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1.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(1): e1407, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003865

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se requieren métodos experimentales abreviados para simular las lesiones de desmineralización temprana de forma controlada y reproducible. Objetivo: Realizar una evaluación in vitro de un método simple de desmineralización incipiente del esmalte. Métodos: Estudio experimental aleatorizado con doble diseño factorial de réplicas. Se seleccionaron 12 terceros molares de sujetos humanos saludables para su desmineralización en solución de ácido láctico racémico. Las muestras se distribuyeron aleatoriamente: Grupo 1 (G1) (n= 6) ácido láctico a pH 2,4 y Grupo 2 (G2) (n= 6) ácido láctico a pH 5,4. A continuación, cada grupo se subdividió (n = 2) para evaluar el efecto de las soluciones a tres tiempos de exposición (7, 15 y 30 días) a 37 °C. La evaluación se llevó a cabo con estereomicroscopios, equipo de radiografía digital con un software de análisis digital de imágenes y microscopía de polarización. Se formuló una integración de los índices de respuesta y se realizó un ANOVA. Resultados: Los hallazgos visuales, radiográficos e histológicos mostraron que en el G1 en los tiempos 1 a 3, la desmineralización se caracterizó por una gran pérdida de la integridad del esmalte (80 por ciento a 100 por ciento). Visualmente, el G2 a los 7 días mostró opacidad y pérdida de brillo (16 por ciento) con preservación de la estructura superficial del esmalte. Conclusiones: Se demuestra que el empleo de ácido láctico durante 7 días a pH 5,4 produce una lesión clínica, radiográfica e histológica similar a una lesión temprana del esmalte(AU)


Introduction: Abridged experimental methods are required to simulate early demineralizing lesions in a controlled and reproducible way. Objective: Perform an in vitro evaluation of a simple method of incipient enamel demineralization. Methods: Randomized experimental study with a double factorial replication design. Twelve third molars from healthy human subjects were selected for demineralization in a racemic lactic acid solution. Samples were then distributed randomly: Group 1 (G1) (n= 6) lactic acid at pH 2.4 and Group 2 (G2) (n= 6) lactic acid at pH 5.4. Each group was then subdivided (n = 2) to evaluate the effect of the solutions at three exposure times (7, 15 and 30 days) at 37°C. The evaluation used stereomicroscopes, a digital x-rays apparatus with software for the digital analysis of images, and polarization microscopy. An integration of the response indices was formulated and ANOVA was performed. Results: Visual, radiographic and histological findings showed that G1 at time 1 through 3 displayed demineralization characterized by extensive loss (80 percent to 100 percent) of enamel integrity. Visually, G2 at 7 days exhibited opacity and loss of brightness (16 percent), with preservation of the surface structure of the enamel. Conclusions: It was shown that employing lactic acid for 7 days at pH 5.4 develops a clinical, radiographic and histological injury similar to an early enamel lesion(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Demineralization/diagnostic imaging , Lactic Acid/administration & dosage , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Dental Enamel/injuries , In Vitro Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 415-418, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949896

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The special picrosirius red staining highlights the natural birefringence of collagen fibers when exposed to polarized light. The results from birefringence allow to evaluate the organization of the collagen fibers in the tissues. The authors intend to elucidate all steps to obtain and capture images of histological sections stained with picrosirius red and evaluated under polarized light microscopy, as well as possible artefacts that may occur.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skin/ultrastructure , Staining and Labeling/methods , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Collagen/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Skin/cytology , Birefringence , Administration, Cutaneous , Photomicrography , Collagen/analysis , Fibrillar Collagens/ultrastructure , Horses
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00051, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889400

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the physical-chemical stability, in vitro antioxidant activity and in vitro safety profile of liquid crystalline systems (LCS) and microemulsions (MEs) with and without organic cocoa (OC) extract. LCS stabilized by surfactant polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether, containing water and oleic acid were studied. LCS and MEs were characterized using polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, rheology and in vitro bioadhesion, and were evaluated for a period of 30 days by visual aspects, centrifuge test, pH value and relative density. PLM and SAXS assays showed the presence of domains of MEs, cubic and hexagonal mesophasephases, varying the proportions of the components of the formulations; where in the addition of the extract did not change rheological behavior of the formulations. All of the formulations were stable in the period analyzed and presented higher bioadhesive strength. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS and MEs presented a high capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of OC extract. The results showed that the incorporation of OC in LCS improved the safety profile, according to cytotoxicity assays of systems may be a promising platform to OC extract for topical application for the potential treatment of skin disorders.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents , Liquid Crystals/analysis , Skin , Cacao/adverse effects , Drug Delivery Systems , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 105 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881629

