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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18902, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364424

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hepatoprotective potential of alcesefoliside (AF) from Astragalus monspessulanus was investigated. Iron sulphate/ascorbic acid (Fe2+/AA) lipid peroxidation was induced in rat liver microsomes and pre-incubated with AF and silybin (100, 10 and 1 µmol). Pronounced effects were observed in 100 µmol. In vivo experiments were carried out on rats, challenged orally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) alone and after pre-treatment and followed by curative treatment with AF (10 mg/kg). The activity of the serum and antioxidant enzymes, together with reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and malonedialdehyde (MDA) quantity were measured. Microsomal incubation with Fe2+/AA increased MDA production. The pre-incubation with AF reduced the formation of MDA, comparable to silybin. These findings were supported by the in vivo study where CCl4-induced liver damage was discerned by significant increase in serum enzymes and in MDA production as well as by GSH depletion and reduced antioxidant enzymes activity. The AF pre-treatment and consecutive curative treatment normalizes the activity of the serum and antioxidant enzymes alike, as well as the levels of GSH and MDA. Histological examination of AF-treated livers showed a decrease in the abnormal accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes as well as reduced alterative changes in their structure in a model of CCl4-induced toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Astragalus Plant/adverse effects , Antioxidants/analysis , Microsomes, Liver , Hepatocytes , Enzymes , Liver
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887992

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate metabolic activities of psoralidin in human liver microsomes( HLM) and intestinal microsomes( HIM),and to identify cytochrome P450 enzymes( CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferases( UGTs) involved in psoralidin metabolism as well as species differences in the in vitro metabolism of psoralen. First,after incubation serial of psoralidin solutions with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate( NADPH) or uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronic acid( UDPGA)-supplemented HLM or HIM,two oxidic products( M1 and M2) and two conjugated glucuronides( G1 and G2) were produced in HLM-mediated incubation system,while only M1 and G1 were detected in HIM-supplemented system. The CLintfor M1 in HLM and HIM were 104. 3,and57. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively,while those for G1 were 543. 3,and 75. 9 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively. Furthermore,reaction phenotyping was performed to identify the main contributors to psoralidin metabolism after incubation of psoralidin with NADPH-supplemented twelve CYP isozymes( or UDPGA-supplemented twelve UGT enzymes),respectively. The results showed that CYP1 A1( 39. 5 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C8( 88. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C19( 166. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),and CYP2 D6( 9. 1 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) were identified as the main CYP isoforms for M1,whereas CYP2 C19( 42. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) participated more in producing M2. In addition,UGT1 A1( 1 184. 4 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A7( 922. 8 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A8( 133. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A9( 348. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) and UGT2 B7( 118. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) played important roles in the generation of G1,while UGT1 A9( 111. 3 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) was regarded as the key UGT isozyme for G2. Moreover,different concentrations of psoralidin were incubated with monkey liver microsomes( MkLM),rat liver microsomes( RLM),mice liver microsomes( MLM),dog liver microsomes( DLM) and mini-pig liver microsomes( MpLM),respectively. The obtained CLintwere used to evaluate the species differences.Phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation of psoralidinby liver microsomes showed significant species differences. In general,psoralidin underwent efficient hepatic and intestinal metabolisms. CYP1 A1,CYP2 C8,CYP2 C19,CYP2 D6 and UGT1 A1,UGT1 A7,UGT1 A8,UGT1 A9,UGT2 B7 were identified as the main contributors responsible for phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively. Rat and mini-pig were considered as the appropriate model animals to investigate phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Coumarins , Dogs , Glucuronides , Glucuronosyltransferase/metabolism , Kinetics , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Phenotype , Rats , Species Specificity , Swine , Swine, Miniature/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777490

