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1.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1062, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341449

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar la recuperación y la calidad visual posoperatoria en la cirugía bilateral del cristalino por facoemulsificación. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y analítico de serie de casos en 40 pacientes con el diagnóstico de catarata bilateral, operados por cirugía bilateral simultánea del cristalino, atendidos en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", durante el periodo comprendido desde noviembre del año 2018 hasta marzo de 2020. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, dureza nuclear según LOCS III, mejor agudeza visual con y sin corrección, astigmatismo medio inducido, visión de colores, sensibilidad al contraste, velocidad de lectura y estudio de la calidad de vida por la encuesta FV-14. Se emplearon los porcentajes y los números absolutos para resumir las variables cualitativas. En el caso de las cuantitativas se usó la media con su desviación estándar y el intervalo de confianza del 95 por ciento. Resultados: Fue más frecuente el sexo femenino en el 65 por ciento; la edad media fue de 69,1 ± 8,1 años. El 55,11 por ciento de los pacientes tuvo dureza NO3. La media de la mejor agudeza visual sin corrección mejoró a 0,89 ± 0,25; la mejor agudeza visual con corrección mejoró a 0,96 ± 0,03; el resto de las variables estudiadas mostró mejoría significativa. Conclusiones: La cirugía bilateral simultánea del cristalino personalizada contribuye de manera significativa a la mejoría de la visión en cantidad y calidad, lo que permite recuperar la calidad de vida de los pacientes(AU)


Objective: Analyze postoperative recovery and visual quality in bilateral crystalline lens surgery by phacoemulsification. Methods: An analytical prospective study was conducted of a case series of 40 bilateral cataract patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral crystalline lens surgery at the Center for Ocular Microsurgery of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from November 2018 to March 2020. The variables analyzed were age, sex, nuclear hardness by LOCS III, best visual acuity with and without correction, induced medial astigmatism, color vision, contrast sensitivity, reading speed and quality of life by the VF-14 survey. Percentages and absolute numbers were used to summarize qualitative variables, whereas mean and standard deviation were used for quantitative variables, with a 95 percent confidence interval. Results: Female sex prevailed with 65 percent; mean age was 69.1 ± 8.1 years. Hardness was NO3 in 55.11 percent of the patients examined. Mean best visual acuity without correction improved to 0.89 ± 0.25; best corrected visual acuity improved to 0.96 ± 0.03; the remaining variables studied showed significant improvement. Conclusion: Simultaneous personalized bilateral crystalline lens surgery significantly contributes to visual improvement both quantitatively and qualitatively, making it possible for patients to recover their quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Astigmatism/etiology , Cataract/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Microsurgery/methods , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Color Vision
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e1058, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289531

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la posible presencia de complicaciones posoperatorias en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2, operados de catarata por la técnica de facochop. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, y longitudinal prospectivo, con 128 pacientes diabéticos (168 ojos) operados de catarata en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", entre septiembre del año 2017 y diciembre de 2018. Las variables clínicas y epidemiológicas objeto del estudio fueron la edad, el sexo, el color de la piel, la queratometría, la profundidad de la cámara, la longitud axial, la dureza del cristalino, la presión intraocular pre- y posoperatoria y las complicaciones posoperatorias en las primeras 72 horas. Resultados: En el estudio predominaron las mujeres (63,3 por ciento), de piel blanca (74,2 por ciento), quienes presentaron ojos biométricamente normales, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa. La presión intraocular aumentó a las 24 horas de la cirugía. De los 128 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 operados de catarata senil por la técnica de facochop, se pudo determinar que el promedio y la desviación estándar de la edad se ubicaron en los 69,49 ± 8,96 años, y osciló entre los 50 y 88 años. Conclusiones: Las complicaciones posoperatorias más frecuentes son el edema corneal y la uveítis. Es significativamente más probable encontrar la uveítis posquirúrgica en pacientes menores de 70 años, y el edema corneal en quienes sobrepasan esta edad(AU)


Objective: Describe the possible presence of postoperative complications in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing phaco chop cataract surgery. Methods: An observational prospective longitudinal descriptive study was conducted of 128 diabetic patients (168 eyes) undergoing cataract surgery at the Center for Ocular Microsurgery of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2017 to December 2018. The clinical and epidemiological variables analyzed were age, sex, skin color, keratometry, chamber depth, axial length, crystalline hardness, pre- and postoperative intraocular pressure, and postoperative complications in the first 72 hours. Results: A predominance was found of women (63.3 percent) of white skin color (74.2 percent) and biometrically normal eyes, with a statistically significant difference. Intraocular pressure rose 24 hours after surgery. Mean age and standard deviation were 69.49 ± 8.96 years, range of 50-88 years, in the 128 type 2 diabetic patients undergoing senile cataract surgery by the phaco chop technique. Conclusions: The most common postoperative complications are corneal edema and uveitis. It is significantly more probable to find postsurgical uveitis in patients aged under 70 years and corneal edema in patients aged over 70 years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Uveitis/complications , Cataract Extraction/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Microsurgery/methods , Corneal Edema/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 24(44): 10-19, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223003