ABSTRACT

O tratamento farmacológico de patologias bucais é conduzido, geralmente, por via de administração local. No entanto, devido ao pouco tempo de permanência do fármaco no local de ação, esse tratamento pode ser bastante comprometido. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de formas farmacêuticas que proporcionem a liberação local de triancinolona na cavidade oral. Foram produzidos filmes e comprimidos mucoadesivos a partir de polímeros naturais como gelana e pectina. Os filmes bucais foram preparados por meio de evaporação do solvente (solvent casting) utilizando diferentes quantidades de polímeros. As matérias-primas e os filmes foram caracterizados fisico quimicamente utilizando espectroscopia vibracional (in-infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e Raman) e difração de raios X. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas dos filmes também foram avaliadas. Além disso, realizou-se os ensaios de mucoadesividade e de dissolução do fármaco. Os comprimidos foram preparados por com-pressão direta usando como base os polímeros naturais. Diferentes parâmetros em relação as misturas e as formulações foram avaliados tais como as propriedades de fluxo dos pós constituintes, peso médio, dureza, friabilidade e desintegração. Em relação aos filmes bucais, estes foram obtidos com sucesso através de um método simples, sem a utilização de agentes reticulantes, ácidos ou solventes orgânicos. Todos apresentaram bons resultados nas propriedades avaliadas, no entanto as formulações com quantidades intermediarias de polímeros foram as melhores. Dentre as formulações de comprimidos preparadas, apenas 4 apresentaram boas características, no entanto, os resultados dos ensaios de dissolução mostraram que estas formulações têm capacidade de agir como sistema de liberação controlada de fármacos


Pharmacological treatment of oral pathologies is usually conducted by local administration. However, due to the short time the drug stays in the site of action, this treatment can be quite compromised. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop pharmaceutical forms that pro-vide the local release of triamcinolone in the oral cavity. Mucoadhesive films and tablets were made from natural polymers such as gellan and pectin. The buccal films were prepared by sol-vent casting using different amounts of polymers. The raw materials and films were characte-rized physically chemically using vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman) and X-ray diffraction. The physical and mechanical properties of the films were also evaluated. In addi-tion, the mucoadhesive and drug dissolution tests were performed. The tablets were prepared by direct pressing with the natural polymers. Different parameters in relation to mixtures and formulations were evaluated such as the flow properties of the constituent powders, average weight, hardness, friability and disintegration. In relation to oral films, these were successfully obtained by a simple method, without the use of crosslinking agents, acids or organic solvents. All presented good results in the evaluated properties, however the formulations with interme-diate amounts of polymers were the best. Among the tablet formulations prepared, only 4 sho-wed good characteristics, however, the dissolution test results showed that these formulations have the ability to act as a controlled drug delivery system


Subject(s)
Pectins/analysis , Triamcinolone/pharmacology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Mouth/immunology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Tablets/pharmacokinetics , Technology, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation
5.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 47(3)jul.-sep. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-691238

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la principal barrera de permeación que tenemos es la piel. A pesar de ser una barrera casi impermeable para la mayoría de sustancias, se han buscado maneras para mejorar su permeabilidad utilizando nuevas tecnologías como es el uso de microagujas o promotores químicos como el Transcutol®. Objetivo: desarrollar y caracterizar un parche transdérmico a base de clorhidrato de sibutramina como fármaco modelo, usando Transcutol® y microagujas como agentes promotores de la penetración transdérmica. Métodos: se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica de los parches mediante estudios de microscopia con luz polarizada, estudios de bioadhesión y resistencia a la ruptura. Los estudios de difusión se efectuaron en celdas de difusión verticales tipo Franz, utilizando piel abdominal humana como membrana entre ambos compartimentos. La cuantificación del principio activo se realizó mediante electroforesis capilar. Resultados: se obtuvieron parches bioadhesivos, con una adecuada estabilidad del activo en la matriz polimérica de quitosán al no precipitarse. El uso de Transcutol® y microagujas incrementó el paso de clorhidrato de sibutramina a través de piel humana con respecto al parche control. Se obtuvieron valores de flujo de 0,0649 mg.cm-2.h-1 y 0,0816 mg.cm-2.h-1 en el parche con agente promotor y microagujas de 1 y 2 mm respectivamente, en comparación con los valores de flujo de 0,0527 mg.cm-2.h-1 y 0,0554 mg.cm-2.h-1 para el parche sin agente promotor (control) utilizando microagujas de 1 y 2 mm respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados ponen de manifiesto la posibilidad de usar Transcutol® y microagujas para incrementar el paso de fármacos potentes y con estructura similar a la sibutramina por vía transdérmica, lo que genera de esta manera nuevas alternativas a las formas farmacéuticas orales para el tratamiento de padecimientos y enfermedades(AU)