ABSTRACT

The paper studies and compares the metabolic difference of active ingredients of lipid-lowering flavonoid extract of Daidai in rat livers and intestinal microsomes,in order to explore the phase Ⅰ metabolism characteristics of active ingredients in livers and intestines. UPLC-MS/MS was used to establish a quantitative analysis method for active ingredients,neohesperidin and narngin,in a phase Ⅰ metabolism incubation system of liver and intestinal microsomes. Differential centrifugation was used to make liver and intestinal microsomes of rats. A phase Ⅰ metabolism incubation system was established,and the concentrations of the residual at different incubation time points were analyzed. Graphs were plotted to calculate the metabolic elimination half-life of the main active parts,with the natural logarithm residual percentage values ln( X) at different time points as the y axis,and time t as the x axis. The metabolism characteristics of the active ingredients were compared. The established UPLC-MS/MS quantitative analysis method has a good specialization,standard curve and linear range,accuracy and precision,with a satisfactory lower quantitative limit. The method allows quantitative detection of the active ingredients in a phase Ⅰ metabolism incubation system of liver and intestinal microsomes of rats. In the rats liver microsomes incubation system,the metabolic elimination half-life of neohesperidin and narngin were( 2. 20 ± 0. 28) h and( 1. 97±0. 28) h respectively. The elimination half-life of neohesperidin was larger than that of narngin,but with no statistically significant difference. In the rats intestinal microsomes incubation system,the metabolic elimination half-lives of neohesperidin and narngin were( 3. 68±0. 54) h and( 2. 26±0. 13) h respectively. The elimination half-life of neohesperidin was larger than that of narngin,with statistically significant differences( P<0. 05). The elimination half-lives of the active ingredients in liver microsomes were smaller than those in intestinal microsomes. The experiment results showed that the active ingredients of lipid-lowering flavonoid extract of Daidai had different elimination half-lives in phase Ⅰ rats liver and intestinal microsomes incubation system. This implied that they had different metabolic characteristics in rats liver and intestine,and liver may be the main metabolism site of the active ingredients. The phaseⅠ metabolism of narngin was stronger than that of neohesperidin. The differences between their metabolic characteristics may be related to the binding sites of B-ring hydroxyl in flavonoid glycosides and the number of methoxyl group. The results provided an important experimental basis for further development and clinical application of lipid-lowering flavonoid extract preparation of Daidai.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Citrus sinensis , Flavonoids , Intestines , Lipids , Liver , Microsomes, Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773682

ABSTRACT

The mass spectrometry-based metabolomics method was used to systematically investigate the formation of celastrol metabolites,and the effect of celastrol on endogenous metabolites. The mice plasma,urine and feces samples were collected after oral administration of celastrol. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-QTOF-MS) was applied to analyze the exogenous metabolites of celastrol and its altered endogenous metabolites. Mass defect filtering was adopted to screen for the exogenous metabolites of celastrol. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the endogenous metabolites affected by celastrol. Celastrol and its eight metabolites were detected in urine and feces of mice,and 5 metabolites of them were reported for the first time. The hydroxylated metabolites were observed in the metabolism of both human liver microsomes and mouse liver microsomes. Further recombinant enzyme experiments revealed CYP3 A4 was the major metabolic enzyme involved in the formation of hydroxylated metabolites. Urinary metabolomics revealed that celastrol can affect the excretion of intestinal bacteria-related endogenous metabolites,including hippuric acid,phenylacetylglycine,5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid,urocanic acid,cinnamoylglycine,phenylproplonylglycine and xanthurenic acid. These results are helpful to elucidate the metabolism and disposition of celastrol in vivo,and its mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Mice , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , Triterpenes , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773189

ABSTRACT

This project is to investigate chemical compositions from the roots of Erythrina corallodendron. Through the methods of silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC,15 compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the roots of E. corallodendron. Based on spectroscopic techniques,the structures of these compounds were identified as 10,11-dioxoerythraline( 1),erythrinine( 2),erythraline( 3),11-methoxyerythraline( 4),cristanines B( 5),erythratine( 6),erysotrine( 7),medioresinol( 8),( ±)-ficusesquilignan A( 9),( +)-pinoresinol( 10),nicotinic acid( 11),dibutyl phthalate( 12),vanillic acid( 13),3-hydroxy-1-( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone( 14),and syringic acid( 15). Compounds 8-10 are isolated from genus Erythrina for the first time and all compounds are isolated from E. corallodendron for the first time. Furthermore,this paper screened the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the compounds using models of liver microsomal oxidation inhibition and MTT.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Erythrina , Chemistry , Microsomes, Liver , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Plant Roots , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773085

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the hepatotoxicity risks of physcion on the basis of the bilirubin metabolism mediated by glucuronidation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A1(UGT1A1 enzyme). The monomers were added into the rat liver microsomes to test the hepatotoxicity by using bilirubin as UGT1A1 enzyme substrate, with apparent inhibition constant K_i as the evaluation index. Liver microsome incubation in vitro was adopted to initiate phase Ⅱ metabolic reaction and investigate the inhibitory effect of physcion. Then the phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ metabolic reactions were initiated to investigate the comprehensive inhibition of metabolites and prototype components. The results showed that when only the phase Ⅱ reaction was initiated, physcion directly acted on the UGT1A1 enzyme in a prototype form, exhibited weak inhibition and the inhibition type was mixed inhibition; When the phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ reactions were initiated simultaneously, the inhibitory effects of physcion on UGT1A1 enzyme became strong and the inhibition type was mixed inhibition, suggesting that physcion had phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ metabolic processes, and the metabolites had strong inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 enzyme. This experiment preliminarily proved that the metabolites of physcion may be the main components to induce hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emodin , Toxicity , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Kinetics , Microsomes, Liver , Rats
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776924

