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Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814


SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.

Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1687-1697, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528806


SUMMARY: In response to the threat posed by new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the urgent need for effective treatments in the absence of vaccines, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective hyperimmune serum (HS) derived from sheep and assess its efficacy. The utilization of a halal-certified, easily maintained in certain geographic regions, easy-to-handle animal such as sheep could provide a viable alternative to the expensive option of horses. Sheep were immunized with a whole inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 antigen to produce HS, which was evaluated for neutralizing potency using the PRNT50 assay. K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (n=35) were divided into three groups: control, SARS-CoV-2 exposure through inhalation, and SARS-CoV-2 exposed mice treated with HS. HS efficacy was assessed through serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, qRT-PCR analysis, histopathological examination of lungs and hearts, and transmission electron microscopy. Purified HS exhibited significant neutralizing activity (1/24,576). The SARS-CoV-2+HS group showed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 (P<0.01) and relatively lower levels of MCP-1 compared to the SARS-CoV-2 group. HS prevented death, reduced viral RNA levels in the lungs and hearts, protected against severe interstitial pneumonia, preserved lung tissue integrity, and prevented myocyte damage, while the SARS-CoV-2 group exhibited viral presence in the lungs. This study successfully developed a sheep-derived HS against the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus, resulting in a significant reduction in infection severity, inflammation, and systemic cytokine production. The findings hold promise for treating severe COVID-19 cases, including emerging viral variants, and immunocompromised patients.

En respuesta a la amenaza que suponen las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2 y la urgente necesidad de tratamientos eficaces en ausencia de vacunas, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un suero hiperinmune (HS) rápido y rentable derivado de ovejas. y evaluar su eficacia. La utilización de un animal con certificación halal, de fácil mantenimiento en determinadas regiones geográficas y de fácil manejo, como las ovejas, podría proporcionar una alternativa viable a la costosa opción de los caballos. Las ovejas fueron inmunizadas con un antígeno de SARS-CoV-2 completamente inactivado para producir HS, cuya potencia neutralizante se evaluó mediante el ensayo PRNT50. Los ratones transgénicos K18-hACE2 (n = 35) se dividieron en tres grupos: control, exposición al SARS-CoV-2 mediante inhalación y ratones expuestos al SARS-CoV-2 tratados con HS. La eficacia de HS se evaluó mediante niveles de citoquinas proinflamatorias en suero, análisis qRT-PCR, examen histopatológico de pulmones y corazones y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El HS purificado exhibió una actividad neutralizante significativa (1/24,576). El grupo SARS-CoV-2+HS mostró niveles más bajos de TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-6 (P<0,01) y niveles relativamente más bajos de MCP-1 en comparación con el grupo SARS-CoV-2. HS evitó la muerte, redujo los niveles de ARN viral en los pulmones y el corazón, protegió contra la neumonía intersticial grave, preservó la integridad del tejido pulmonar y evitó el daño de los miocitos, mientras que el grupo SARS-CoV-2 exhibió presencia viral en los pulmones. Este estudio desarrolló con éxito un HS derivado de ovejas contra todo el virus SARS-CoV-2, lo que resultó en una reducción significativa de la gravedad de la infección, la inflamación y la producción sistémica de citocinas. Los hallazgos son prometedores para el tratamiento de casos graves de COVID- 19, incluidas las variantes virales emergentes y los pacientes inmunocomprometidos.

Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune Sera/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/ultrastructure , Sheep , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart/drug effects , Horses , Immunotherapy/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Myocardium/ultrastructure
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1513-1526, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521017


SUMMARY: The livers of reptiles are being studied as a model for the link between the environment and hepatic tissue. There have been few investigations on the histology of reptile livers, and very few or no studies have examined the histology of liver of veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus). This paper describes the histomorphological, histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the liver of veiled chameleons in southern Saudi Arabia. Seven Chamaeleo calyptratus were captured in the summer season in Abha City, Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia. Chamaeleon liver samples were processed for histomorphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure analyses. Morphologically liver of Chamaeleo calyptratus was observed as a large dark brown organ with lighter speckles, which represent melanin deposits. It located at the ventral part of abdominal cavity forward of the stomach. Its dimensions approximately were 3.7 x 2 cm. The liver was a bilobed organ divided into two lobes, right and left lobes. The right one was bigger than the others. The gallbladder was well developed and had an elongated shape, situated between the two lobes and contained the bile for the digestion. Microscopically, the liver was found to be covered by a thick layer of connective tissue, which formed the hepatic capsule. Hepatic parenchyma probably appeared in cross sections as hepatic glandular-like alveoli "acini" or follicular structures with various diameters, each acinus contains approximately four to six hepatocytes, surrounded by sinusoidal capillaries filled with abundant melanomacrophages, which are absent in birds and mammals. Melanomacrophages are common in the hepatic parenchyma's perisinusoidal areas, particularly near portal spaces. Hepatocytes are polyhedral or pyramidal with and mostly contained large, rounded nuclei mostly peripherally located, with prominent dark oval nucleoli. Some of nuclei are eccentric or central position. The cytoplasm appeared spongy or vacuolated and more eosinophilic when stained by hematoxylin-eosin and strongly reactive to PAS staining technique, indicating abundant glycogen content. The reticular fibers that surround hepatocytes, blood arteries, and sinusoids supported the hepatic parenchyma. The blood sinusoids are seen interspersed among hepatocytes of varying sizes. The sinusoidal lumen was bordered by flattened endothelial cells and includes elliptical nucleated erythrocytes and liver macrophages as phagocytes, which are also known as Kupffer cells. Branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery, small bile duct, and lymph vessels were detected in the hepatic portal area "tract" or triad which made up of connective. Hematopoietic tissue was observed in subcapsular region and portal triads. Ultrastructurally, the hepatocyte appeared polyhedric containing a single large rounded basal or eccentric vesicular nucleus with prominent nucleolus. Extensive network of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) often arranged in an array parallel to the nuclear membrane with many mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus were described. The cytoplasm contained glycogen granules, vesicles or vacuoles scattered throughout the cytoplasm especially at the apical region were reported. The bile canaliculi and the hepatic "Kupffer" cells were also discussed. This is the first study on the histological characterization of the healthy liver of Yemen veiled chameleon in southern Saudi Arabia. The findings reported here should be used as a reference to compare with the pathological abnormalities of the liver in this animal.