ABSTRACT

La percepción hacia el alcance de la excelencia estética se traduce especialmente en saber interpretar y satisfacer los deseos del paciente, empleándose para eso, todos los conocimientos disponibles en la literatura científica. La utilización de carillas, coronas cerámicas o de Circonio pueden representar un tratamiento, predecible y confiable, cuando las condiciones, básicas de salud se encuentran ya resueltas. Una de estas condiciones, se refiere a un marco de salud Periodontal, con contornos gingivales estéticos y naturales. En algunos casos, donde esto no sucede, la microcirugía estética puede ser un recurso práctico y predecible. A su vez la evidencia científica nos ofrece parámetros para guiarnos y así alcanzar un correcto diagnóstico, planeamiento seguro, técnica adecuada y la utilización del material más indicado para cada situación clínica. La subjetividad estética puede estar escondida entre líneas en la ciencia. Con ésta recopilación acompañado con la ejemplificación de los casos clínicos desarrollados, intentaremos aproximarnos a la excelencia (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Zirconium , Ceramics , Crowns , Esthetics, Dental , Microsurgery , Patient Care Planning , Electrosurgery , Evidence-Based Dentistry , Gingival Recession/therapy
4.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(83): 13-20, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342365

ABSTRACT

La microcirugía endodóntica (MCE) es una alternativa al tratamiento no quirúrgico de la periodontitis apical persistente. Por su evolución junto a los avances tecnológicos, la incorporación de la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT), la tecnología de impresión tridimensional (3D) y las guías quirúrgicas diseñadas con software asistido por computadora, han permitido implementar la planificación digital llevada a cabo en el acto quirúrgico. El objetivo de este informe es describir un caso clínico de MCE guiada, con un protocolo de diseño digital y el uso de una guía quirúrgica impresa en resina biocompatible, diseñada con precisión de acuerdo con las mediciones de CBCT preoperatorias. Se diseñó un kit de trefinas con "sleeves" (Neokings) para realizar la osteotomía y resección de los últimos 3 mm apicales direccionados por la guía quirúrgica. La tabla cortical intacta se recuperó y se utilizó como injerto junto con plasma rico en fibrina. La guía de cirugía apical permite al profesional lograr ubicar con precisión los tejidos objetivos de la cirugía y acortar el tiempo del procedimiento. Un control CBCT inmediato mostró la planificación exacta en 3D del sitio quirúrgico (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Apicoectomy/methods , Periapical Periodontitis , Microsurgery , Osteotomy , Patient Care Planning , Argentina , Plasma , Schools, Dental , Clinical Protocols , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Printing, Three-Dimensional
5.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(4): 289-299, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150438

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fístula dural arteriovenosa espinal (FDAVE) es una enfermedad vascular rara, de etiología desconocida y frecuentemente subdiagnosticada. El tratamiento puede ser microquirúrgico o endovascular. Material y Método: Análisis retrospectivo de una serie de 8 pacientes consecutivos con FDAVE tratados por microcirugía entre 2010 y 2020. Fueron evaluados parámetros como edad, sexo, cuadro clínico pre y postoperatorio medido con las escalas de Aminoff-Logue y Rankin modificada. Los estudios diagnósticos con RMN (Resonancia Magnética Nuclear), ARM (Angio Resonancia Magnética) y ADM (Angiografía Digital Medular) se utilizaron para determinar nivel lesional y resultados quirúrgicos. Resultados: Fueron operados 8 pacientes (7 masculinos y 1 femenino) con un promedio de edad de 58 años. El tiempo de evolución del cuadro clínico al diagnóstico fue menor a 12 meses salvo un caso de 32 meses. Las FDAVE fueron localizadas en: 6 a nivel dorsal entre D6 y D12, una en L2 y la última en S1 (5 derechas y 3 izquierdas). La arteria de Adamkiewicz se identificó en: 4 casos en L1, 2 en D12, 1 en D10 y un caso en D7 (6 izquierdas y 2 derechas). De los 8 pacientes operados, 3 fueron embolizados previamente. La evolución postoperatoria del cuadro neurológico fue: 2 de 8 permanecieron estables y 6 de 8 mejoraron uno o más puntos en la escala de Rankin modificada; no hubo complicaciones en el postoperatorio. Todos los pacientes mejoraron las imágenes en RMN diferida y la ADM luego de los 6 meses fue negativa. El seguimiento promedio fue de 48 meses con un rango de 11 a 116 meses, ningún paciente presentó recidiva de la FDAVE. Conclusiones: El tratamiento quirúrgico de las FDAVE es un método muy eficaz, de baja morbilidad y menor tasa de recurrencia comparado con el tratamiento endovascular.