Introduction: the main permeation barrier is the skin. Although it is almost an impermeable barrier to most substances, new ways have been examined to improve its permeability by using new technologies such as microneedles and chemical enhancers like Transcutol®. Objective: to develop and to characterize a transdermal patch containing sibutramine hydrochloride as model drug and using microneedles and Transcutol® as transdermal drug delivery enhancers. Methods: Physicochemical characterization of sibutramine hydrochloride patches using polarized light microscopy, bioadhesion, tensile strength studies. The diffusion studies were performed in Franz-type diffusion cells with human abdominal skin as a sort of membrane between both compartments. The active ingredient was quantified through capillary electrophoresis. Results: bioadhesive patches were obtained, with adequate stability of sibutramine hydrochloride in the polymer matrix of chitosan. The use of microneedles and Transcutol® increased sibutramine hydrochloride delivery through the human skin when compared with the control patch. The flow rates were 0.0649 mg.cm-2.h-1 and 0,0816 mg.cm-2.h-1 in the enhanced patch by using 1 and 2 mm microneedles respectively, in comparison with flow rates of 0,0527 mg.cm-2.h-1 and 0.0554 mg.cm-2.h-1 for the control patch having no enhancing agent with 1 and 2 mm microneedles respectively. Conclusions: the results show that it is possible to use Transcutol® and microneedles to increase the delivery of potent drugs having a structure similar to that of sibutramine through transdermal administration. All this generates new alternatives to oral pharmaceuticals in order to treat ailments and diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Reference Drugs , Transdermal Patch , Needles , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
6.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(3): 380-390, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-684155

ABSTRACT

As folhas de Costus spicatus são amplamente empregadas na medicina popular para o tratamento de várias doenças entre elas: malária, hepatite e doença do aparelho urinário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar aspectos da anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos (folhas, caules, raízes e rizomas) associados à triagem fitoquímica visando contribuir com informações relevantes para o desenvolvimento de estudos taxonômicos e farmacológicos. A análise anatômica por meio da microscopia óptica e de varredura evidenciou folha anfi-hipoestomática, com estômatos e tricomas tectores filamentosos simples. O mesofilo é constituído por parênquima clorofiliano, que se divide em duas regiões intercaladas por cordão de fibras e feixes vasculares. O caule é do tipo atactostélico como no rizoma. A raiz é poliarca. Os testes histoquímicos indicaram a presença de amido, proteínas estruturais, alcaloides, cristais de oxalato de cálcio. A prospecção química com extratos hidroalcoólico e aquoso constatou a presença de saponinas, taninos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e heterosídeos cianogênicos.


The leaves of Costus spicatus are widely employed in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including: malaria, hepatitis and urinary tract disease. The purpose of this paper was to identify aspects of the anatomy of vegetative organs (leaves, stems, roots and rhizomes) associated with phytochemical screening to contribute with relevant information for the development of taxonomic and pharmacological studies. The anatomic analysis through optical microscopy and scanning showed amphistomatic leaves with tetracitic type stomats and simple filamentous tector trichomes. Mesophyll is constituted by a chlorophyllian parenchyma, which is divided into two regions intersected by a strand of fibers and vascular bundles. The stem is atactostelic, such as for the rhizome. The root is polyarc. The histochemical tests indicated the presence of structural proteins, alkaloids, and calcium oxalate crystals. Chemical prospecting with hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts attested the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and heterosides as cyanogenic glucosides.


Subject(s)
Costus/anatomy & histology , Plant Structures/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
7.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 6(1): 59-64, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639734

ABSTRACT

El estroma juega un rol importante en los procesos tumorales de invasión y metástasis. Las fibras de colágeno tipo I son el principal componente estructural del estroma en distintos tumores. Sin embargo, hay muy pocos estudios en los tumores de glándulas salivales. Basándonos en estos antecedentes el objetivo de la presente comunicación fue estudiar las características del colágeno con Picrosirius red/polarización en tumores benignos y malignos de glándulas salivales para evaluar su posible rol en los mecanismos de progresión tumoral. Cortes histológicos de adenoma pleomórfico, carcinoma adenoide quístico y carcinoma epitelial mioepitelial se colorearon con H/E y Picrosirius red y se examinaron con microscopio de polarización. La birrefringencia del colágeno con Picrosirius/polarización resultó diferente en el estroma de los tumores malignos (carcinoma adenoide quístico y carcinoma epitelial mioepitelial), con predominio de colágeno I, en comparación con el tumor benigno (adenoma pleomórfico), con predominio de colágeno III. El diferente perfil de coloración en las fibras colágenas producidas en el estroma de los tumores analizados podría relacionarse con diferentes mecanismos de expansión tumoral, los que fueron poco estudiados en los tumores de glándulas salivales. Más estudios son necesarios para obtener resultados más concluyentes que contribuyan al diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento.


