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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#We wanted to investigate the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD).@*METHODS@#We compared RPC densities in the disk and different peripapillary regions, obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography in 22 patients with BCD (37 eyes) and 22 healthy subjects (37 eyes). The BCD group was then divided into Stage 2 and Stage 3 subgroups based on Yuzawa staging, comparing the RPC densities of the two.@*RESULTS@#The disk area RPC density was 38.8% ± 6.3% in the BCD group and 49.2% ± 6.1% in the control group ( P < 0.001), and peripapillary region RPC density was significantly lower in the BCD group than in the control group (49.1% ± 4.7% and 54.1% ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.001). There were no significant RPC density differences between the tempo quadrant and inside disk of Stages 2 and 3 subgroups; the other areas showed a significantly lower RPC density in Stage 3 than in Stage 2 BCD.@*CONCLUSION@#The BCD group RPC density was significantly lower than the control group. The reduction of RPC density in the tempo quadrant occurred mainly in the Stage 1 BCD. In contrast, the reduction of RPC density in superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants occurred mainly in Stage 2.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Angiography , Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Microvascular Density , Microvessels/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Retinal Vessels/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5541, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792524

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry/methods , Microvessels/physiopathology , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Case-Control Studies , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Skin/blood supply , Statistics, Nonparametric
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although drug-eluting stents (DESs) effectively reduce restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), they also delay re-endothelialization and impair microvascular function, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capturing stents, by providing a functional endothelial layer on the stent, have beneficial effects on microvascular function. However, data on coronary microvascular function in patients with EPC stents versus DESs are lacking. METHODS: Seventy-four patients who previously underwent PCI were enrolled in this study. Microvascular function was evaluated 6 months after PCI based on the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and the coronary flow reserve (CFR). IMR was calculated as the ratio of the mean distal coronary pressure at maximal hyperemia to the inverse of the hyperemic mean transit time (hTmn). The CFR was calculated by dividing the hTmn by the baseline mean transit time. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (age, 67.2 +/- 9.6 years; male:female, 15:6) with an EPC stent and 53 patients (age, 61.5 +/- 14.7 years; male:female, 40:13) with second-generation DESs were included in the study. There were no significant differences in the baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the two groups. Angiography performed 6 months postoperatively did not show significant differences in their CFR values. However, patients with the EPC stent had a significantly lower IMR than patients with second-generation DESs (median, 25.5 [interquartile range, 12.85 to 28.18] vs. 29.0 [interquartile range, 15.42 to 39.23]; p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular dysfunction was significantly improved after 6 months in patients with EPC stents compared to those with DESs. The complete re-endothelialization achieved with the EPC stent may provide clinical benefits over DESs, especially in patients with microvascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Flow Velocity , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Drug-Eluting Stents , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Microvessels/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/instrumentation , Prosthesis Design , Re-Epithelialization , Stents , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Resistance
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Bone marrow (BM) microvessel density (MVD) is a useful marker of angiogenesis and is determined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 antibody. This study investigated the prognostic impact of MVD and demonstrated the relationship between MVD and previously mentioned prognostic factors in patients with MM. METHODS: The study included 107 patients with MM. MVD was assessed at initial diagnosis in a blinded manner by two hematopathologists who examined three CD34-positive hot spots per patient and counted the number of vessels in BM samples. Patients were divided into three groups according to MVD tertiles. Cumulative progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves, calculated by using Kaplan-Meier method, were compared among the three groups. Prognostic impact of MVD was assessed by calculating Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: Median MVDs in the three groups were 16.8, 33.9, and 54.7. MVDs were correlated with other prognostic factors, including beta2-microglobulin concentration, plasma cell percentage in the BM, and cancer stage according to the International Staging System. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high MVD was an independent predictor of PFS (HR=2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.42; P=0.013). PFS was significantly lower in the high MVD group than in the low MVD group (P=0.025). However, no difference was observed in the OS (P=0.428). CONCLUSIONS: Increased BM MVD is a marker of poor prognosis in patients newly diagnosed with MM. BM MVD should be assessed at the initial diagnosis of MM.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Microvessels/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Plasma Cells/cytology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors
6.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950762