Introduction: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare vascular disease, of unknown etiology and frequently underdiagnosed. Treatment can be microsurgical or endovascular. Material and Method: Retrospective analysis of a series of 8 SDAVF patients treated by microsurgery between 2010 and 2020. Parameters including age, sex, pre and postoperative clinical condition were analyzed according to modified Aminoff-Logue and modified Rankin scales. Diagnostic studies such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiogram) and spinal DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography), were evaluated for lesion level, as were surgical results. Results: Eight patients (7 male and 1 female), average age of 58 years were operated. The interval from symptom onset to diagnosis was less than 12 months in all cases except one (32 months). SDAVF locations were thoracic in 6 cases between T6 and T12, at L2 in one and at S1 in one case (5 on the right and 3 on the left). The Adamkiewicz artery was identified in: 4 cases at L1, 2 at D12, 1 at D10 and in one case at D7 (6 left-sided and 2 right-sided). Three of the 8 patients operated had undergone prior embolization. Postoperative neurological outcomes showed: 2 patients remained stable and 6 had improved one or more points on the modified Rankin scale; no postoperative complications were observed. Follow-up MRI images improved in all cases and spinal DSA was negative at six months. Average follow-up was 48 months (range 11 to 116 months), no patient presented recurrence. Conclusions: Microsurgical treatment of SDAVF proved to be efficient, with low morbidity and lower recurrence rates compared to endovascular results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fistula , Spinal Cord Diseases , Vascular Diseases , Angiography , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Microsurgery
6.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(4): 300-314, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neurocirugía vascular, tanto la microquirúrgica como endovascular, ha progresado significativamente en el tratamiento de la patología cerebrovascular. Sin embargo, en una considerable proporción de casos este tipo de patología no puede ser resuelta definitivamente mediante un único abordaje. Por lo cual consideramos que el neurocirujano en formación debe capacitarse con ambas técnicas.Se describe un modelo de entrenamiento en microcirugía y en nociones básicas del material y técnica neuroendovascular, utilizando placenta humana y recursos de baja complejidad. Material y método: Se utilizaron 20 placentas humanas, instrumental y sutura de uso habitual en microcirugía, microscopio quirúrgico Newton®XX1, material para procedimientos endovasculares; equipo de radioscopia (arco en C Phillips BV Pulsera®), un cráneo óseo y un cabezal de fijación tipo Sugita® adaptado a su uso en laboratorio. Los ejercicios consistieron en: 1. Disección y exposición de los vasos arteriales y venosos del corion; 2. Anastomosis término-terminal, termino-lateral y latero-lateral; 3. Generación de aneurismas laterales, de bifurcación o trifurcación; 4. Creación de bypass extra-intracraneano; 5. Clipado de los aneurismas en superficie y dentro del cráneo; 6. Control angiográfico pre y post clipado. 7. Embolización con coils de los aneurismas experimentales y de vasos placentarios con partículas de Spongostan®. Resultados: Aunque los vasos tienen una estructura y consistencia diferentes a los habituales para el neurocirujano, la placenta ofrece una variabilidad de calibres y formatos donde practicar los diferentes ejercicios. Conclusión: El entrenamiento en técnicas microquirúrgicas y neurointervencionistas puede ser realizado en modelos placentarios de simulación, que permiten el desarrollo háptico progresivo previo a la realización de un procedimiento in vivo.


Objective: Describe a training model in microsurgery and neuroendovascular surgery, using human placenta and low complexity resources. Material and methods: 20 human placentas, instruments and sutures were used in microsurgery, Newton XX1 surgical microscope, material for endovascular procedures; radioscopy equipment (C-arch Phillips BV Pulsera), a bony skull and a Sugita head adapted for laboratory use. The exercises consisted of: 1. Dissection and exposure of the arterial and venous vessels of the chorion; 2. End-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-side anastomosis; 3. Generation of lateral, bifurcation or trifurcation aneurysms; 4. Creation of extra-intracranial bypass; 5. Clipping of aneurysms on the surface and inside the skull; 6. Pre and post clipping angiographic control. 7. Coil embolization of experimental aneurysms and placental vessels embolization with spongostan particles. Results: Although the vessels have a different structure and consistency than usual for the neurosurgeon, the placenta offers a variability of sizes and formats to practice the different exercises. Conclusion: Training in microsurgical and neurointerventionist techniques can be carried out in placental models, which allow progressive haptic development prior to performing an in vivo procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microsurgery , Placenta , Therapeutics , Simulation Technique , Methods , Endovascular Procedures , Neurosurgery
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 366-369, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156159

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Desenvolver um modelo de treinamento de cirurgias corneanas utilizando uvas. Métodos: Foram empregadas uvas como estruturas que mimetizam o tamanho do globo ocular humano, recobertas com materiais de látex, simulando a pratica de cirurgias de córnea utilizando um sistema de videomagnificação. Foram realizados oito pontos simples. Foi avaliado o tempo de confecção do procedimento. Resultados: Foram realizadas 25 simulações como o modelo descrito. O tempo médio de realização da rafia foi de 34,56 ±5,79 minutos. A análise da correlação entre o tempo e a ordem das cirurgias mostrou uma redução no tempo de confecção. Conclusão: O modelo de treinamento oftalmológico utilizando uvas mostrou-se capaz de simular as etapas básicas do treinamento de suturas microcirúrgicas.


Abstract Objective: Develop a training model for corneal surgery using grapes. Methods: Grapes were used as structures that mimic the size of the human eyeball, covered with latex materials, simulating the practice of corneal surgery using a videomagnification system. Eight simple stitches were performed. The surgical time was evaluated. Results: 25 simulations were carried out as the model described. The mean time taken for the raffia was 34.56 ± 5.79 minutes. The analysis of the correlation between the time and the order of the surgeries showed a reduction in the confection time. Conclusion: The ophthalmic training model using grapes proved to be capable of simulating the basic stages of microsurgery suture training.