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological activities and adverse side effects of ginkgolic acids (GAs), major components in extracts from the leaves and seed coats of Ginkgo biloba L, have been intensively studied. However, there are few reports on their hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of GA (17 : 1), one of the most abundant components of GAs, were investigated. Kinetic analysis indicated that human and rat liver microsomes shared similar metabolic characteristics of GA (17 : 1) in phase I and II metabolisms. The drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in GA (17 : 1) metabolism were human CYP1A2, CYP3A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15, which were confirmed with an inhibition study of human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The MTT assays indicated that the cytotoxicity of GA (17 : 1) in HepG2 cells occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that GA (17 : 1) had less cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes than in HepG2 cells and that the toxicity was enhanced through CYP1A- and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salicylates , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775340

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Dendrobium huoshanense on the expressions and activities of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s in mice, and to provide a reference for the evaluation of drug-drug interactions between D. huoshanense and clinical drugs. The C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group, D. huoshanense low dose group (crude drug 1.25 g·kg⁻¹), D. huoshanense high dose group (crude drug 7.5 g·kg⁻¹), and phenobarbital positive control group (0.08 g·kg⁻¹). Each group was intragastrically administered with drugs for 2 weeks. The mice were sacrificed and their liver microsomes were prepared. The expressions of major subtypes of P450 enzyme were determined by Western blot and the probe drugs were used to detect the enzyme activities of P450 subtypes with protein expression changes. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expressions of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B in liver tissues were up-regulated in D. huoshanense-treated group. In vitro enzyme activity tests showed that there were no significant difference in metabolism of 7-ethoxyresorufin (a probe drug for CYP1A1) and bupropion (a probe drug for CYP2B) between D. huoshanense group and control group. The metabolism of phenacetin (a probe drug for CYP1A2) showed a statistical difference in rate Vmax, and it was significantly increased by approximately 20% in D. huoshanense group as compared with the blank control group, and the clearance CLint in treated group was also increased by about 32%. Therefore, oral administration of D. huoshanense had no effects on the activities of most hepatic P450 enzymes in mice, with no drug-drug interaction related to the P450 enzyme system in most clinical drugs theoretically. However, oral administration of D. huoshanense may accelerate the metabolism of CYP1A2-catalyzed drugs, which needs to be considered in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Dendrobium , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microsomes, Liver , Random Allocation
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812346

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological activities and adverse side effects of ginkgolic acids (GAs), major components in extracts from the leaves and seed coats of Ginkgo biloba L, have been intensively studied. However, there are few reports on their hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of GA (17 : 1), one of the most abundant components of GAs, were investigated. Kinetic analysis indicated that human and rat liver microsomes shared similar metabolic characteristics of GA (17 : 1) in phase I and II metabolisms. The drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in GA (17 : 1) metabolism were human CYP1A2, CYP3A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15, which were confirmed with an inhibition study of human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The MTT assays indicated that the cytotoxicity of GA (17 : 1) in HepG2 cells occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that GA (17 : 1) had less cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes than in HepG2 cells and that the toxicity was enhanced through CYP1A- and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salicylates , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(2): 88-98, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881315

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a cellular defensive mechanism associated to oxidative stress. The administration of nitrofurantoin, nifurtimox and acetaminophen generates oxidative stress by their biotransformation through CYP450 system. The main adverse effect described for the first two drugs is gastrointestinal inflammation and that of the last, hepatitis. Therefore, standardised dry extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis, Buddleja globosa Hope, Cynara scolymus L., Echinacea purpurea and Hedera helix were tested to evaluate their capacity to decrease drug-induced oxidative stress. For that, rat liver microsomes were incubated with drugs in the presence of NADPH (specific CYP450 system cofactor) to test oxidative damage on microsomal lipids, thiols, and GST activity. All drugs tested induced oxidation of microsomal lipids and thiols, and inhibition of GST activity. Herbal extracts prevented these phenomena in different extension. These results show that antioxidant phytodrugs previously evaluated could alleviate drugs adverse effects associated to oxidative stress.