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Animals , Liver/anatomy & histology , Lizards/anatomy & histology , Photomicrography , Hepatocytes , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Liver/ultrastructure
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1219-1227, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514335


SUMMARY: In this study we describe the functional morphology of Cornu aspersum (Helix aspersa), spermatozoa using light, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopies. The studies were performed with sperm located in the frozen hermaphroditic duct. Our results showed that the head presents an elongated conical shape slightly coiled in a corkscrew, with the nucleus partially covered by an acrosome, where an apical vesicle is located at the lateralized apex. This peculiar shape suggests the helical displacement movement of the spermatozoa. The head and the nucleus are slightly larger size compared to those of other gastropod species. The intermediate tract is surrounded by a mitochondrial complex and a glycogen helix. The glycogen helix is coiled helically along the intermediate tract, presenting at least five twists of glycogen helices. The complexity of both the mitochondrial complex and the glycogen helix suggests a high metabolic consumption considering the long period of time until fertilization occurs. Our findings on the detailed characterization of Cornu aspersum spermatozoa, obtained from a frozen hermaphroditic duct can contribute to a better understanding of the functional morphology of sperm and serve as a reference for future studies.

En este estudio describimos la morfología funcional de Cornu aspersum (Helix aspersa), espermatozoides utilizando microscopías de luz, barrido (SEM) y electrónica de transmisión (TEM). Los estudios se realizaron con espermatozoides localizados en el conducto hermafrodita congelado. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la cabeza presenta una forma cónica alargada ligeramente enrollada en un tirabuzón, con el núcleo parcialmente cubierto por un acrosoma, donde se ubica una vesícula apical en el ápice lateralizado. Esta peculiar forma sugiere el movimiento de desplazamiento helicoidal de los espermatozoides. La cabeza y el núcleo son de un tamaño ligeramente mayor en comparación con los de otras especies de gasterópodos. El tracto intermedio está rodeado por un complejo mitocondrial y una hélice de glucógeno. La hélice de glucógeno se enrolla helicoidalmente a lo largo del tracto intermedio, presentando al menos cinco giros de hélices de glucógeno. La complejidad tanto del complejo mitocondrial como de la hélice de glucógeno sugiere un alto consumo metabólico considerando el largo período de tiempo hasta que ocurre la fecundación. Nuestros hallazgos sobre la caracterización detallada de los espermatozoides de Cornu aspersum, obtenidos de un conducto hermafrodita congelado, pueden contribuir a una mejor comprensión de la morfología funcional de los espermatozoides y servir como referencia para futuros estudios.

Animals , Snails , Spermatozoa/ultrastructure , Spermatozoa/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cryopreservation , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Hermaphroditic Organisms
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1027-1035, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514338


SUMMARY: Diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by diabetes mellitus (DM) -induced cardiac muscular abnormalities, is a strong inducer of impaired cardiac contraction and arrhythmia. Atrioventricular block, a serious type of arrhythmia resulting from interruption of cardiac impulse conduction via the atrioventricular node (AVN), frequently occurs among diabetic patients. However, details of structural changes in AVN in DM remain poorly explained. Here, this study defined the effects of DM on the morphological remodeling of the AVN in male Sprague Dawley rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). At 24 weeks, the pathological changes in the AVN were assessed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under LM, the AVN in diabetic rats became a less compact mass and exhibited the intracellular vacuolation. The nodal cells were more varied in sizes with the absence or shrinkage of nuclei and clear cytoplasm compared to the control. The collagen content significantly increased in relation to the presence of myofibroblasts. Consistent with LM, TEM images of the diabetic nodal cells revealed several signs of cell damage, such as mitochondrial changes, deterioration of cell organelles, gap junction internalization, and cell separation. Furthermore, changes in AVN innervation, evidenced by damaged Schwann cells and axons, were also found. These results indicated alterations in important components in the AVN during diabetic condition, which may lead to the impairment of electrical conduction, causing abnormal cardiac functions in diabetic patients.

La miocardiopatía diabética, caracterizada por anomalías musculares cardíacas inducidas por diabetes mellitus (DM), es un fuerte inductor de alteración de la contracción cardíaca y arritmia. El bloqueo atrioventricular, un tipo grave de arritmia resultante de la interrupción de la conducción del impulso cardíaco a través del nodo atrioventricular (NAV), se produce con frecuencia entre los pacientes diabéticos. Sin embargo, los detalles de los cambios estructurales en NAV en DM siguen estando pobremente explicados. Aquí, este estudio definió los efectos de la DM en la remodelación morfológica del NAV en ratas macho Sprague Dawley inducidas por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg de peso corporal). A las 24 semanas, los cambios patológicos en el NAV se evaluaron mediante microscopía óptica (MO) y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). Bajo MO, el NAV en ratas diabéticas se convirtió en una masa menos compacta y exhibió la vacuolización intracelular. Las células nodales tenían tamaños más variados con ausencia o contracción de núcleos y citoplasma claro en comparación con el control. El contenido de colágeno aumentó significativamente en relación con la presencia de miofibroblastos. De acuerdo con MO, las imágenes MET de las células nodales diabéticas revelaron varios signos de daño celular, como cambios mitocondriales, deterioro de los orgánulos celulares, internalización de uniones comunicantes y separación celular. Además, también se encontraron cambios en la inervación del NAV, evidenciados por schwannocitos y axones dañados. Estos resultados indicaron alteraciones en componentes importantes en el NAV durante la condición diabética, lo que puede conducir al deterioro de la conducción eléctrica, causando funciones cardíacas anormales en estos pacientes.