Subject(s)
Sutures , Video Recording , Low Cost Technology , Vitis , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , Microsurgery , Epidemiology, Experimental , Cross-Sectional Studies , Animal Use Alternatives
8.
Dent. press endod ; 10(3): 15-26, Sept-Dec.2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344750

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A manutenção da dentição natural é preferível na maioria dos casos. Muito embora hoje em dia se possa contar com os implantes dentários, em casos com prognóstico menos limitado a preservação dos dentes ainda é mais aconselhável que os implantes. A Endodontia, e todas as suas possibilidades terapêuticas existentes, intenta e faz o papel de especialidade que tem como princípio prevenir ou eliminar a periodontite apical, dando condições de reparo e saúde ao periodonto apical e tecido ósseo. Com o advento tecnológico dos últimos anos, os tratamentos de canal se tornaram muito mais previsíveis e isso se reflete no aumento dos índices de sucesso, tanto de tratamentos primários quanto de retratamentos. Contudo, existem casos que falham, mas esses casos não são o fim da linha para o dente. Entre as manobras existentes para se reintervir em dentes que tiveram um tratamento que fracassou, são possíveis a microcirurgia endodôntica apical ou o reimplante intencional. Método: A manobra de reimplante intencional consiste de várias etapas cirúrgicas que vão desde a extração do elemento dental até a reposição de volta ao seu alvéolo. Neste artigo foram descritos dois casos clínicos limítrofes que foram tratados por meio desse procedimento. Resultados: Os casos apresentaram resultados excelentes, como remissão das lesões apicais, reparo ósseo e permanência dos elementos em boca, com acompanhamento de longo prazo (2 e 11 anos). Conclusões: Com altos índices de sucesso já relatados na literatura, essa modalidade de tratamento precisa ser mais explorada e divulgada no Brasil, principalmente entre alunos de pós-graduação e especialistas em Endodontia, pois comprovadamente pode evitar a indicação desnecessária de implantes dentais (AU).


Introduction: The maintenance of natural dentition is preferable in most of cases. However, nowadays it is possible to use dental implants in cases where prognosis is very limited. Endodontics and all of its therapeutic modalities play an important role, which has, in principle, to prevent or eliminate apical periodontitis providing better conditions for wound healing of periapical and bone tissues. In the past few years, with technological advances, root canal treatment became more predictable and this can be seen reflected in the increase of success rates of primary treatment as well as non-surgical retreatment. Nevertheless, some cases can failure but, it is not the end for the tooth, once some therapeutic approaches are possible, like apical microsurgery or intentional replantation. Method: Intentional replantation is an approach in which some surgical steps are done, since the dental extraction until its repositioning back to the socket. In this article two bordering cases were described. Results: 2 and 11 years follow-up confirm the favorable results of this technique. Both cases with no apical lesion, bone healing and dental elements developing their natural functions. Conclusions: The high successful rates described in the literature give to this treatment approach an important face, and that should be more explored and disclosed in Brazil, specially between specialists and post-graduation students, once can avoid unnecessary dental implants (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Tooth Replantation , Therapeutic Approaches , Microsurgery , Students , Retreatment , Endodontics , Methods
9.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(4): 499-504, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149549

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La implementación de la ergonomía en microcirugía minimiza las posiciones forzadas que causan dolor y molestias, las cuales están asociadas a errores en la técnica. Objetivo. Determinar los errores ergonómicos en microcirugía para caracterizar la relación entre las malas posturas y el dolor en diferentes zonas del cuerpo. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de tipo observacional que incluyó 71 estudiantes de un curso básico de microcirugía. Se utilizaron dos formatos de evaluación ergonómica: en el primero, el instructor registraba el desempeño del estudiante en cada ejercicio y, en el segundo, el estudiante evaluaba la presencia de molestias físicas por medio de una escala de dolor. Por último, se determinó la relación entre la posición ergonómica y la presencia de dolor. Resultados. Se observó un desempeño regular en la posición de pies (57%); de brazos y antebrazos (17%); de espalda (17%), y de cabeza y cuello (5.7%). El 25.3% reportó dolor en la región lumbar; el 19.7%, en la zona de músculo trapecio; el 18.5%, en el cuello; el 14%, en las manos, y el 8.5%, en otras zonas del cuerpo no especificadas. Se evidenció desorganización del instrumental en el 45.8% de los casos. Conclusiones. Las malas posiciones observadas en los participantes se relacionaron con molestias y dolor en las zonas lumbar y del músculo trapecio. Las posturas incorrectas de cabeza, cuello y brazos generaron molestias en la zona de hombros y espalda, mientras que las posiciones erradas de piernas y pies sensibilizaron la región lumbar.