The stroma plays an important rol in tumoral invasion and metastasis. Type I collagen is the main structural component of the stroma in several tumors. However, there are few studies on salivary gland tumors. Based on this background the objective of the present communication was to study collagen characteristics with picrosirius red/polarization on malignant and benign tumors of salivary glands to evaluate its posible rol in the tumoral progression mechanism. Histological sections of pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma were stained with H/E and picrosirius red and were studied with polarization microscope. Collagen birefringence with Picrosirius/polarization was different in the malignant tumor stroma (adenoid cystic carcinoma and epithelialmyoepithelial carcinoma), with predominance of type I collagen, compared with a benign tumor (pleomorphic adenoma), with predominance of type III collagen. The different staining profile in collagen fibers produced in the benign and malignant stroma tumors analized could be related with different tumoral expansion mechanism, which were scarce studied on the salivary glands tumors. More studies are needed to obtain more conclusive results to contribute to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type III/analysis , Azo Compounds/metabolism , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/ultrastructure , Birefringence , Carcinoma/ultrastructure , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/ultrastructure
8.
Acta odontol. venez ; 50(1): 30-40, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-676736

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar a través de test de microdureza el efecto de la profundidad de polimerización de un composite utilizando diferentes unidades de luz. Fueron preparados cuerpos de prueba utilizando un composite microhíbrido - Filtek Z250 (3M) en matrices de teflón con dos profundidades diferentes: 2 mm y 3 mm, conteniendo un orificio central de 2 mm de diámetro. Los valores de dureza fueron medidos en la región de superficie y en la de fondo. Fueron utilizadas tres unidades de luz, dos a base de Luz Emitida por Diodo - LED: Optilight CL (Gnatus) y Radii (SDI) y una a base de luz halógena: Ultralux (Dabialtante). Después de la fotoactivación durante 40 segundos, los cuerpos de prueba fueron almacenados en recipiente oscuro, durante 24 horas. El test de dureza Vickers fue realizado con el equipo de dureza Shimadzu Micro Hardness Testers, utilizando una carga de 300 gramos por 15 segundos. Fueron realizadas tres identaciones en cada región (superficie y fondo) de los cuerpos de prueba. Los valores de dureza fueron sometidos a análisis de variancia (ANOVA) y al test de Tukey-Kramer (p<0,05).No fue observada diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los equipos fotoactivadores, sin embargo, el equipo Ultralux proporcionó mayores valores de dureza al composite de que los otros equipos. Considerando el tipo de equipo evaluados, no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en relación a la microdureza del composite en las profundidades de 2mm e 3mm en ninguna de las regiones. Comparando las regiones de los cuerpos de prueba analizadas, (superficial y fondo), fue observada diferencia estadísticamente significativa en ambas profundidades y con todos los equipos, siendo los valores dureza Vickers mayores en la región de fondo de los cuerpos de prueba. Concluyese que entre los equipos utilizados, el Ultralux proporcionó mayor dureza al composite siendo estadísticamente significativa, sin embargo, no hubo diferencia significativa...


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different depths of cure on the microhardness of a composite resin when using three different types of light units. Test specimens with a 2-mm diameter centered orifice were prepared with a microhybrid composite - Filtek Z250 (3M) using teflon matrices with two different depths: 2 mm and 3 mm. Hardness values were assessed both in superficial and deep areas. Three light units were compared: two light-emitting diode units - Optilight CL (Gnatus) and Radii (SDI), and one halogen-based light unit - Ultralux (Dabialtante). After light curing for 40 minutes, the specimens were stored in a lightproof container for 24 hours. The Vickers hardness test was carried out by the Shimadzu Micro Hardness Tester at a load f 300 grams for 15 seconds. Three test indentations were made in each area (superficial and deep) of the specimens. Mean values of hardness were compared by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and by the Tukey-Kramer test at 5%. They demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the three light units. The Ultralux device yielded the highest values of hardness regardless the depth of the specimens. It was also observed no statistically significant difference in terms of hardness when comparing the two thicknesses of composite resin within each studied group.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Actin Capping Proteins/analysis , Hardness Tests/methods
9.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2011; 41 (1): 7-15
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110686

ABSTRACT

Eleven out of 42 [26.2%] lizards Acanthodactylus schmidti were found harboring haemogregarines in their peripheral blood. The erythrocytic stages were differentiated into 2 forms: the young form [trophozoite] measured 12.5 +/- 0.5 x 1.7 +/- 0.3 microm and the large mature form [gametocyte] measured 19.8 +/- 1.7 x 1.7 +/- 0.3 microm. The infected erythrocytes were distorted from 16.0 +/- 1.2 x 9.2 +/- 0.2 microm to 20.2 +/- 1.8 x 6.7 +/- 0.8 microm, hypertrophied and faintly stained. None of the leucocytes seemed to be parasitized by the present parasite. Schizogony took place in the endothelial cells of lung capillaries and parenchyma of liver. Two types of schizonts were recorded; microschizonts of 9.35 x 9.65 +/- 0.38 microm and macroschizonts of 25.36 +/- 1.81 x 20.35 +/- 0.82 microm. The microschizonts produced 6-12 merozoites, while the macroschizonts produced 18-36 merozoites, however there were no differences between both merozoites, each measured 11.54 +/- 0.81 x 1.41 +/- 0.71 microm. The infected host cells were markedly hypertrophied with noticeable irregularity and faint stainability as well as some vacuolation, necrosis or shrinkage and necrosis