Animals , Male , Rats , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Node/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1043-1052, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514344


SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with rising incidences worldwide. Gastric symptoms of DM have been reported, including nausea, vomiting, bloating, and epigastric pain. Moreover, acute to chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis occur in DM can affect the chief cells of the gastric gland. Chief cells are vital because of their ability to digest and separate vitamin B12 from protein. Lack of vitamin B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis and abnormal metabolism in red blood cells, and eventually leading to pernicious anemia. Furthermore, decreased vibratory and positional senses, numbness, ataxia with subacute combined degeneration, and dementia are present in pernicious anemic patients. Twenty-four male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into control (n = 12) and diabetic (n = 12) groups. The rats were further separated into two categories: short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) groups. DM model was induced by manually injecting intraperitoneally with streptozotocin in citrate buffer at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The same amount of buffer was injected into the control group. After sacrifice, three regions of the stomach (the cardia, body, and pylorus) were dissected. Histopathology was performed by staining with toluidine blue. Image analysis was used to quantify the zymogen granule accumulation in chief cells. The data were compared between the control and DM rats in each period using Student's t-test. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to examine the ultrastructures. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of zymogen granules in DM rats. Under TEM, the destructions of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in the DM rat were observed in the chief cells. In rats with uncontrolled diabetes, there is damage to the chief cells all over the area of the stomach, affecting digestion and malabsorption of vitamin B12. Therefore, this result helps clinicians recognize that diabetic patients with gastric symptoms may have hidden pernicious anemia.

La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un trastorno metabólico con incidencia creciente a nivel mundial. Se han informado síntomas gástricos de DM, que incluyen náuseas, vómitos, distensión abdominal y dolor epigástrico. Además, la gastritis aguda a crónica y la gastritis atrófica que ocurren en la DM pueden afectar las células principales de la glándula gástrica. Las células principales son vitales debido a su capacidad para digerir y separar la vitamina B12 de las proteínas. La falta de vitamina B12 conduce a una síntesis de ADN deteriorada y un metabolismo anormal en los glóbulos rojos, lo que eventualmente conduce a una anemia perniciosa. Además, los pacientes con anemia perniciosa presentan disminución de los sentidos vibratorio y posicional, entumecimiento, ataxia con degeneración combinada subaguda y demencia. En este estudio se usaron 24 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos control (n = 12) y diabéticas (n = 12). Las ratas se separaron además en dos categorías: grupos a corto plazo (4 semanas) y a largo plazo (24 semanas). El modelo de DM se indujo inyectando manualmente por vía intraperitoneal estreptozotocina en tampón de citrato a una dosis de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se inyectó la misma cantidad de tampón en el grupo control. Después del sacrificio, se disecaron tres regiones del estómago (cardias, cuerpo y píloro). La histopatología se realizó mediante tinción con azul de toluidina. El análisis de imágenes se utilizó para cuantificar la acumulación de gránulos de zimógeno en las células principales. Los datos se compararon entre las ratas control y DM en cada período utilizando la prueba t de Student. Además, se utilizó microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) para examinar la ultraestructura celular. Hubo una disminución significativa en el porcentaje de gránulos de zimógeno en ratas DM. Bajo TEM, se observaron en las células principales las destrucción de las mitocondrias, del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y del complejo golgiense en la rata DM. En ratas con diabetes no controlada, hay daño en las células principales de toda el área del estómago, lo que afecta la digestión y la malabsorción de vitamina B12. Por lo tanto, este resultado ayuda a los médicos a reconocer que los pacientes diabéticos con síntomas gástricos pueden tener una anemia perniciosa oculta.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chief Cells, Gastric/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1152-1157, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514346


SUMMARY: To investigate changes of MMP-9 in the rat spleen and hypoxia-induced microvascular basement membrane under high altitude hypoxia. Thirty male specific pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and hypoxia groups, with 15 rats in each group. The rats in the control group were placed in Dingxi City, Gansu Province (2080 m above sea level) for 30 days. Rats in the hypoxia group were raised in a hypoxic environment in Maduo County, Qinghai Province (4300 m above sea level), for 30 days to establish a hypoxic rat model. Routine blood tests, MMP-9 mRNA, MMP-9 protein, and the spleen microvascular basement membrane were detected. (1) Compared with the control group, the red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels of the rats in the hypoxia group were all increased; thus, a hypoxia model was successfully established. (2) Compared with the control group, the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in the spleen of rats in the hypoxic group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). (3) Compared with the control group, the blood vessel basement membrane in the spleen of the hypoxia group was degraded. Under natural low air pressure and high altitude conditions, the expression of MMP-9 in rat spleen tissue increases and participates in the degradation of the microvascular basement membrane.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar los cambios de la MMP-9 en el bazo de la rata y la membrana basal microvascular inducida bajo hipoxia a gran altura. Treinta ratas macho Sprague Dawley, libres de patógenos específicos, se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 15 ratas cada uno, un grupo control y un grupo hipoxia. Durante 30 días las ratas del grupo control estuvieron en la ciudad de Dingxi, provincia de Gansu (2080 m sobre el nivel del mar). Las ratas del grupo de hipoxia se criaron en un entorno hipóxico en el condado de Maduo, provincia de Qinghai (4300 m sobre el nivel del mar), durante 30 días para establecer un modelo de rata hipóxica. Se realizaron análisis de sangre de rutina, ARNm de MMP-9, proteína MMP-9 y de la membrana basal microvascular del bazo. En comparación con el grupo control, el recuento de glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina y los niveles de hematocrito de las ratas del grupo de hipoxia aumentaron; por lo tanto, se estableció con éxito un modelo de hipoxia. En comparación con el grupo control, la expresión de ARNm y proteína de MMP-9 fue significativamente mayor en el bazo de las ratas del grupo hipóxico, siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05). En comparación con el grupo control, la membrana basal de los vasos sanguíneos estaba degradada en el bazo del grupo hipoxia. En condiciones naturales de baja presión atmosférica y gran altitud, la expresión de MMP-9 en el tejido del bazo de la rata aumenta y participa en la degradación de la membrana basal microvascular.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spleen/pathology , Basement Membrane/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Altitude Sickness , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 1069-1073, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009456