Abstract Introduction: The implementation of ergonomics in microsurgery minimizes forced positions that cause pain and discomfort in surgeons, which are associated with errors in the surgical technique. Objective: To determine ergonomic errors associated with microsurgery to characterize the relationship between poor posture and pain in different areas of the body. Materials and methods: Observational study conducted in 71 students enrolled in a basic microsurgery course. Two forms were used to assess ergonomic performance : one designed for the professor to record the variables contemplated in each programmed exercise, and another designed for the students to assess the presence of physical discomfort by means of a pain scale. Finally, the relationship between ergonomic position and presence of pain was determined. Results: Ergonomic performance was regular in relation to the position of the feet (57%), arms and forearms (17%), back (17%), and head and neck (5.7%). 25.3% of the participants reported pain in the lumbar region, 19.7% in the trapezius muscle area, 18.5% in the neck, 14% in the hands, and 8.5% in other unspecified areas of the body. Surgical instruments were not in place in 45.8% of the cases. Conclusions: The poor ergonomic positions found among the participants were related to discomfort and pain in the lumbar area and the trapezium muscle area. Wrong posture of the head, neck and arms generated discomfort in the shoulder and back areas, while wrong posture of the legs and feet sensitized the lumbar region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain , Ergonomics , Microsurgery , Posture , Risk Factors
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1571-1576, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134480

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the clinical and radiographic examination (CRE) method compared to the examination with the dental operating microscope (DOM) on the detection of anatomical features of mesiobuccal canals in maxillary first molars. One hundred maxillary first molars were selected to assess the number of canals orifice entrances, accessibility, and ending of their mesiobuccal canals using the CRE method and the examination with the DOM. The diagnostic tests of the CRE exhibited, in general, high levels of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. However, low levels of these outcomes occurred, mainly, on the detection of the number of canals entrance orifices of the mesiobuccal root. The statistically significant differences (p<0.05) occurred for accessibility and ending of canals in 61 of the 62 cases (out of 100) when two of them were present: 2 accessible root canals (48 cases; 77.42 %), and 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible canals (13 cases; 20.97 %); 1 foramen after fusion (18 cases; 29.03 %), 2 foramens (30 cases; 48.39 %), and 1 foramen and 1 blind foramen (13 cases; 20.97 %). This study proves that the clinical and radiographic method (still the most commonly used worldwide) can't be trusted absolutely in situations of complex internal anatomy regarding the mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary first molars.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad del método de examen clínico y radiográfico (ECR) en comparación al examen con el microscopio quirúrgico dental (MQD) en la detección de características anatómicas de los canales mesiovestibulares en primeros molares maxilares.Se seleccionaron 100 primeros molares maxilares para evaluar el número de entradas de los canales, la accesibilidad y la terminación de sus canales mesiovestibulares utilizando el método ECR y el examen con el MQD.Las pruebas de diagnóstico del ECR exhibieron, en general, altos niveles de precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad. Sin embargo, también hubo niveles bajos de estos resultados, principalmente, en la detección del número de orificios de entrada a los canales de las raíces mesiovestibulares. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) para la accesibilidad y terminación de los canales en 61 de los 62 casos (del total de 100), cuando dos de ellos estaban presentes: 2 canales radiculares accesibles (48 casos, 77,42 %), y 1 accesible y 1 inaccesible (13 casos, 20,97 %). Después de la fusión, un orificio (18 casos, 29,03 %), 2 orificios (30 casos, 48,39 %) y 1 orificio más otro, ciego (13 casos, 20,97 %). Este estudio demuestra que no se puede confiar plenamente en el método clínico y radiográfico (todavía el más utilizado en todo el mundo), cuando existe una anatomía interna compleja de los canales de la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares superiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Molar/anatomy & histology , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Dental , Sensitivity and Specificity , Maxilla , Microscopy/methods , Microsurgery
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 363-365, nov.-dez. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156165

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Desenvolver um modelo treinamento utilizando tomates para aquisição de habilidades microcirúrgicas oftalmológicas. Métodos: Duas espécies de tomates (Tomate longa vida e cereja) foram utilizados, sendo utilizados tomates verdolengos e maduros. Delimitou-se com marcador permanente um círculo de raio de 0,5cm. Sob magnificação de um sistema de vídeo, foi realizado a separação da casca, tentando evitar lesionar a fruta. Após a dissecção, foi realizado a rafia da região removida com fio de mononáilon 10-0. Resultados: Os modelos utilizados mostraram-se viáveis para a realização do treinamento de dissecção microcirúrgica independente da espécie. O custo médio de cada simulador foi de menos de R$2,00. O tempo médio de dissecção foi de 10,40 ±1,84 minutos no tomate maduro e 15,20 ±2,25 minutos no verdolengos. Apenas nos tomates verdolengos foi possível realizar a rafia. Conclusão: O modelo de treinamento desenvolvido mostrou-se adequado para o treinamento inicial de várias habilidades oftalmológicas. Além disso, apresenta um baixo custo e fácil aquisição e confecção.


Abstract Objectives: Develop a training model using tomatoes to acquire ophthalmic microsurgical skills. Methods: Two species of immature and mature tomatoes (long life and cherry tomato) were used. A 0.5cm radius circle was delimited with a permanent marker. Under a magnification by a video system, the peel was separated, trying to avoid damaging the fruit. After dissection, it was performed the raffia of the peel with 10-0 mononylon thread. Results: The models used proved to be viable for training in microsurgical dissection, regardless of the species. The average cost of each simulator was less than U$ 1.00. The average dissection time was 10.40 ± 1.84 minutes for ripe tomatoes and 15.20 ± 2.25 minutes for greens. Only in immature tomatoes was it possible to make the raffia. Conclusion: The training model developed proved to be suitable for the initial training of many ophthalmic skills. In addition, it has a low cost and is easy to purchase and manufacture.


