bonding interface was observed from aspects of formation of resin tags, depth of tags in dentin, and formation of hybrid layer under SEM. The other 10 slabs of each group's microtensile bond strength and failure modes were also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 0.5% NaOCl, 1% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, and 5.25% NaOCl groups, the number and diameter of patent dentinal tubules gradually increased with the rise of concentration of NaOCl solution (all P<0.05). Among the DW, 0.5% NaOCl, 1% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, and 5.25% NaOCl groups, the number and diameter of patent dentinal tubules increased after using ERY, but without significant difference (all P>0.05). Among the DW, 0.5% NaOCl, 1% NaOCl, and 2.5% NaOCl groups, the scores of formation of resin tags under SEM gradually increased with the increase of concentration of NaOCl solution, while the score in the 5.25% NaOCl group decreased significantly compared with the score of the 2.5% NaOCl group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between using 10% ERY groups and without using 10% ERY groups (all P>0.05). The scores of length of the tags under SEM in the 5.25% NaOCl group was significantly higher than the scores of DW, 0.5% NaOCl, and 1% NaOCl groups (all P<0.05), and it was also higher than the score of the 2.5% NaOCl group, but without significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between using 10% ERY groups and without using 10% ERY groups (P>0.05). The scores of formation of hybrid layer under SEM in the 2.5% NaOCl and 5.25% NaOCl groups significantly decreased compared with the score of the DW group (all P<0.05). There were significant differences between the 2.5% NaOCl±10% ERY groups and between the 5.25% NaOCl±10% ERY groups (all P<0.05). Microtensile bond strength was greater in the 0.5% NaOCl, 1% NaOCl, and 2.5% NaOCl groups, but lower in the 5.25% NaOCl group than that in the DW group (all P<0.05). There were significant differences between the 2.5% NaOCl±10% ERY groups and between the 5.25% NaOCl±10% ERY groups (all P<0.05). The incidence of type "Adhesive" of failure modes in the 5.25% NaOCl group was significantly higher than that in other groups (all P<0.05), while the incidence of type "Adhesive" in the 5.25% NaOCl+10% ERY group was lower than that in the 5.25% NaOCl group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The bonding strength to dentine increases with the increase of NaOCl concentration when the concentration lower than 2.5%; whereas it is decreased at a higher concentration (such as 5.25%). 10% ERY has a definite recovery effect on attenuated bonding strength to 5.25% NaOCl-treated dentine.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Ascorbic Acid , Dental Bonding , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents/pharmacology , Diamond/pharmacology , Humans , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Tensile Strength , Water/pharmacology , Young Adult
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of a noval radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (RF-APGD) plasma jet on crosslinking of dentin collagen.@*METHODS@#(1) Twenty intact third molars were collected. The middle dentin discs were prepared for each tooth by low-speed water-cooled Isomet saw, and then immersed in 10% (mass fraction) H3PO4 solution for 16 h to obtain fully demine-ralized dentin collagen. The twenty dentin discs were then randomly divided into five groups. The control group was untreated while the four experimental groups were treated by plasma jet with gas temperature of 4 ℃ for different times (20 s, 30 s, 40 s, and 50 s). The structure and crosslinking degree of dentin collagen were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology of demineralized dentin was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope. (2) Fourty non-caries third molars were collected to prepare 5 g fine dentin powder, then completely demineralized with 10% H3PO4 solution. The control group was untreated, while the four experimental groups were treated by plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s, 40 s and 50 s. The crosslinking degree of each group was determined by ninhydrin colorimetric method. (3) Forty intact third molars were collected to obtain dentin strips. Only two central symmetrical dentin strips (nasty 80) were taken from each tooth and immersed in 10% H3PO4 solution for 16 h to obtain fully demineralized dentin collagen. Eighty dentine collagen fiber strips were randomly divided into five groups. The control group was untreated and the axial surfaces of dentin collagen fiber strips in the expe-rimental groups were treated with the plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s, 40 s and 50 s. The ultimate tensile strength of dentin was measured by universal mechanical machine.@*RESULTS@#(1) The surface morphology of demineralized dentin observed by scanning electron microscope showed that the network structure of collagen fibers on the surface of demineralized dentin treated with the plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s and 40 s could maintain the uncollapsed three-dimensional structure, and part of the microstructure was destroyed after plasma jet treated for 50 s. After being treated by plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s and 40 s, the three-dimensional structure was uncollapsed, and the typical periodic transverse pattern of natural type Ⅰ collagen fiber could be seen. The results of infrared spectra showed that the secondary conformation of dentin collagen fibers was the same as that of the control group after being treated with the plasma jet, and the intensity of amide band was significantly increased after being treated for 30 s and 40 s. (2) The results of ninhydrin crosslinking test showed that the crosslinking ratio of dentin collagen treated by plasma jet for 30 s and 40 s was the highest, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (3) The results of dentin ultimate tensile strength showed that the control group was (1.67±0.24) MPa, and the plasma jet treated 20 s, 30 s, 40 s and 50 s groups were (4.21±0.15) MPa, (7.06±0.30) MPa, (7.32±0.27) MPa, and (6.87±0.17) MPa, which were significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The novel RF-APGD plasma jet treatment can promote the crosslinking degree of demineralized dentin collagen and improve their ultimate tensile strength.