Objective To establish an efficient method for isolating migrasomes from RAW264.7 macrophages and identifying these isolated migrasomes. Methods Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphological characteristics of migrasomes produced by RAW264.7 cells. A 0.45 μm filter was employed for reverse filtration and elution to isolate the migrasomes. The morphological characteristics of the migrasomes were then observed using transmission electron microscopy. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of characteristic markers of the migrasomes. The RNA carried by the migrasomes was analysed by using LabChip bioanalyzer. Results Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the migrasomes, with membranous structures, were attached to the tip or bifurcation of the retraction fiber formed in the tail of RAW264.7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the isolated migrasomes had a typical oval vesicle-like structure with wrinkled membrane surfaces. Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of the characteristic markers phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class K (PIGK), epidermal growth factor domain-specific O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (EOGT) and tetraspanin 4 (TSPAN4) in the migrasomes, while the EV (extracellular vesicle) markers tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) and Arabidopsis homolog of apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX) were not detected. Furthermore, the isolated migrasomes were found to be rich in small RNA, which were approximately 25-200 nt in length. Conclusion A method for the extraction of well-structured and high quality migrasomes from macrophages is established.

Extracellular Vesicles , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , RNA , Macrophages
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529127


ABSTRACT Objective: To green synthesise gold nanoparticles using curcumin and to analyse its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity among oral pathogens. Material and Methods: Biosynthesised Curcumin Gold nanoparticles (CuAuNP) were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Results: Synthesized CuAuNP were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry and showed peak absorption at 530nm. CuAuNp showed a 90.3% maximum scavenging ability of DPPH at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. CuAuNP exhibited 79.6 % of the highest anti-inflammatory activity at 50μg/mL than the standard drug diclofenac. TEM image clearly showed uniformly dispersed spherical-shaped gold nanoparticles with a size of about 20 nm. The biosynthesized nanoparticle was tested for its antimicrobial effect, and it showed a potent effect against S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicans at 100µg/ mL. Enterococcus faecalis has a maximum zone of inhibition of 14 mm at 100µg/ mL of CuAuNp. Among gram-positive bacteria, a maximum zone of inhibition of 12 mm at 100µg/ mL was seen in S. aureus compared to S mutans. Candida albicans showed a maximum zone of inhibition of 18 mm at 25 μg/mL of CuAuNp. Conclusion: Curcumin-mediated gold nanoparticles with 20 nm size were effective and had strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity at 50µg/ mL, antimicrobial action inhibiting microbes at 100µg/mL concentration that can be used in treating various Oral mucosal lesions.

Curcumin/adverse effects , Metal Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid , Spectrophotometry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/instrumentation , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Antioxidants/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e211035, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505835


Abstract Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDPs) have been used in clinical treatment to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury for many years. However, the underlying mechanism implicated in the protective effects remains to be explored. Here, we determined the effects of CDDPs in Sprague-Dawley rats with the IR model. Cardiac function in vivo was assessed by echocardiography. Transmission electron microscopy, histological and immunohistochemical techniques, Western blotting and recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 transfection were used to illustrate the effects of CDDPs on IR and autophagy. Our results showed that pretreatment with CDDPs decreased the level of serum myocardial enzymes and infarct size in rats after IR. Apoptosis evaluation showed that CDDPs significantly ameliorated the cardiac apoptosis level after IR. Meanwhile, CDDPs pretreatment increased myocardial autophagic flux, with upregulation of LC3B, downregulation of p62, and increased autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Moreover, the autophagic flux inhibitor chloroquine could increase IR injury, while CDDPs could partially reverse the effects. Furthermore, our results showed that the activation of AMPK/mTOR was involved in the cardioprotective effect exerted by CDDPs. Herein, we suggest that CDDPs partially protect the heart from IR injury by enhancing autophagic flux through the activation of AMPK/mTOR.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion/classification , Reperfusion Injury/classification , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , Heart/physiopathology , Ischemia/classification , Echocardiography/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Infarction/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 58-62, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360094


Abstract McCune - Albright syndrome is a genetic disease with cutaneous mosaicism caused by post-zygotic activating mutations in GNAS locus, it has a triad of fibrous bone dysplasia, café-au-lait macules and precocious puberty. We examined a 22-year-old female patient with café au lait spot in right side of the abdomen, with a chessboard - like distribution, extending to right thigh with geographical contours, she has also an ovarian cyst, scoliosis and truncal obesity. Biopsies were taken from the hyperpigmented area and processed for light microscopy and for transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy showed increased melanin pigment with HE staining. Immunohistochemistry with melanocytic markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A) revealed a normal number of melanocytes. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated normal epidermal structures, such as desmosomes, cytokeratin filaments and hemidesmosomes. With high magnifications an irregular melanossomal contour was seen, with some indentations in their outline.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Puberty, Precocious , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic/diagnosis , Cafe-au-Lait Spots , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 157-167, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385584


SUMMARY: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a manufactured chemical and does not occur naturally in the environment. CCl4 is a clear liquid that evaporates very easily. It has a sweet odor. CCl4 is toxic to the mammalian liver and is hepatocarcinogenic in both rats and mice. Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) is commonly used as a spice and flavoring agent in food processing. It is known for its antioxidant properties. The present study aims to investigate the antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid (RA) on CCl4-induced liver toxicity in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. Group I (control group). Group II animals received RA at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 4 weeks. Group III animals received CCl4 intraperitoneally at a dose of 3ml/kg twice weekly for 4 weeks. Group IV animals received CCl4 Plus RA. At the end of the experiment, liver specimens are processed for histological, immunohistochemical, EM and biochemical studies. Administration of RA deceased the elevated serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP), elevated MDA level and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax) induced by CCl4. It increased reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). It also improved the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by CCl4. It appears that Rosmarinic acid has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural results.