Subject(s)
Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Sutures , Lycopersicon esculentum , Dissection , Simulation Training , Microsurgery , Epidemiology, Experimental , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 39-54, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150748

ABSTRACT

La búsqueda por encontrar métodos para acortar la duración de los tratamientos de ortodoncia tiene un pasado reciente, un presente y un futuro. Las fuerzas ortodóncicas que se ejercen sobre la membrana periodontal producen movimientos dentarios por modificaciones histológicas y biomoleculares. El conocimiento de los procesos biológicos da lugar a implementar cambios para favorecer la aceleración de los procesos resortivos y neoformativos. El objetivo de esta publicación es hacer una breve síntesis de lo acontecido con este tema y exponer el procedimiento de las micro-osteoperforaciones (MOPs) como una opción complementaria al tratamiento de ortodoncia convencional. Aún no existe suficiente apoyo de ensayos clínicos en humanos para aseverar su éxito. Más aún, distintos autores publican conclusiones contradictorias. Es de esperar que, en breve, nuevas investigaciones contribuyan a respaldarlo o desestimarlo (AU)


The quest to find methods to shorten the duration of orthodontic treatments has a recent past, a present, and a future. Orthodontic forces exerted on the periodontal membrane produce tooth movements by histological and biomolecular modifications. Knowledge of biological processes results in changes to promote the acceleration of spring and neoformative processes. The objective of this publication is to make a brief synthesis of what happened with this topic and expose the micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) procedure as a complementary option to conventional orthodontic treatment. There is not yet enough support from human clinical trials to assert its success. Moreover, different authors publish conflicting conclusions. It is to be expected that, shortly, further investigations will help to support or dismiss it (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Movement Techniques/methods , Biological Phenomena , Oral Surgical Procedures , Microsurgery , Osteotomy/methods , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Low-Level Light Therapy , RANK Ligand , Duration of Therapy
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 796-802, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134226

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop and validate a new test of specific technical skills required for microsurgical varicocelectomy. Materials and Methods: An electronic questionnaire was sent to 558 members of the Brazilian Society of Urology for the validation of the task-specific checklist (TSC) for assessment of microsurgical varicocelectomy. Participants who had experience in this procedure were selected as judges. For construct validation, 12 participants including attending urologists and urological residents in training were recruited for voluntary participation. We formed a group of three experts and a group of nine novices, who had to perform the steps of microsurgical varicocelectomy on a simulation model using human placenta. Each participant was filmed and two blinded raters would then evaluate their performance using the TSC of microsurgical varicocelectomy. Results: 14 judges were recruited. The assessment tool was reformulated, according to the judges suggestions and had the content validity achieved. The final version of the TSC was comprised of the task-specific score, a series of 4 items scored in a binary fashion designed for microscopic sub-inguinal varicocelectomy. The differences between the performance of participants with different levels of experience reflected the construct validity. The reliability between the raters was high. The mean time required to complete the training of microsurgical varicocelectomy in simulation model was significantly shorter for experts compared to novices (201 vs. 496 seconds, p=0.01). Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that the task-specific checklist of microsurgical varicocelectomy is reliable and valid in assessing microsurgical skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Checklist , Microsurgery , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Competence
14.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 130-137, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098380

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neuralgia del trigémino (NT) es una enfermedad cuya prevalencia es alta y corresponde a un porcentaje importante de neuralgias faciales; en donde las personas más afectadas son mayores de 50 años. Su manifestación clínica suele ser de cuadros de dolor facial severo y recurrentes, unilateral; en la distribución de una o más divisiones del nervio trigémino y no se explica con otro diagnóstico. El diagnóstico se basa en el cuadro clínico y usualmente no se encuentra déficit sensorial, sin embargo, si está presente se deben hacer neuroimágenes para descartar otras causas. En primera instancia está el manejo farmacológico. La carbamazepina se ha establecido como efectivo, llegando a producir un alivio del dolor dentro de las 24 horas. Cuando la farmacoterapia falla, se opta por la cirugía que se divide generalmente en dos: técnicas que destruyen la porción sensitiva del nervio; y la descompresión microvascular (DMV), que es la que tiene mejores resultados.


Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia is a disease whose prevalence is high and corresponds to a significant percentage of facial neuralgia; where the most affected people are over 50 years old. The clinical picture is usually of episodes of severe and recurring facial pain, unilateral; in the distribution of one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve and this is not explained with another diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on the clinic and usually no sensory deficit is found, however, if present, neuroimaging should be done to rule out other causes. In the first instance is the pharmacological management. Carbamazepine has been established as effective, leading to pain relief within 24 hours. When pharmacological therapy fails, surgery is generally divided into two: techniques that destroy the sensitive portion of the nerve and microvascular decompression, which has the best results.