Subject(s)
Animals , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
10.
Reprod. clim ; 26(2): 57-61, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654622

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the presence/localization of meiotic spindles of in vivo matured oocytes from infertile women with and without endometriosis undergoing stimulated cycles for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Methods: Meiotic spindles of oocytes with the first polar body extruded were imaged using polarization microscopy immediately before the intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Results: We analyzed 326 oocytes (79 from endometriosis stages minimal/mild, 51 from endometriosis stages moderate/severe – III/IV, and 196 from the Control Group). No significant differences were seen in the percentage of oocytes in metaphase II with visible and nonvisible spindles and in the spindle localization among the groups. Conclusions: We can conclude from this study that noninvasive analysis of spindles from in vivo matured oocytes of infertile patients with endometriosis did not demonstrate significant differences in terms of the nuclear maturation stage, the percentage of oocytes in metaphase II with visible spindles, and the spindle localization when compared to control group.


Objetivo: Avaliar a presença e localização do fuso celular meiótico de oócitos maturados in vivo de mulheres inférteis, com e sem endometriose, submetidas à estimulação ovariana para injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoide. Métodos: Os fusos meióticos de oócitos com o primeiro corpúsculo polar visível foram analisados por microscopia de polarização imediatamente antes da injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoide. Resultados: Foram analisados 326 oócitos (79 de mulheres com endometriose estágios I/II, 51 de portadoras de endometriose III/IV e 196 do Grupo Controle). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos tanto na porcentagem de oócitos em metáfase II com fuso celular visível e não visível,como na localização do fuso celular. Conclusões: A análise não-invasiva dos fusos celulares de oócitos maduros de mulheres inférteis com endometriose pélvica não demonstrou diferença significativa em termos de percentagem de oócitos em metáfase II, com fuso visível e não-visível enas diferentes localizações, quando comparados ao Grupo Controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endometriosis , Infertility , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic/methods , Oocytes , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Retrospective Studies
11.
Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches. 2010; 13 (1): 45-54
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-97544

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the venoms from wolf spider hogna carolinensis and the Jumping spider Plildippus octopunctatus on the morphology and viability of cultured 1-2 days old rat embryonic cardiac cells. After treatment with spiders venom, marked morphological changes In cardiac cells were observed, illustrated by rounding-up of the cells, reduction in cell size, loss of cellular projections and clustering. This was followed by cell detachment from the substratum, as revealed by light microscopy. Cells proliferation were also susceptible to the toxic effect of both hogna carolinensis and hidippus octopunctatus, and it caused a significant time-and dose-dependent decrease In cell number when the cells were treated with 0.05, 5, 50 or 200ug/ml of the venom for five days


Subject(s)
Insecta , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Cell Survival/drug effects , Animal Experimentation , Rats
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2010. 96 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-583250

ABSTRACT

A hanseníase é uma doneça infecciosa com características únicas, dentre elas o fato de atingir intensamente a inervação da pele e seus anexos. Entremeando estes anexos, está a microcirculação cutânea, que a principio também tem sua inervação comprometida. Vários artigos apontam para alterações de disautonomia microcirculatória, citando como exemplo as alterações no reflexo vasomotor. O presente estudo se propõe a avaliar a microcirculação cutânea na hanseníase virchowiana, tanto em sua morfologia quanto em sua reatividade vascular. Para isto, utilizamos a tecnologia de luz ortogonal polarizada através do equipamento Cytoscan, a análise de Fourier do sinal do laser Doppler para estudo da vasomotricidade e o laser Dopplerfluxometria associado à iontoforese de substâncias vasoativas (acetilcolina, nitroprussiato de sódio e noradrenalina) para avaliação da reatividade vascular. Dez pacientes portadores de hanseníase virchowiana sem outras comorbidades que pudessem alterar os parâmetros microcirculatórios, foram avaliados pelos métodos descritos e seus resultados foram comparados aos de dez controles sem hanseníase ou qualquer outra comorbidade. Em relação à vasomotricidade não foram observadas alterações estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos, o que fala a favor da teoria de origem miogênica para a vasomotricidade. Em relação à iontoforese de substâncias vasoativas constatou-se uma diminuição da resposta vasodilatadora à acetilcolina e ao nitroprussiato nos pacientes com hanseníase. Os exames com o Cytoscan mostraram aumento no tamanho dos capilares, bem como alterações em sua morfologia. Os resultados apresentados sugerem que, provavelmente devido ao longo período de alteração inervatória decorrente da hanseníase virchowiana, estes pacientes apresentam uma alteração significativa tanto morfológica quanto na reatividade vascular da microcirculação cutânea.