RESUMEN: El tetracloruro de carbono (CCl4) es un producto químico fabricado y no se encuentra de forma natural en el medio ambiente. CCl4 es un líquido transparente que se evapora fácilmente; tiene un olor dulce. CCl4 es tóxico para el hígado de los mamíferos y es hepatocarcinogénico tanto en ratas como en ratones. El romero (Rosmarinus officinalis) se usa comúnmente como condimento y agente aromatizante en el procesamiento de alimentos. Es conocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la actividad antioxidante del ácido rosmarínico (RA) sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por CCl4 en ratas albinas macho adultas. Se dividieron cuarenta ratas albinas macho adultas en 4 grupos con 10 ratas en cada grupo. Grupo I (grupo control). Los animales del grupo II recibieron AR a una dosis de 50 mg / kg / día por sonda oral durante 4 semanas. Los animales del grupo III recibieron CCl4 por vía intraperitoneal a una dosis de 3 ml / kg dos veces por semana durante 4 semanas. Los animales del grupo IV recibieron CCl4 Plus RA. Al final del experimento, las muestras de hígado se procesaron para estudios histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos, EM y bioquímicos. La administración de AR eliminó las enzimas hepáticas séricas elevadas (AST, ALT y ALP), el nivel elevado de MDA y la inmunoexpresión de la proteína proapoptótica (Bax) inducida por CCl4. Aumentó el glutatión reducido (GSH), glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px), la superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la inmunoexpresión de la proteína antiapoptótica (Bcl2). También mejoró los cambios histológicos y ultraestructurales inducidos por CCl4. El ácido rosmarínico puede tener efectos protectores contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por CCl4, tal como lo indican los resultados bioquímicos, histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y ultraestructurales.

Animals , Male , Mice , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Cinnamates/administration & dosage , Depsides/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Depsides/pharmacology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 101 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437639


A Leucemia Linfoide Aguda (LLA) é um câncer de maior incidência em crianças, e tem a Lasparaginase (ASNase) como fármaco amplamente utilizado no tratamento dos afetados. A ASNase catalisa a hidrólise do aminoácido L-asparagina (Asn), presente na corrente sanguínea, a ausência do aminoácido no meio extracelular leva à morte células leucêmicas, que necessitam deste aminoácido para as funções celulares. Fatores envolvendo a eficiência do tratamento com ASNase como reações adversas e curta meia-vida, principalmente devido ao reconhecimento pelo sistema imune e degradação por proteases, limitam a sua eficácia. A encapsulação da enzima em lipossomas pode conferir proteção à degradação, melhorar seu perfil farmacocinético e diminuir os efeitos adversos, de forma a melhorar o tratamento da LLA sendo este o objetivo desse trabalho. Lipossomas de DOPC (1,2-dioleoil-sn-glicero-3-fosfocolina) e DMPC (1,2-dimiristoil-snglicero-3-fosfocolina) foram desenvolvidos empregando-se o método de hidratação do filme lipídico e diferentes protocolos de preparo contendo ou não diferentes concentrações de 18:0 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polietilenogicol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG). Os lipossomas produzidos foram utilizados para encapsular a ASNase e os sistemas contendo ou não ASNase encapsulada foram caracterizados por espalhamento de luz dinâmico (DLS), potencial zeta, microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) e criomicroscopia de transmissão. Adicionalmente, foram avaliados a taxa de encapsulação e o perfil de permeabilidade das vesículas à L-asparagina. As análises de DLS mostraram que as nanoestruturas formadas empregando-se agitação magnética a partir de sistemas contendo 10% e 20% de DSPE-PEG possuem diâmetro hidrodinâmico menor (~ 25 nm a 60 nm) que os mesmos sistemas sem o fosfolipídio peguilado (~190 nm a 222 nm), demonstrando a relação entre a diminuição do tamanho e o aumento da quantidade de fosfolipídio peguilado e possível formação de estruturas micelares ou bicelares. O emprego de agitação em vórtex para hidratação do filme lipídico, adição do antioxidante -tocoferol e redução da concentração de DSPE-PEG (5% e 10%) levou à formação de sistemas com diâmetro hidrodinâmico maior, sendo esse protocolo e concentrações de PEG definidos como padrão. As análises de MET comprovaram a formação de lipossomas com diâmetro hidrodinâmico semelhante ao observado por DLS; com a utilização da criomicroscopia foi possível observar os lipossomas sem deformações. Os lipossomas de DMPC/DSPE-PEG 10% apresentaram maior permeabilidade à L-asparagina ao longo do tempo e, portanto, poderiam funcionar como nanoreatores, depletando o aminoácido da circulação. Estudos in vitro com células tumorais devem ser realizados e em seguida estudos in vivo, para confirmar este potencial