Inflamación es un mecanismo de defensa el cual está asociado a estrés oxidativo. La administración de nitrofurantoína, nifurtimox y paracetamol genera estrés oxidativo al metabolizarse a través del sistema CYP450. El principal efecto adverso de los dos primeros fármacos es inflamación gastrointestinal y del tercero, hepatitis. Por lo tanto, utilizamos diversos extractos herbales para disminuir el estrés oxidativo inducido por estos fármacos. Para esto se incubaron microsomas hepáticos de rata con dichos fármacos en presencia de NADPH (cofactor específico del sistema CYP450) y se evaluó el daño oxidativo generado sobre los lípidos, los tioles y la actividad GST microsómica. Todos los fármacos indujeron oxidación de los lípidos y los tioles microsómicos e inhibieron la actividad GST. Los extractos herbales previnieron estos fenómenos oxidativos en diferente extensión. Estos resultados indican que fitofármacos antioxidantes previamente evaluados, podrían aliviar los efectos adversos asociados a estrés oxidativo de los fármacos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microsomes, Liver/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Microsomes, Liver/enzymology , NADP/analysis , Nifurtimox/adverse effects , Nitrofurantoin/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfhydryl Compounds
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812066

ABSTRACT

Ferulic acid (FA) is an active component of herbal medicines. One of the best documented activities of FA is its antioxidant property. Moreover, FA exerts antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the metabolic pathways of FA in humans remain unclear. To identify whether human CYP or UGT enzymes are involved in the metabolism of FA, reaction phenotyping of FA was conducted using major CYP-selective chemical inhibitors together with individual CYP and UGT Supersomes. The CYP- and/or UGT-mediated metabolism kinetics were examined simultaneously or individually. Relative activity factor and total normalized rate approaches were used to assess the relative contributions of each major human CYPs towards the FA metabolism. Incubations of FA with human liver microsomes (HLM) displayed NADPH- and UDPGA-dependent metabolism with multiple CYP and UGT isoforms involved. CYPs and UGTs contributed equally to the metabolism of FA in HLM. Although CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 appeared to be the major contributors in the CYP-mediated clearance, their contributions to the overall clearance are still minor (< 25%). As a constitute of many food and herbs, FA poses low drug-drug interaction risk when co-administrated with other herbs or conventional medicines because multiple phase I and phase II enzymes are involved in its metabolism.


Subject(s)
Coumaric Acids , Chemistry , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Chemistry , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Glucuronosyltransferase , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71444

ABSTRACT

Pharmacokinetic interaction of chrysin, a flavone present in honey, propolis and herbs, with caffeine was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Because chrysin inhibited CYP1A-selective ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activities in enriched rat liver microsomes, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, a CYP 1A substrate, was studied following an intragastric administration with 100 mg/kg chrysin. In addition to the oral bioavailability of chrysin, its phase 2 metabolites, chrysin sulfate and chrysin glucuronide, were determined in rat plasma. As results, the pharmacokinetic parameters for caffeine and its three metabolites (i.e., paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) were not changed following chrysin treatment in vivo, despite of its inhibitory effect on CYP 1A in vitro. The bioavailability of chrysin was found to be almost zero, because chrysin was rapidly metabolized to its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the little interaction of chrysin with caffeine might be resulted from the rapid metabolism of chrysin to its phase 2 metabolites which would not have inhibitory effects on CYP enzymes responsible for caffeine metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Availability , Caffeine , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Drug Interactions , Honey , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Propolis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Theobromine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812566

ABSTRACT

Isochlorogenic acid A (ICQA), which has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antiviral properties, is commonly presented in fruits, vegetables, coffee, plant-based food products, and herbal medicines. These herbal medicines are usually used in combination with other medicines in the clinic. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of ICQA on drug-metabolizing enzymes and the herb-drug interactions. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potentials of ICQA on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 in vitro based on a cocktail approach. The P450 and UGT activities in mice treated with ICQA for a prolonged period were also determined. Our results demonstrated that ICQA exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes with IC being 57.25 μmol·L and Ki being 26.77 μmol·L. In addition, ICQA inhibited UGT1A6 activity by 25%, in the mice treated with ICQA (i.p.) at 30 mg·kg for 14 d, compared with the control group. Moreover, ICQA showed no mechanism-based inhibition on CYP2C9 or UGT1A6. In conclusion, our results further confirm a safe use of ICQA in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorogenic Acid , Chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Chemistry , Metabolism , Glucuronosyltransferase , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279288