Leprosy is an infectious disease with unique characterístics. One of them is the fact that it compromises not only the cutaneous and adnexial innervation, but also the innervation of the cutaneous microcirculation. Several articles indicate the impact of disautonomy on the microcirculatory level, citing the example of changes in vasomotor level. The present study proposes to evaluate morphology and microvascular reactivity of the cutaneous microcirculation of the virchowian leprosy. Methods employed in the study were: the Cytoscan, which uses the orthogonal polarized light, the Fourier analysis of the laser Doppler signal to study vasomotion, and the laser Doppler flowmetry associated with iontophoresis of vasoactive substances (acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and norepinephrin). Ten patients with virchowian leprosy, without any other comorbidity that could modify the microvascular parameters were evaluated and their results were compared to ten controls without leprosy or any other comorbidity. Regarding the vasomotion, no statistical significant differences were noticed between the groups. Our data are in agreement with the vasomotion's miogenic origin theory. According to iontophoresis of vasoactive substances, it was found that there is a reduced endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilation in patients with leprosy while tests by direct visualization we observed an increase in the size of capillaries, as well as changes in their morphology. The results suggest that the significant changes in morphology and vascular reactivity of skin microcirculation are probably due to the long period of innervatory changes arising from leprosy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Leprosy, Lepromatous/blood , Iontophoresis/methods , Microcirculation/radiation effects , Microcirculation/physiology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Microscopy, Polarization , Nervous System/blood supply , Vascular Resistance
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 737-742, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598930

ABSTRACT

The cervical salivary glands of the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus was examined by light microscopy. These glands are situated on either side of the neck, divide in lobes and show a presence of a salivary bladder, associated with the main ducts of the gland. This gland is histologically a typical mixed glands, containing both mucous and serous elements, with mucous acini as the predominant secretory unit. The bladder itself is composed of a wall made up of pseudostratified epithelium, skeletal muscle and connective tissue. In general, the morphology of the cervical salivary glands appears similar to that described in other species of the mammals.


Las glándulas salivales cervicales del armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus fueron examinadas por microscopía de luz. Estas glándulas se encuentran a ambos lados del cuello, divididas en lóbulos y muestran la presencia de una vejiga salival, asociada con los principales conductos de la glándula. Esta glándula es histológicamente una típica glándula mixta, que contiene tanto elementos mucosos y serosos, con acinos mucosos como la principal unidad secretora. La vejiga en sí se compone de una pared formada por epitelio pseudoestratificado, músculo esquelético y tejido conectivo. En general, la morfología de las glándulas salivales cervicales parece similar a la descrita en otras especies de mamíferos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Armadillos/anatomy & histology , Armadillos/embryology , Salivary Glands/anatomy & histology , Salivary Glands/growth & development , Salivary Glands/ultrastructure , Epithelial Cells/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 841-847, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-598946

ABSTRACT

El pericardio es una membrana fibro-serosa que envuelve al corazón y a la porción yuxtacardíaca de los grandes vasos. Realizamos un estudio del pericardio y del diafragma, registrando sus dimensiones, sus relaciones, así como también, establecer el tipo de conexiones existente entre ambas estructuras. Fueron disecadas 142 regiones mediastínicas de cadáveres sin fijación o con fijación en formaldehído al 10 por ciento, brasileños, adultos, de ambos sexos, de edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 70 años, fallecidos de diferentes causas. Para el estudio histológico, del conjunto pericardio y diafragma fueron retirados cinco fragmentos de diferentes regiones: anterior próxima al esternón (región 1), lateral izquierda próxima al ápice del corazón (región 2), posterior (región 3), lateral derecha próxima al paso de la vena cava inferior (región 4) y central (región 5). El promedio de los diámetros latero-lateral y antero-posterior del pericardio fueron de 103,3 +/- 6,7 y 66,0 +/- 2,3 mm, respectivamente y del diafragma de 309,4 +/- 27,4 y 152,5 +/- 24,9 mm, respectivamente. El área del diafragma fue en promedio de 37. 260 +/- 2.324 mm2. El área de la base del pericardio sobre el diafragma fue de 6.042 +/- 367 mm2. El espesor del diafragma fue en promedio: parte derecha, 2,42 +/- 0,34 mm; parte izquierda, 2,38 +/- 0,71 mm y la parte anterior, 2,52 +/- 0,66 mm. El promedio del espesor del pericardio separado del diafragma fue de 0,26 +/- 0,02 mm. En la región 2 ambas estructuras fueron separadas con facilidad en 47,2 mm; en la región 5 ambas estructuras se encuentran fusionadas. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo complementarán los conocimientos morfológicos sobre el pericardio fibroso y sus relaciones con el diafragma.