L-asparaginase (ASNase) is a first-choice drug, combined with other drugs, in therapeutic schemes to treat Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. ASNase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine (Asn) in the bloodstream; since ALL cells cannot synthesize this amino acid, protein synthesis is impaired leading to leukemic cells death by apoptosis. In spite of its therapeutic importance, treatment with ASNase is associated to side effects, mainly hypersensitivity and immunogenicity. Another drawback refers to degradation by plasma proteases that altogether with immunogenicity shortens the enzyme half-life. Encapsulation of ASNase in liposomes, vesicular nanostructures formed by the self-aggregation of phospholipids, is an attractive alternative that possibly will protect the enzyme from plasma proteases, resulting on better pharmacokinetics profile. In this work, we prepared by thin film hydration liposomal formulations of the phospholipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DMPC) containing or not different concentrations of 18:0 1,2-distearoyl-snglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG), and encapsulated ASNase by electroporation. The systems containing or not ASNase were analyzed by Dynamic Light Scattering, zeta potential and Electron Microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency and vesicles permeability were also evaluated. According to the DLS analysis, the nanostructures formed by film hydration under magnetic stirring employing 10% or 20% DSPE-PEG presented smaller hydrodynamic diameter (~ 25 nm to 60 nm) than the same systems without the pegylated phospholipid (~ 190 nm to 222 nm), demonstrating the relation between size and the amount of pegylated phospholipid that results in formation of micellar or bicellar structures. The protocol was stabilize by hydration of the lipid film under vortex agitation, addition of the antioxidant - tocopherol and reduction of the concentration of DSPE-PEG (5% and 10%), what altogether led to the formation of nanostructures of higher hydrodynamic diameter and monodisperse systems. TEM analyzes confirmed the formation of liposomes with hydrodynamic diameter similar to that observed by DLS; with the use of cryomicroscopy it was possible to observe the liposomes without deformations. Liposomes of DMPC/DSPE-PEG 10% showed permeability to L-asparagine over time and, therefore, could function as nanoreactors, depleting the circulating amino acid

Asparaginase/pharmacology , Liposomes/analysis , Asparagine/antagonists & inhibitors , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Antioxidants/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19106, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374575


Abstract In this work, polystyrene-b-poly (acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) nanovesicles were coated by modified chitosans aiming at studying its physicochemical parameters. The chitosan (CS) was chemically modified to add hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic groups, obtaining three modified chitosans. The PS-b-PAA nanovesicles were obtained by organic (1,4-dioxane) cosolvent method in water, resulting in nanovesicles with less than 150 nm of diameter (polydispersibility index - PDI at 90° = 0.106), measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and negative zeta potential (-37.5 ± 3.2 mV), allowing the coating of its surface with oppositely charged polysaccharides, such as the CS and the modified chitosans. The coating process was made by mixing the colloidal suspensions with the CS and the modified chitosans at specific ENT#091;CS-xENT#093;/ENT#091;PS-b-PAAENT#093; ratios (0.001 to 1.0 wt %) and measuring the change in size and surface charge by DLS and zeta potential. Upon reaching maximum adsorption, the zeta potential parameter was positively stabilized (+26.7 ± 4.1 mV) with a hydrodynamic diameter slightly longer (< 200 nm of diameter). The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of minoxidil, quantified by capillary electrophoresis, was 50.7%, confirming their potential as drug delivery carriers and the coating process showed the possibility of controlling the surface charge nature of these nanovesicles

Chitosan/metabolism , Minoxidil/analogs & derivatives , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Efficiency/classification , Dynamic Light Scattering/instrumentation , Methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191132, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394049


Abstract To explore the effects and mechanisms of benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Weight, paw swelling, arthritis index and joint pathologic changes were examined in each group after CIA induction. PGE2, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, MMP-3, IgG and anti-CII Ab were assessed by ELISA; STAT1 and STAT3 expressions were analyzed immunohistochemically, and the ultrastructure of synovial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Therapeutic effects were determined in CIA rats via injecting benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin, which could alleviate the degree of swelling and arthritis index (AI) and pathological lesions of the sacroiliac gland; decrease the levels of PGE2, IL-1ß, TNF-α, VEGF and IgG in serum; reduce STAT1 and STAT3 expression in the membrane tissue; and inhibit the secretion and proliferation of synovial cells. These results showed that benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin could significantly palliate the arthritic symptoms of CIA rats, and better therapeutic effects could be achieved if the two components were used in combination

Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Therapeutic Uses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Dinoprostone/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 328-331, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285053


Abstract Cutis rhomboidalis nuchae was assessed in a 65-year-old patient. Optical microscopy showed basophilic agglomerations in the reticular dermis with decreased elastic fibers. Trans- mission electron microscopy showed elongated, curved and fragmented structures, and in their interior the presence of electron-dense lumps was reduced and irregular, similar to modified elastic fibers, whereas the collagen fibers had a normal aspect. Scanning electron microscopy showed deposits between the bundles of collagen, resembling pebbles or stones. These findings demonstrate that, at one stage of the disease, the collagen remains normal and the alterations are seen in the elastic tissue.

Humans , Aged , Skin Diseases , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dermis , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Elastic Tissue
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 371-377, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385372


SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The small bronchiole is a prominent site of airflow obstruction that causes increased airway resistance in patients with the COPD. Therefore, the histological and ultrastructural changes in small bronchioles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic diabetes were determined. Twenty-four weeks after STZ induction, rats were sacrificed, and the right and left lungs were collected for examination by light and electron microscopy. The alterations to the small bronchioles were the same in both lungs of these diabetic rats. The bronchiolar epithelial cells, both ciliated and secretory club cells, showed pyknotic nuclei and damaged cytoplasmic organelles. Increased thickening of the bronchiolar wall occurred in diabetic rats due to smooth muscle layer thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased numbers of myofibroblasts with collagen deposition.These results indicated that chronic diabetes caused extreme damage to small bronchioles, which may lead to chronic small airway obstruction and ultimately increase the likelihood of COPD progression. This basic knowledge provides a better understanding of the progression of pathogenesis in the small airways of patients with prolonged diabetes.