ABSTRACT

As regards their morphology and biology, tumours consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis assumes that a tumour is hierarchically organized and not all of the cells are equally capable of generating descendants, similarly to normal tissue. The only cells being able to self-renew and produce a heterogeneous tumour cell population are cancer stem cells. CSCs probably derive from normal stem cells, although progenitor cells may be taken into consideration as the source of cancer stem cells. CSCs reside in the niche defined as the microenvironment formed by stromal cells, vasculature and extracellular matrix. The CSC assays include FACS sorting, xenotransplantation to immunodeficient mice (SCID), incubation with Hoechst 33342 dye, cell culture in non-adherent conditions, cell culture with bromodeoxyuridine. CSCs have certain properties that make them resistant to anticancer therapy, which suggests they may be the target for potential therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Neoplastic Stem Cells/pathology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , Tumor Microenvironment/physiology , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Cell Self Renewal/physiology , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/therapeutic use , Mice, SCID , Stromal Cells/pathology , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Clonal Evolution/physiology , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Dyes
7.
Clinics ; 68(7): 1061-1064, jul. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report the sublingual microcirculation observed using Sidestream Dark Field imaging in two children with dengue shock. METHOD: Two children, aged 9 and 10 years, were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with dengue shock and multiple organ dysfunction. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed in each patient on the first and second days of shock and was assessed a final time when the patients were no longer in shock (on the day prior to extubation) using Sidestream Dark Field technology. The De Backer score and microvascular flow index were used for the analyses. RESULTS: Both patients had reduced perfused small vessel density in the first two days and showed predominantly intermittent or no microcirculation flow, as demonstrated by a low microvascular flow index. The blood flow in the large vessels was not affected. Prior to the extubation, the microvascular flow index had increased, although the perfused small vessel density remained diminished, suggesting persistent endothelial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Severe microcirculation changes may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the final stages of dengue shock, which is frequently irreversible and associated with high mortality rates. Microcirculatory monitoring may help elucidate the physiopathology of dengue shock and prove useful as a prognostic tool or therapeutic target. .


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Microcirculation/physiology , Severe Dengue/physiopathology , Diagnostic Imaging , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular , Microvessels/physiopathology , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Severe Dengue/drug therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 84(2): 194-204, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687176

ABSTRACT

La sepsis grave y shock séptico involucran una compleja red de alteraciones circulatorias, inflamatorias y metabólicas que llevan finalmente a una disrupción energética celular. Las alteraciones microcirculatorias son frecuentes en el paciente séptico. Su observación directa mediante el uso de vídeomicroscopia como sides-tream dark field (SDF) ha permitido la construcción de falla microcirculatoria como concepto clínico en el paciente crítico. Diversas intervenciones terapéuticas empleadas rutinariamente en el tratamiento del paciente crítico parecen estar asociadas con cambios limitados en la perfusión de la microcirculación, con independencia de la hemodinamia sistémica, debido a la naturaleza heterogénea de estas alteraciones y los mecanismos potencialmente involucrados.


Severe sepsis and septic shock involve circulatory, inflammatory and metabolic disorders eventually resulting in a disruption of cellular energy. Microcirculatory disturbances are common in septic patients. Direct observation using sidestream dark field (SDF) videomicroscopy has enabled the construction of microcirculatory failure as a clinical concept in the critically ill patients. Many therapeutic interventions routinely used in the treatment of critically ill patients seem to be associated with limited changes in microcirculatory perfusion, irrespective of systemic hemodynamics, given the heterogeneous nature of these changes and the mechanisms potentially involved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Critical Illness , Shock, Septic/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Capillaries/physiology , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Hemofiltration , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Microcirculation , Microvessels/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index
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