Subject(s)
Trigeminal Neuralgia/diagnosis , Trigeminal Neuralgia/drug therapy , Pons/pathology , Microsurgery , Nerve Crush
15.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 80-85, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The use of endoscope is rapidly increasing in otological and neuro- otological surgery in the last 2 decades. Middle ear surgeries, including tympanoplasty, have increasingly utilized endoscopes as an adjunct to or as a replacement for the operative microscope. Superior visualization and transcanal access to diseases normal- ly managed with a transmastoid approach are touted as advantages with the endoscope. Objectives The present study aimed to compare the outcomes of endoscopic and microscopic cartilage tympanoplasty (Type I) Methods This was a retrospective comparative study of 70 patients (25 males and 45 females) who underwent type I tympanoplasty between March 2015 and April 2016. The subjects were classified into 2 groups: endoscopic tympanoplasty (ET, n = 35), and microscopic tympanoplasty (MT, n = 35). Tragal cartilage was used as a graft and technique used was cartilage shield tympanoplasty in both groups. Demographic data, perforation size of the tympanic membrane at the preoperative state, operation time, hearing outcome, and graft success rate were evaluated. Results The epidemiological profiles, the preoperative hearing status, and the perforation size were similar in both groups. The mean operation time of the MT group (52.63 ± 8.68 minutes) was longer than that of the ET group (48.20 ± 10.37 minutes), but the difference was not statistically significant. The graft success rates 12 weeks postoperatively were 91.42% both in the ET and MT groups, that is, 32/35; and these values were not statistically significantly different. There was a statistically significant improvement in hearing within the groups, both pre- and postoperatively, but there was no difference between the groups. Conclusion Endoscopic tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive surgery with similar graft success rate, comparable hearing outcomes and shorter operative time period as compared to microscopic use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Aged , Tympanoplasty/methods , Endoscopy , Microsurgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ear Cartilage/transplantation , Operative Time
16.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 53-61, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090553

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The increase in life expectancy is an incentive to the development of researches with the elderly population aiming at actions that may ensure healthy and active aging. Objective To analyze the profile of laryngeal microsurgery performed in patients > 60 years old. Methods A retrospective observational study, with a cross-sectional design. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of elderly patients submitted to laryngeal microsurgery was performed at a private hospital in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil, between January 2004 and December 2016. Were included all of the patients > 60 years old that underwent laryngeal microsurgery during this period. Results During the studied period, 213 laryngeal microsurgeries were performed in 181 patients > 60 years old. There was a preponderance of male patients. The mean age was 67.6 years old. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most prevalent disorder (26%), followed by Reinke edema (20%), papillomatosis (14%), polyps (11%), leukoplakia (8%), minor structural alterations (8%), associated lesions (9%), and others (4%). Men presented a higher probability of SCC diagnosis, regardless of the age group, while Reinke edema was more frequently observed in women. A directly proportional relation between the frequency of laryngeal cancer and age increase was also observed. No significant differences were observed in professional voice users. Conclusion Further researches are required to properly comprehend the factors associ- ated with laryngeal lesions and determine prevention and treatment approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Laryngeal Diseases/surgery , Laryngeal Diseases/epidemiology , Larynx/surgery , Microsurgery , Papilloma/surgery , Occupational Risks , Aging/physiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Laryngeal Edema/surgery , Laryngeal Edema/epidemiology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
17.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 9-18, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099197

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La laringe de cerdo doméstico tiene similitudes con la laringe humana. La capacidad elástica de las cuerdas vocales del cerdo demuestran tener la mayor similitud con la humana comparado con otros animales por lo que se ha propuesto usar las laringes de cerdo como modelo de entrenamiento quirúrgico. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias y similitudes anatómicas e histológicas entre la laringe del cerdo y la humana. Material y método: Se realizaron mediciones por 4 observadores en 5 laringes porcinas cuyos resultados se compararon con los descritos en la literatura para las laringes humanas. Además se realizaron cortes histológicos para visualizar fibras elásticas, mucinas neutras y mucinas ácidas. Resultados: El cartílago tiroides porcino mide entre las astas superiores 37,55 ±7,30 mm, entre astas inferiores 31,33 ±3,27 mm, desde la prominencia laríngea al borde posterior 34,32 ±7,30 mm. En el cartílago cricoides, desde el borde superior-inferior en el arco anterior 7,28 ±2,21 mm, altura borde superior-inferior pared posterior 27,47 ±3,40 mm, ancho máximo pared posterior 30,99 ±4,51 mm, diámetro interior anteroposterior (borde cefálico) 30,90 ±2,12 mm, diámetro interior anteroposterior (borde caudal) 21,78 ±2,55 mm, diámetro interior derecha-izquierda (borde cefálico) 18,11 ±2,13 mm, diámetro interior derecha-izquierda (borde caudal) 21,10 ±2,40 mm. Histológicamente, la laringe de cerdo y humana presentan leves diferencias en cuanto al epitelio de cada porción de la laringe, a pesar de que el tipo de cartílago es el mismo en ambas especies. Conclusión: Si bien existen diferencias anatómicas e histológicas entre la laringe de cerdo y el humano, el modelo porcino es una alternativa útil, accesible y de bajo costo para el entrenamiento en cirugía laringotraqueal y microcirugía laríngea.