ABSTRACT

Effect of ginsenoside total saponin (GTS) on the regulation of P450 of livers of rats after γ-ray irradiation was studied. Rats were irradiated by the ⁶⁰Coγ-ray for one-time dose of 5.5 Gy, dose rate of 117.1-119.2 cGy. The cocktail probe, qPCR and Western blot were used to detect expression of enzymatic activites, mRNA and protein of rats. Contrasted with blank group, expression of CYP1A2, 2B1, 2E1, 3A4 of irradiation group showed a up-regulated (P < 0.05). Contrasted with irradiation group, exprression of CYP1A2, 2B1, 2E1, 3A4 of GTS group showed a downward trend. GTS had negative agonistic action against expression of P450 of rats by irradiatied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gamma Rays , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Liver , Radiation Effects , Male , Microsomes, Liver , Panax , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55787

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in East Asia. Because baicalein and baicalin are major components of this herb, it is important to understand the effects of these compounds on drug metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP), for evaluating herb-drug interaction. The effects of baicalin and baicalein on activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (BROD), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase and erythromycin N-demethylase were assessed in rat liver microsomes in the present study. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its three metabolites (i.e., paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) in baicalin-treated rats were compared with untreated control. As results, EROD, MROD and BROD activities were inhibited by both baicalin and baicalein. However, there were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of oral caffeine and its three metabolites between control and baicalin-treated rats. When the plasma concentration of baicalin was determined, the maximum concentration of baicalin was below the estimated IC50 values observed in vitro. In conclusion, baicalin had no effects on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites in vivo, following single oral administration in rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Caffeine , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Drug Interactions , Far East , Herb-Drug Interactions , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Microsomes, Liver , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Rats , Scutellaria baicalensis , Theobromine
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 541-546, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257105

ABSTRACT

The work aims to study the drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of butylphthalide and evaluate the induction and inhibition activities of butylphthalide on CYP450 isoenzymes by using in vitro (liver microsome incubation system of rats and human) and in vivo (CYP induced model of rats) method. Butylphthalide was incubated with selective inhibitors of CYP450, and its metabolic rate was determined to identify the metabolizing isoenzymes of NBP in rat (normal and induced rats) and human liver microsomes. The in vitro inhibition effect of butylphthalide on 6 main liver microsomal CYP450 isoenzymes was evaluated by using probe drugs; the induction and inhibition activities in vivo of butylphthalide on CYP450 isoenzymes were evaluated by NBP ig dosing (160 mg x kg(-1)) and iv dosing (20 mg x kg(-1)) in rats. After adding the specific inhibitors of CYP2C11, 2E1 and 3A 1/2 for rat, CYP2C19, 2E1 and 3A4/5 for human, the metabolism of NBP in rat and human liver microsomes were reduced 38.8%, 86.2%, 78.4% and 51.0%, 92.0%, 58.9% of control, respectively. The metabolic rates of NBP in CYP2E1 and 3A 1/2 induced rat liver microsomes were increased 25.5% and 68.9%. High concentration of NBP (≥ 200 μmol x L(-1), in vitro) could inhibit the activities of CYP1A2, 2C6, 2C11 and 2D2 in rats, and high concentration of NBP ( ≥ 15 μmol x L(-1), in vitro) could inhibit the activity of CYP2C19 in human. All the results indicated that NBP should be mainly metabolized by CYP2E1, 2C11 and 3A 1/2 in rats and CYP2E1, 2C19 and 3A4/5 in human. High concentration of NBP could inhibit human CYP2C19 in vitro. No significant induction/inhibition effects of NBP were observed on rat liver CYP450 isoforms after ig 160 mg x kg(-1) NBP or iv 20 mg x kg(-1) NBP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Pharmacology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Humans , Isoenzymes , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , Rats
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246094

ABSTRACT

Rats were continuously given different doses of water extract of Polygonum multiflorum (1, 10 g x kg(-1)) for 7 days to prepare liver microsomes. Cocktail in vitro incubation approach and Real-time quantitative PCR technology were used to observe the effect of water extract of P. multiflorum on CYP450 enzymatic activities and mRNA expressions in rat liver. Compared with the blank control group, both 1, 10 g x kg(-1) water extract of P. multiflorum treated groups showed significant inhibitions in CYP2E1 enzymatic activities and mRNA expressions (enzymatic activities of CYP2E1, P < 0.01; mRNA expression of CYP2E1, P < 0.05 in 1 g x kg(-1) group, P < 0.01 in 10 g x kg(-1) group). They revealed a significant increase in the enzymatic activity of CYP3A1 (P < 0.01), but without significant change in mRNA expressions. The 10 g x kg(-1) group showed a significant inhibition in CYP1A2 enzymatic activities and mRNA expressions in rat livers (P < 0.01).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liver , Male , Microsomes, Liver , Polygonum , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351270