The pericardium is a fibrous and serous membrane that surround the heart and the juxta- cardiac portion of the great vessels. We studied the pericardium and diaphragm and we recorded different measurements, relations and connection between both. We dissected 142 mediastinal regions from 10 percent formaldehyde ¡ fixed or fresh individual cadavers, Brazilian adults, of both sexes, from 18-70 years of age. For the histology study from both structures were sectioned five fragments of different regions: anterior, next to sternum (region 1), left lateral, next to heart apex (region 2), posterior (region 3), right lateral, next to course of inferior vena cava (region 4) and central(region 5). The average of transversal and anterior-posterior diameters of pericardium were 103.3 +/- 6.7 mm and 66.0 +/- 2.3 mm, respectively; the same diameters of diaphragm were 309.4 +/- 27.4 mm and 152.5 +/- 24.9 mm, respectively. The diaphragm area was 37,260 +/- 2,324 mm² and the area of pericardium base over the diaphragm was 6,042 +/- 367 mm² . The thickness of diaphragm was 2.42 +/- 0.34 mm in right part, 2.38 +/- 0.71 mm in left part and 2.52 +/- 0.66 mm in anterior part. The thickness of pericardium was 0.26 +/- 0.02 mm. In region 2 both structures were easily separated in 47.2 mm; in the region 4 both structures are fused. The results of this study will complement the morphologic knowledges about fibrous pericardium and its relationships with the diaphragm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Diaphragm/anatomy & histology , Diaphragm/ultrastructure , Pericardium/anatomy & histology , Pericardium/cytology , Pericardium/ultrastructure , Biometry/methods , Dissection/methods , Sphincter of Oddi/anatomy & histology , Sphincter of Oddi/cytology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Vena Cava, Inferior/anatomy & histology , Vena Cava, Inferior/innervation
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(2): 413-418, June 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-563087

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the overall myenteric neurons population from the duodenum of adult streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant. Fifteen 90-day-old rats were divided in groups: control (C), diabetic (D), diabetic treated with ascorbic acid (DA). After 120 days of experimental period duodenums were resected and processed as whole-mount preparations according to Giemsa's technique, which allowed us to evaluate neuronal density in an area of 8.96 mm² and measure the area of 500 neuronal cell bodies per group. It was observed a 32.55% reduction in neuronal density of group D when compared to group C (p<0.05). The density of spared neurons in group DA, in relation to group D, was not statistically different in this experimental model. No significant differences were found in neuronal areas when groups C and D or group D and DA were compared (p>0.05). These results lead us to conclude that the density of overall myenteric neurons population from the duodenum was reduced in diabetic rats (D), when compared to its control (C); and that diabetic rats supplemented with AA (DA) did not have their neuronal density preserved when compared to diabetic animals (D).


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la población total de neuronas mientéricas del duodeno de ratones adultos inducidos a diabetes por estreptozotocina, suplementados con ácido ascórbico (AA), un poderoso antioxidante. Quince ratones con 90 días de edad fueron divididos en los grupos: control (C), diabético (D) y diabético tratados con ácido ascórbico (DA). Después de 120 días de tratamiento con AA, los duodenos fueron resecados y procesados con el método de Giemsa, el cual permitió evaluar la densidad neuronal, en un área de 8,96 mm², y medir el área del soma de 500 neuronas por grupo. Se observó una reducción de 32,55% de la densidad neuronal del grupo D con respecto grupo C (p<0,05). La densidad de las neuronas observada en el grupo DA, en relación con el grupo D, no fue estadísticamente significativa en este modelo experimental. No fueron encontradas diferencias significativas en las áreas de neuronas, cuando los grupos C y D o el grupo D y DA (p>0,05) fueron comparados. Nuestros resultados permitieron concluir que la densidad de la población total de las neuronas mioentéricas del duodeno estuvo reducida en los ratones diabéticos comparados con los controles, mientras que, los ratones diabéticos suplementados con AA no mantuvieron su densidad neuronal cuando fueron comparados con los animales del grupo diabético.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Duodenum/anatomy & histology , Duodenum/innervation , Neurons , Myenteric Plexus/anatomy & histology , Myenteric Plexus , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/metabolism
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2008. 56 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558196