Subject(s)
Collagen , Dental Bonding , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tensile Strength
16.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 173-181, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935845

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) based agents on the bonding properties of universal adhesive with different application modes, and to provide evidence for the use of adhesives after desensitization treatment. Methods: Sixty impacted third molars were extracted and selected (acquired from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University). Four third molars were used to prepare 1 mm thick dentin disks and treated with 1% citric acid to simulate sensitive tooth models. The dentin surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after treating with no desensitization (control group), desensitized by HA based toothpaste Biorepair and Dontodent Sensitive respectively (desensitizing toothpaste A group and B group), or HA paste treatment (desensitizing paste group ) (n=2 per group). The remaining teeth were selected to expose the mid-coronal dentin and establish dentin sensitivity models. Then, the specimens were divided into 4 former groups and received corresponding treatment. Each group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups, and intermediately strong universal adhesive (G-Premio Bond) was applied on the desensitized dentin by either etch-and-rinse mode or self-etch mode. Resin-dentin slice specimens (n=4 per subgroup), microtensile specimens (n=20 per subgroup) and slice specimens (n=6 per subgroup) were prepared. The microstructure and nanoleakage of the adhesive interfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microtensile strength (bond strength) and fracture mode were tested and recorded. The water permeability of the adhesive interface was observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Results: SEM showed that desensitizing toothpaste and desensitizing paste could partially or entirely occlude most of the dentin tubules. For the etch-and-rinse mode, the bond strength of specimens treated with toothpaste A [(40.98±4.60) MPa], toothpaste B [(40.89±4.64) MPa] and HA paste [(41.48±3.65) MPa] was significantly higher than that of the control group [(38.58±4.28) MPa] (F=3.89,P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in bond strength among the 4 subgroups for self-etch modes (F=0.48,P>0.05). After desensitization, the bond strength of the control group and desensitizing groups in the self-etch mode was significantly higher than that in the etch-and-rinse mode (P<0.05). The overall fracture modes were mixed failure and interfacial failure in the control group and desensitizing groups. SEM showed speckled silver-stained particles deposited along the bottom of the hybrid layer on the bond interface of etch-and-rinse mode, and there were few silver-stained particles deposited on the bond interface of self-etch mode. LSCM showed continuous linear penetration in the hybrid layer of etch-and-rinse mode subgroups and discontinuous linear penetration in the hybrid layer of self-etch mode subgroups. Conclusions: HA based desensitizers have no adverse effect on the bond strength of intermediately strong universal adhesive and show good bonding performance accompanied with the self-etch mode.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Dental Bonding , Dental Cements , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Durapatite , Humans , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements , Tensile Strength
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935831

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of csn2 gene deficiency on starvation tolerance and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis in an oligotrophic environment of Streptococcus mutans (Sm). Methods: The csn2 gene deletion strains and complementary strains of Sm were cultivated and then an oligotrophic growth environment for Sm growth by setting different concentration gradient media were created. Cell growth in oligotrophic environment was detected by growth curve. Biofilm volume was measured by crystalline violet staining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser confocal microscope were performed to observe the biofilm structure of Sm. The synthesis of EPS was measured by the anthrone-sulfuric acid method. The expression of genes related to EPS synthesis was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: The growth curve results showed that the deletion of csn2 gene inhibited the growth of Sm under starvation stress. Furthermore, the results of laser confocal microscope showed that the biofilm EPS/bacteria ratios produced by the wild-type strain, csn2 gene-deficient strain and complement strains under nutrient sufficient culture conditions were 0.44±0.07, 1.05±0.13 and 0.57±0.08 respectively, while the ratios of EPS/bacteria in an oligotrophic environment were 0.93±0.24, 3.05±0.21 and 1.32±0.46 respectively, indicating that the deletion of csn2 gene enhanced the ability of extracellular polysaccharide synthesis of Sm in the oligotrophic environment. The expression levels of EPS synthesis-related genes gtfB and gtfC were up-regulated by 2.5 fold and 1.8 fold respectively and the expression level of gtfD was down-regulated by two-thirds. Conclusions: The csn2 gene deficiency showed multiple effects on the physiological functions and virulence characteristics of Sm, including starvation tolerance and EPS synthesis. These changes might be related to the shift of the complex regulative network caused by csn2 gene deletion.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polysaccharides , Streptococcus mutans/genetics
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244526, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278511