RESUMEN: La diabetes mellitus aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). El bronquiolo es un sitio prominente de obstrucción del flujo de aire que causa una mayor resistencia de las vías respiratorias en pacientes con EPOC. Por lo tanto, se determinaron los cambios histológicos y ultraestructurales en los bronquiolos en la diabetes crónica inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ). 24 semanas después de la inducción de STZ, se sacrificaron las ratas y se analizaron los pulmones derecho e izquierdo por microscopía óptica y electrónica. Las alteraciones de los pequeños bronquiolos fueron las mismas en ambos pulmones de estas ratas diabéticas. Las células epiteliales bronquiolares, tanto ciliadas como secretoras, mostraban núcleos picnóticos y orgánelos citoplasmáticos dañados. Se produjo un aumento del engrosamiento de la pared bronquiolar en ratas diabéticas debido al engrosamiento de la capa de músculo liso, infiltración de células inflamatorias y un mayor número de miofibroblastos con colágeno. Estos resultados indicaron que la diabetes crónica causaba daño extremo a los pequeños bronquiolos, lo que puede conducir a una obstrucción crónica de las vías respiratorias pequeñas y además aumentar la probabilidad de progresión de la EPOC. Esta información proporcionará un mejor conocimiento de la patogénesis en las vías respiratorias pequeñas de los pacientes con diabetes prolongada.

Animals , Male , Rats , Bronchi/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Bronchi/ultrastructure , Chronic Disease , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 109-115, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385287


SUMMARY: The adrenal gland has been associated with the development of classical symptoms in diabetes mellitus (DM), including intensive polyuria and hyperglycemia. During DM, there are hormonal changes in the adrenal gland. Ultrastructural changes of adrenocortical and adrenal medulla cells and their effects on adrenocorticomedullary interaction have not been fully investigated. This study evaluated adrenocortical and adrenal medullary cells and adrenocorticomedullary interactions at ultrastructural levels in a streptozotocin-induced DM model, using transmission electron microscopy. Fifteen male, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into diabetic model (n = 10) and control (n = 5) groups. Rats were sacrificed at four weeks after induction. The nuclei of some diabetic cortical cells were found to be irregularly shaped. In the cytoplasm, increased numbers of mitochondria and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum were observed. However, lipid droplets decreased in the DM model animals. The filopodia of diabetic cortical cells extended to contact the fenestrated capillary and other cortical cells and losses of gap junctions were also observed. Alterations of diabetic chromaffin cells resulted in similar appearances, consisting of irregularly shaped nuclei, swollen mitochondria, distended rough endoplasmic reticulum, and disrupted chromaffin vesicles. Examining adrenocorticomedullary interactions showed that the diabetic cortical chromaffin cells resembled those in the medulla. In the DM model group, collagen fibril depositions were observed between adrenal cells, especially near cell interactions. The filopodia of diabetic cortical cells were larger than those observed for diabetic adrenocorticomedullary interactions and adrenal cortex. These adrenal gland ultrastructural modifications represent contributions to the basic knowledge necessary for investigations of adrenal gland impairment during the early diagnosis of DM patients.

RESUMEN: La glándula suprarrenal se ha asociado con el desarrollo de síntomas clásicos en la diabetes mellitus (DM), que incluyen poliuria intensiva e hiperglucemia. Durante la DM, hay cambios hormonales en la glándula suprarrenal. Los cambios ultraestructurales de las células adrenocorticales y de la médula suprarrenal y sus efectos sobre la interacción adrenocorticomedular no se han investigado completamente. Este estudio evaluó las células adrenocorticales y de la médula suprarrenal y las interacciones adrenocorticomedulares a niveles ultraestructurales en un modelo de DM inducida por estreptozotocina, utilizando microscopía elec- trónica de transmisión. Se dividieron quince ratas macho Sprague- Dawley en grupos de modelo diabético (n = 10) y de control (n = 5). Las ratas se sacrificaron cuatro semanas después de la inducción. Se encontró que los núcleos de algunas células corticales diabéticas tenían una forma irregular. En el citoplasma, se observó un mayor número de mitocondrias y retículo endoplásmico liso dilatado. Sin embargo, las gotitas de lípidos disminuyeron en los animales modelo DM. Los filopodios de las células corticales diabéticas se extendieron para entrar en contacto con el capilar fenestrado y otras células corticales y también se observaron pérdidas de uniones gap. Las alteraciones de las células cromafines diabéticas dieron como resultado apariencias similares, que consistían en núcleos de forma irregular, mitocondrias inflamadas, retículo endoplásmico rugoso distendido y vesículas cromafines rotas. El examen de las interacciones adrenocorticomedulares mostró que las células cromafines corticales diabéticos se parecían a las de la médula. En el grupo del modelo de DM, se observaron depósitos de fibrillas de colágeno entre las células suprarrenales, especialmente cerca de las interacciones celulares. Los filopodios de las células corticales diabéticas eran más grandes que los observados para las interacciones adrenocorticomedulares diabéticas y la corteza suprarrenal. Estas modificaciones ultraestructurales de la glándula suprarrenal contribuyen al conocimiento básico para las investigaciones referente al deterioro de la glándula en el diagnóstico temprano de pacientes con DM.

Animals , Male , Rats , Adrenal Glands/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Blood Glucose , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosuria
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 96 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416965