Introduction: The domestic pig larynx has similarities with the human larynx. The elastic capacity of the vocal folds of the pig has the greater similarity with the human one compared with other animals. It has been proposed to use the porcine larynx as a model for surgical training. Aim: To determine the anatomical and histological differences and similarities between the pig larynx and the human larynx. Material and method: Measurements were made by 4 observers in 5 porcine larynxes whose results were compared with those described in the literature. In addition, histological sections were performed to visualize elastic fibers, neutral mucins and acid mucins. Results: The porcine thyroid cartilage measured 37.55 ±7.30 mm between the upper horns, 31.33 ±3.27 mm between lower horns and 34.32 ±7.30 mm from the laryngeal prominence to the posterior margin. In the cricoid cartilage, from the upper-lower edge in the anterior arch 7.28 ±2.21mm, height upper-lower edge posterior wall 27.47 ±3.40 mm, maximum posterior wall width 30.99 ±4.51 mm, anteroposterior inner diameter (head margin) 30.90 ±2.12 mm, inner diameter anteroposterior (caudal edge) 21.78 ±2.55 mm, inner diameter right-left (head edge) 18.11 ±2.13 mm, inner diameter right-left (caudal edge) 21.10 ±2.40 mm. Histologically, the pig and human larynxes present slight differences in the epithelium of each portion of the larynx, despite the fact that type of cartilage is the same in both species. Conclusions: Although there are anatomical and histological differences between the pig larynx and the human larynx, the porcine model is a useful, accessible and low cost alternative for training in laryngotracheal surgery and laryngeal microsurgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Larynx/anatomy & histology , Microsurgery/education , Arytenoid Cartilage/anatomy & histology , Swine , Thyroid Cartilage/anatomy & histology , Cricoid Cartilage/anatomy & histology , Laryngeal Nerves , Larynx/blood supply
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 701-705, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136270

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Microsurgical clipping is currently the main method of treating cerebral aneurysms, even with the improvement of endovascular therapy techniques in recent years. Treatment aims at complete occlusion of the lesion, which is not always feasible. Although appearing superior to endovascular treatment, microsurgical clipping may present varying percentages of incomplete occlusion. Such incidence may be reduced with the use of intraoperative vascular study. Some classifications were elaborated in an attempt to standardize the characteristics of residual lesions, but the classification criteria and terminology used in the studies remain vague and poorly documented, and there is no consensus for a uniform classification. Thus, there is also no agrément on which residual aneurysms should be treated. The aim of this study is to review the literature on residual lesions after microsurgery to treat cerebral aneurysms and how to proceed with them.


RESUMO A clipagem microcirúrgica é, atualmente, o principal método de tratamento dos aneurismas cerebrais, mesmo com o aprimoramento das técnicas de terapia endovascular nos últimos anos. O tratamento visa à oclusão completa da lesão, o que nem sempre é factível. Apesar de parecer superior ao tratamento endovascular, a clipagem microcirúrgica pode apresentar porcentagens variadas de oclusão incompleta. Tal incidência pode ser reduzida com utilização de estudo vascular intraoperatório. Algumas classificações foram elaboradas na tentativa de padronizar as características das lesões residuais, mas os critérios de classificação e a terminologia utilizados nos trabalhos mantêm-se vagos e pobremente documentados, não havendo consenso para uma classificação uniforme. Dessa forma, não há também concordância sobre quais aneurismas residuais devam ser submetidos a tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo é realizar uma revisão da literatura a respeito das lesões residuais após microcirurgia para tratamento dos aneurismas cerebrais e como proceder diante dessas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Endovascular Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Disease Progression , Microsurgery
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880397

ABSTRACT

With the development of laryngeal microsurgery, the requirements for the flexibility and convenience of surgical instruments are increasing. The research on related instruments has important value for the clinical application of laryngeal microsurgery. We have redesigned a gun-type tube-guide device of laser fiber by comparing the shortcomings of existing laser fiber introducers. The innovation of this design lies in its rotating nut device with adjustable laser angle and pre-bent tip. The corresponding


Subject(s)
Humans , Larynx/surgery , Laser Therapy/instrumentation , Lasers , Microsurgery/instrumentation , Surgical Instruments
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1973, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the incidence and epidemiological, angiographic, and surgical aspects associated with incomplete clipping of brain aneurysms in a cohort of patients undergoing microsurgical treatment. METHODS: The medical record data of patients who underwent microsurgery for cerebral aneurysm treatment and postoperative digital subtraction angiography, treated at the same teaching hospital between 2014 and 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. The studied variables involved epidemiological and clinical data, as well as neurological status and findings on neuroimaging. The time elapsed between hemorrhage and microsurgical treatment, data on the neurosurgical procedure employed for aneurysm occlusion, and factors associated with the treated aneurysm, specifically location and size, were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients were submitted to 139 neurosurgical procedures, in which 167 aneurysms were clipped. The overall rate of residual injury was 23%. Smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 1.372-8.300, p=0.008), lesion size >10 mm (OR: 5.136, CI95%: 2.240-11.779, p<0.001) and surgery duration >6 h (OR: 8.667, CI95%: 2.713-27.681, p<0.001) were found to significantly impact incomplete aneurysm occlusion in the univariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Incomplete microsurgical aneurysm occlusion is associated with aneurysm size, complexity, and current smoking status. Currently, there is no consensus on postoperative assessment of clipped aneurysms, hindering the correct assessment of treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neurosurgical Procedures , Microsurgery
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