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study is to examine the dorsal lingual epithelium of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) of the family Falconidae. The tongue in its dorsal, lateral and ventral surfaces is covered with a non-keratinized multilayered stratified squamous epithelium. Lamina propria is present beneath the epithelial layers. Morphometrically, thickness of the apex tongue epithelium is more than that in the tongue body. Thickness of the ventral surface of the tongue is less than that in the dorsal one. Thickness of the lateral surface of the tongue was thicker than that in the ventral one and tongue body. Large and small conical papillae appeared on the posterior dorsal surface of the lingual body. There are lingual glands in certain areas of tongue body with numerous openings through the dorsal surface.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo é examinar o epitélio lingual dorsal do falcão peregrino (Falco peregrinus) da família Falconidae. A língua em suas superfícies dorsal, lateral e ventral é coberta por um epitélio escamoso estratificado de múltiplas camadas não queratinizado. A lâmina própria está presente abaixo das camadas epiteliais. Morfometricamente, a espessura do epitélio do ápice da língua é maior do que a do corpo da língua. A espessura da superfície ventral da língua é menor do que a dorsal. A espessura da face lateral da língua foi mais espessa do que na ventral e no corpo da língua. Papilas cônicas grandes e pequenas apareceram na superfície posterior dorsal do corpo lingual. Existem glândulas linguais em certas áreas do corpo da língua com numerosas aberturas na superfície dorsal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Falconiformes , Tongue , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Epithelium
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19586, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Design of experiment (DoE) is a useful time and cost-effective tool for analyzing the effect of independent variables on the formulation characteristics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the process variables on the characteristics involved in the preparation of Diclofenac Sodium (DC) loaded ethylcellulose (EC) nanoparticles (NP) using Central Composite Design (CCD). NP were prepared by W/O/W emulsion solvent evaporation method. Three factors were investigated (DC/EC mass ratio, PVA concentration, homogenization speed) in order to optimize the entrapment efficiency (EE) and the particle size of NP. The optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and in vitro release. Optimized formulation showed an EE of 49.09 % and an average particle size of 226.83 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.271. No drug-polymer interaction was observed in FTIR and DSC analysis. SEM images showed that the particles are spherical and uniform. The in vitro release study showed a sustained release nature, 53.98 % of the encapsulated drug has been released over 24hours period. This study demonstrated that statistical experimental design methodology can optimize the formulation and the process variables to achieve favorable responses.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Diclofenac/analysis , Process Optimization , Nanoparticles/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Costs and Cost Analysis/methods , Methodology as a Subject , Fourier Analysis
20.
Rev. ADM ; 78(6): 314-331, nov.-dic. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354416

ABSTRACT

La dentina se compone de un mineral de fosfato de calcio identificado como dahllita, que se dispone en pequeños cristales de hidroxiapatita carbonatada con dimensiones de 36 × 25 × 4 nm, y por una fase orgánica cuyo principal componente es el colágeno tipo 1 en 90%, que se orienta en forma de malla. Esta conformación corresponde a los dientes permanentes. Dentro de las estructuras, encontramos túbulos dentinarios que miden, aproximadamente, entre 0.5-1 µm de diámetro en la periferia y hasta 3-5 µm cerca de la pulpa. En el presente estudio, realizado en dentina de dientes temporales, el lumen de dichos túbulos es más grande cuando se encuentra cerca de la pulpa dental. Asimismo, se encontraron cambios elementales importantes de acuerdo con las diferentes profundidades en las que se observó, encontrando un aumento en el peso porcentual de carbono cuando se encuentra a mayor profundidad, lo que indica una composición orgánica mayor en la dentina pulpar. En estudios de dientes permanentes esta composición es disminuida y con mayor concentración en la dentina cercana a la unión amelodentinaria. En dentina de dientes temporales se encontraron diferencias en el recuento de túbulos dentinarios por mm2, comparado a la dentina de dientes permanentes, donde el número de túbulos no varía mucho (AU)


Dentin is composed of a calcium phosphate mineral identified as dahllite, which is arranged in small crystals of carbonated hydroxyapatite with dimensions of 36 × 25 × 4 nm, and by an organic phase whose main component is type l collagen in 90%, which is oriented in the form of a mesh. This conformation corresponds to permanent teeth. Within the structures, we find dentin tubules that measure approximately 0.5-1 µm in diameter at the periphery and up to 3-5 µm near the pulp. In the present study, carried out in dentin of primary teeth, the lumen of these tubules is larger when it is close to the dental pulp. Likewise, important elemental changes were found according to the different depths in which it was observed, finding an increase in the percentage weight of carbon when it is at a greater depth, indicating a greater organic composition in the pulp dentin. In studies of permanent teeth, this composition is decreased and with a higher concentration in the dentin near the amelodentinal junction. In dentin of primary teeth, differences were found in the count of dentin tubules per mm2, compared to dentin of permanent teeth, where the number of tubules did not vary much (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Deciduous , Dentin/ultrastructure , Dentinogenesis , Phosphates , Phosphoric Acids , Acid Etching, Dental , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Calcium , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Collagen , Durapatite , Dentition, Permanent , Collagen Type I , Minerals
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