Os cubossomos são partículas nanoestruturadas em forma de bicamada lipídica, bicontínuas e altamente curvadas, as quais devem ser estabilizadas por um polímero não-iônico, neste caso o Pluronic® F-127. Podem ser compostos por alguns tipos de lipídios específicos que possuem a capacidade de se auto associar em estruturas cúbicas quando estão em excesso de água, como o fitantriol (PHY) e a monoleína (GMO). Devido a sua estrutura única, cubossomos possuem um grande potencial para serem considerados como sistemas drug delivery. Os sistemas drug delivery são amplamente utilizados na pesquisa farmacêutica e em contextos clínicos para aumentar a eficácia de compostos utilizados para diagnóstico e de fármacos. No caso da cinarizina (CNZ), fármaco já aprovado para o tratamento de náuseas, vômitos e vertigens causadas pela doença de Ménière, existem inúmeros efeitos colaterais associados a sua baixa solubilidade. Desta forma, a encapsulação em cubossomos se torna uma abordagem promissora para resolver os problemas de atividade farmacológica relacionados ao fármaco. Neste trabalho, realizamos uma caracterização biofísica da interação da CNZ em cubossomos (contendo PHY ou myverol, MYV, sendo este composto por 80% de GMO). As técnicas biofísicas utilizadas foram: espalhamento de raios-X em baixos ângulos (SAXS), espalhamento dinâmico de luz (DLS), microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM), crio microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (Crio-TEM), análise de rastreamento de nanopartículas (NTA) e potencial zeta. A cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) foi realizada para verificar a porcentagem de eficiência de encapsulação (%EE) da CNZ nos cubossomos, enquanto que a citotoxicidade foi avaliada em eritrócitos através da análise da atividade hemolítica. Inicialmente, a influência de diferentes solventes (acetona, clorofórmio, etanol e octano) nas propriedades estruturais de cubossomos de PHY foi investigada, a fim de se minimizar os efeitos do solvente utilizados para a encapsulação da CNZ. Para amostras com acetona, descobriu-se que apenas altas concentrações tiveram influência na estrutura cristalográfica das nanopartículas, sendo o resultado foi totalmente reversível após 24h. O etanol fez com que o parâmetro de rede aumentasse de 10-15%. O clorofórmio e o octano tiveram efeitos diferentes sobre cubossomos de PHY em comparação com a acetona e o etanol; ambos induziram uma transição cúbico-hexagonal-micelar. Posteriormente, constatamos que as nanopartículas de PHY e MYV apresentaram diferentes estruturas cristalográficas, sendo elas Pn3m e Im3m, respectivamente. Devido a problemas com a baixa solubilidade de CNZ em PHY os estudos para esse lipídio foram suspensos. Nos testes para cubossomos de MYV ao incorporar a CNZ foi observado uma alteração da estrutura cúbica de Im3m para Pn3m e os valores dos parâmetros de rede se alteraram de acordo com a estrutura cristalina encontrada, porém os valores não apresentaram diferenças significativas de tamanho quando se trata da mesma estrutura, sugerindo que a CNZ não interferiu no parâmetro de rede. Os tamanhos das nanopartículas apresentaram uma população monodispersa com ~200 nm. DLS mostrou uma interferência da CNZ no tamanho dos cubossomos, variando de forma diretamente proporcional a concentração de CNZ na amostra, enquanto as técnicas de NTA e microscopia apresentaram nanopartículas de tamanhos bastante variados, mas independente da interferência da CNZ. A encapsulação de CNZ também foi dosada por HLPC em cubossomos de MYV, obtendo um limite superior de 0,6 mg/mL. A atividade citotóxica dos cubossomos foi testada em eritrócitos, revelando uma taxa de hemólise bastante inferior em cubossomos com CNZ em relação a cubossomos puros. Acreditamos que os cubossomos podem sim ser utilizados como sistemas carreadores de CNZ

Cubosomes are nanostructured particles in the form of a lipid bilayer, bicontinuous and highly curved, which must be stabilized by a non-ionic polymer, in this case Pluronic® F-127. They can be composed of some types of specific lipids that have the ability to self-associate in cubic structures when they are in excess of water, such as phytantriol (PHY) and monolein (GMO). Due to their unique structure, cubosomes have a great potential to be considered as drug delivery systems. Drug delivery systems are widely used in pharmaceutical research and clinical settings to increase the efficacy of compounds used for diagnostics and drugs. In the case of cinnarizine (CNZ), a drug already approved for the treatment of nausea, vomiting and vertigo caused by Ménière's disease, there are numerous side effects associated with its low solubility. Thus, cubosomal encapsulation becomes a promising approach to solve drug-related problems of pharmacological activity. In this work, we performed a biophysical characterization of the CNZ interaction in cubosomes (containing PHY or myverol, MYV, which is composed of 80% GMO). The biophysical techniques used were: low angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryo transmission electron microscopy (Crio-TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and zeta potential. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to verify the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%EE) of CNZ in cubosomes, while cytotoxicity was evaluated in erythrocytes by analyzing the hemolytic activity. Initially, the influence of different solvents (acetone, chloroform, ethanol and octane) on the structural properties of PHY cubosomes was investigated in order to minimize the effects of the solvent used for the encapsulation of CNZ. For samples with acetone, it was found that only high concentrations had an influence on the crystallographic structure of the nanoparticles, with the result being fully reversible after 24h. Ethanol caused the network parameter to increase by 10-15%. Chloroform and octane had different effects on PHY cubosomes compared to acetone and ethanol; both induced a cubic-hexagonal-micellar transition. Later, we found that PHY and MYV nanoparticles presented different crystallographic structures, being Pn3m and Im3m, respectively. Due to problems with the low solubility of CNZ in PHY, studies for this lipid were suspended. In the tests for MYV cubosomes when incorporating CNZ, a change in the cubic structure from Im3m to Pn3m was observed and t he lattice parameters changed according to the crystal structure found, but the differences observed were not significant when it comes to the same structure, suggesting that the CNZ did not interfere with the network parameter. The nanoparticle sizes showed a monodisperse population with ~200 nm. DLS showed an interference of CNZ in the size of the cubosomes, varying directly proportionally to the concentration of CNZ in the sample, while NTA and microscopy techniques showed nanoparticles of widely varying sizes, but independent of CNZ interference. CNZ encapsulation was also dosed by HLPC in MYV cubosomes, obtaining an upper limit of 0.6 mg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of cubosomes was tested in erythrocytes, revealing a much lower rate of hemolysis in cubosomes with CNZ compared to pure cubosomes. We believe that cubosomes can indeed be used as CNZ carrier systems

Cinnarizine/analysis , Efficiency , Acetone/agonists , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/instrumentation , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Dynamic Light Scattering/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Research , Lipid Bilayers/pharmacology , Meniere Disease/pathology