ABSTRACT

A microcirculação cutânea tem sido uma área de bastante interesse nas últimas décadas mas seu desenvolvimento tem sido reduzido pela dificuldade em desenvolver um modelo in vivo para a sua avaliação. Outra dificuldade é exercer esta avaliação em tempo real, acessando assim o próprio mecanismo etiopatogênico envolvido em diversas doenças cutâneas. O padrão-ouro no estudo da microcirculação in vivo tem sido, há anos, a microscopia intravital. Esta técnica permite uma avaliação acurada da morfologia capilar e vascular, bem como o acesso a dados da fisiologia vascular tais como a velocidade do fluxo sanguíneo, a densidade funcional capilar e a dinâmica da adesão dos leucócitos à parede vascular. A técnica de imagem espectral obtida através da polarização ortogonal (OPS - Orthogonal Polarization Spectral Imaging), recém desenvolvida, permite a avaliação in vivo da microcirculação de forma transcutânea. A observação se dá em tempo real e sem a necessidade de qualquer tipo de método invasivo por parte do examinador. Os carcinomas basocelulares são as neoplasias cutâneas mais comuns que existem. A técnica de OPS permitiu a avaliação transcutânea in vivo e demonstrou alterações estatisticamente significativas na microcirculação desses tumores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/blood supply , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Microcirculation , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Skin Neoplasms/blood supply , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 27(12): 491-494, dez. 2007. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-473001

ABSTRACT

Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.


Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mechanoreceptors/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Palate/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 27(12): 495-500, dez. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-473002

ABSTRACT

O ducto epididimário (DE) de codorna doméstica mostrou, ao longo do ano, variabilidade pequena, porém muito expressiva no outono, o qual corresponde à fase quiescente do ciclo testicular anual. A morfologia do DE na primavera foi, em termos, similar à verificada no verão e inverno. Nestas fases notaram-se aumento significante do calibre tubular do DE; estocagem intraluminal de espermatozóides e ocorrência de mitocôndrias, lamelas do RE, vesículas variáveis quanto à forma, dimensões e conteúdos e presença de alguns lisossomos localizados, principalmente, no citoplasma apical das células principais (P), no epitélio epididimário. Estas características ultra-estruturais das células P parecem ser indicativas da ocorrência de processos ativos de endocitose e de secreção micromerócrina. A quiescência outonal foi caracterizada pelo aspecto anfractuoso do DE; ausência de espermatozóides e pouco material intraluminal, observados à microscopia de luz. Características ultra-estruturais degenerativas foram verificadas ao nível do citoplasma supranuclear das células P epididimárias no outono.


Small but expressive variability was noted on the epididymidis duct (ED) of domestic quail along the year, with more evidence in autumn of the quiescent phase of the annual testis cycle in this species. Spring features of ED had a general similar pattern in summer and winter. They were characterized by enlargement of epididymis tubule, storage of spermatozoa into the luminal compartment and presence of mitochondria, ER lamellae, several variable vesicles, and lysosomes localized mainly on the apical cytoplasm of principal cells (P) of the epididymal epithelium. These P cells features indicated a process of endocytosis and perhaps protein secretion. Autumn quiescence was marked by a convolute pattern of the epididymis tubule, lacking of spermatozoa and small amount of exfoliate heterogeneous material inside the luminal compartment at light microscopy. Ultrastructural degenerative features mainly apical cytoplasmic debris were seen in the supranuclear cytoplasm of lining P cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leydig Cells/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Quail , Rete Testis/anatomy & histology
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(6): 1247-1248, dez. 2006.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-455078

ABSTRACT

The preservation of chinchilla genital organs using a fixed solution of paraformaldehyde 10 percent buffered and a saturated solution of Bouin during 4, 12 and 18 hours of fixation, inclusion in paraffin and staining with hematoxylin-eosin was evaluated. The Bouin solution with 12 hours of fixation was the best protocol of fixation for the ovaries, oviduct, uterus and vagina, resulting in little tissue retraction and better cellular integration when compared to the other fixing times (4 and 18 hours). The fixation with paraformaldehyde showed good results of tissues fixation. Chinchilla genital organs can be preserved with paraformaldehyde 10 percent buffered and Bouin solution using 12 hours of fixation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chinchilla , Fixatives/analysis , Genitalia, Female/anatomy & histology , Genitalia, Female/growth & development , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
20.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52 (108): 1-35
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135519

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to follow up the postnatal development of the epididymis in cats. A total number of twenty cats was used at the ages of one week, one, three and six months as well as adult cats. Some specimens were prepared for routine histological examination and stained with haematoxylin and eosin while others were prepared for making semithin sections. The results showed that the epithelial cells of all regions of the epididymis were undifferentiated at the age of one week. At the age of one month differentiation occurred by the appearance of "halo" cells and 2 types of dark cells. While at the three month of age basal cells appeared. At the age of 6 month, expansion of the epididymal tubules occurred with the appearance of narrow cells, apical cells and clear cells and also the principal cells became differentiated. No sperms were observed at this age. In adult cat, sperms appeared in the epididymal lumen with more development of principal cells and disappearance of narrow cells from corpus and caudal regions. The results also revealed differences in the epithelial height of the epididymal tubules, diameter of the lumen, length of stereocilia and peritubular smooth muscle cells of the three regions of the epididymis


Subject(s)
Animals , Epididymis/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods
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