ABSTRACT

The stems and branches of Hypericum petiolulatum were extracted by alcohol and liquid-liquid extraction. Seven furofuran lignans were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of H. petiolulatum by using silica gelchromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, medium-pressure liquid chromatography and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by the spectroscopic methods as pinoresinol (1), medioresinol (2), 8-acetoxypinoresinol (3), epipinoresinol (4), (+)-syringaresinol (5), (+)-1-hydroxysyringaresinol (6) and erythro-buddlenolE (7). All the isolates were firstly found in H. petiolulatum. In the bioassay, compound 7 showed remarkable antioxidative activity inhibiting Fe(+2)-cystine induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation with inhibitory rate 38% at a concentration of 1 x 10(-6) mol · L(-1) (positive control Vit E with the inhibitory rate of 35% at the same concentration).


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hypericum , Chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , Molecular Structure , Oxidative Stress , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Rats
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351219

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Jiawei Foshou San and its various combined administration on hepatic P450 enzyme activity and hepatocyte morphology in rats. Rats were orally administered with drugs for four weeks and then sacrificed to prepare liver microsomes. The liver microsomes were incubated with the cocktail method; The metabolites were determined with the rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the hepatocyte P450 enzyme activity. In addition, the hepatic pathological changes were observed by using the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Compared with the control group, the enzyme activity of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the Jiawei Foshou san group showed a significant rise (P < 0.05); the enzyme activity of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in the ferulic acid + ligustrazine group and the ligustrazine + tetrahydropalmatine group showed a significant rise (P < 0.05) ; the enzyme activity of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 in the ligustrazine group showed a significant rise (P < 0.05); the enzyme activity of CYP3A4 in the ferulic acid group showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05). After the administration with various drugs, the hepatocyte morphologies in the ferulic acid group and the ligustrazine group were normal. The pathological changes were observed in the tetrahydropalmatine group, such as unclear boundary of hepatic lobules, disordered hepatic cell arrangement, blurred edge, anisokaryosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The ferulic acid + tetrahydropalmatine group, the ligustrazine + tetrahydropalmatine group and the Jiawei Foshou San group also showed inflammatory infiltration, but with less pathological changes, particularly the Jiawei Foshou San group. The study result shows that Jiawei Foshou San can induce the enzyme activity of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, and ligustrazine may be the effective substance for inducing CYP1A2. Its combination with ferulic acid and ligustrazine can significantly reduce the liver toxicity of tetrahydropalmatine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Hepatocytes , Microsomes, Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337898

ABSTRACT

To research the influence of Reduning injection on the activity and mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system in rat liver microsomes. Rat liver microsomes were prepared after a seven-days continuous administration of Reduning injection. An HPLC-MS method was applied to determine the specific metabolites of CYP450 probe substrates in rat liver microsomal incubations. The activity of CYP450 isozymes were represented by the formation of metabolites. The Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was applied to determine the mRNA expression levels of CYP450. Reduning injection significantly reduced the activity of CYP2B1, 2C12, 2C13 (P < 0.01), but did not affect CYPlA2; low dose and high dose of Reduning injection had an inhibition trend on the activity of CYP2D2, but did not statistically differ from control group; low dose of Reduning injection significantly induced the activity of CYP3A1 (P < 0.01), high dose of Reduning injection had an induce trend on the activity of CYP3A1, but did not statistically differ from control. At the mRNA level, low and high dose of Reduning injection had an induce trend on the expression of CYP1A2, 2C11, 2D1, 2E1, 3A1, but did not statistically differ from control. Reduning injection significantly induced the activity of CYP2B1. Reduning injection significantly induced the activity of CYP3A1 in mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels, which may result adverse drug reaction after being combined with macrolides antibiotics. Reduning injection significantly reduced the activity of CYP2B1, 2C12, 2C13, 2D2 in enzyme activity levels, when combined with other drugs, it should be fully taken into account of the possible drug-drug interaction in order to avoid adverse side effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Injections , Isoenzymes , Metabolism , Male , Microsomes, Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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