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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e188652, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363174

ABSTRACT

Sedative and antinociceptive effects of two anesthetic protocols in black-tufted marmosets were compared in this study. Twenty-six marmosets underwent chemical immobilization for physical examination, blood sampling, tattooing, and microchipping. Animals were randomly treated with S-(+)-ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) (KM) or fentanyl (12.5 µg/kg) and droperidol (625 µg/kg) (FD) given by intramuscular injection. Heart and respiratory rates were recorded. Sedation, antinociception, muscle relaxation, posture, auditory, and visual responses were evaluated using a scoring system. Sedation in KM was achieved faster (p < 0.001) and lasted for a shorter period of time (p = 0.0009). KM was similar to FD in its cardiorespiratory effects, auditory and visual responses. Both protocols promoted adequate sedation to allow manipulation. Animals in KM assumed lateral recumbency while animals in FD maintained a quadrupedal posture during evaluation. FD produced less intense sedation and muscle relaxation but a higher degree of antinociception compared to KM and is suitable for procedures that require analgesia in black-tufted marmosets.(AU)


O presente estudo comparou os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, sedativos e antinociceptivos de dois protocolos anestésicos em saguis-de-tufo-preto (Callithrix penicillata). Vinte e seis saguis foram submetidos à contenção química para exame físico, coleta de sangue, tatuagem de identificação e microchip. Os animais foram tratados aleatoriamente com a associação de S-(+)-cetamina (10 mg/kg) e midazolam (1 mg/kg) (KM) ou fentanil (12,5 µg/kg) e droperidol (625 µg/kg) (FD), administrados por injeção intramuscular. Foram avaliadas frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, sedação, antinocicepção, relaxamento muscular, postura e resposta ao estímulo auditivo e visual. A sedação em KM foi alcançada mais rapidamente (p <0,001) e teve um tempo hábil mais curto (p = 0,0009). KM foi semelhante a FD nos efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, respostas auditivas e visuais. Os dois protocolos promoveram sedação adequada para manipulação. Os animais do grupo KM permaneceram em decúbito lateral durante a avaliação, enquanto os animais em FD mantiveram postura quadrupedal. FD resultou em sedação e relaxamento muscular de menor intensidade, porém com maior escore de antinocicepção em comparação com KM, sendo adequada para procedimentos que requerem analgesia em saguis-de-tufo-preto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Callithrix , Fentanyl , Droperidol/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Injections, Intramuscular
2.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; oct. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1354502

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo del presente informe es: Describir el proceso para la elaboración de recomendaciones por el grupo de trabajo designado por el Ministerio de Salud, en adelante denominado grupo de trabajo. Trasladar las Recomendaciones efectuadas por dicho grupo de trabajo en atención al uso de sedación endovenosa en pacientes con COVID-19 crítico en ventilación mecánica invasiva, según la pregunta PICO (P: Población, I: Intervención, C: Comparador, O: Outcome o desenlaces) priorizada por el grupo de trabajo. La metodología considerada para arribar a la recomendación fue el Marco de Evidencia a la Decisión/Recomendación (EtD) desarrollado por el Grupo de Trabajo GRADE (1,2). ANALISIS: Formulación de la pregunta: En personas con COVID-19 crítico en ventilación mecánica invasiva, ¿cuál es el medicamento que debe administrarse para la sedación endovenosa? Y ¿Cuál pauta de dosificación? Identificación de la evidencia para la pregunta PICO: Se siguieron las orientaciones establecidas en el documento interno de UNAGESP: Orientaciones para el soporte metodológico otorgado al grupo de trabajo designado por el MINSA. Se describe a continuación los resultados del proceso: Se efectuó la búsqueda de guías de práctica clínica (GPC) que incluyeran recomendaciones respecto al uso de sedación endovenosa en la población de interés, con fecha de búsqueda 22 de octubre de 2021 en las siguientes plataformas: eCOVID-19 living map of recommendations (eCovid-19 RecMap), Base internacional de Guías GRADE (BIGG) , Guidelines International Network (GIN), COVID-19 Guidelines Dashboard, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - UK (NICE) y Trip database, identificándose 7 guías de práctica clínica (Ver Anexo 1). En base a criterios como fecha de búsqueda de la evidencia, uso de metodología GRADE para evaluar la certeza de la evidencia, disponibilidad de la tabla Perfil de evidencia o Resumen de hallazgos, disponibilidad de los criterios o Tabla EtD y tipo de recomendación. Se identificaron tres guías de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y una de la Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)(3­6), sin embargo, las guías de OPS no brindan recomendaciones especificas para responder directamente a todas las alternativas de intervenciones planteadas por SOPEMI. Por otro lado, las guías de SCCM contienen recomendaciones respecto al uso de todas las alternativas de intervenciones planteadas en pacientes no COVID. La búsqueda se realizó en MEDLINE/ vía PubMed, plataforma L·OVE de Epistemonikos (7) y en MedRxiv, con fecha 22 de octubre de 2021. Los criterios de selección de los estudios fueron: ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, cohortes o casos y control que evalúen la PICO planteada y reportaran al menos uno de los desenlaces de interés. La certeza de la evidencia fue realizada según el enfoque GRADE que toma en cuenta los siguientes criterios: diseño del estudio, riesgo de sesgo, inconsistencia en los resultados, ausencia de evidencia directa, imprecisión, sesgo de publicación, tamaño de efecto, gradiente dosis-respuesta, y efecto de los potenciales factores de confusión residual (los tres últimos aplicables en estudios observacionales) (8,9). Los resultados fueron presentados utilizando la Tablas de Resumen de Hallazgos (SOF, por sus siglas en inglés) construidas a partir del software en línea GRADEpro (https://gradepro.org/)(10) a partir de la adaptación de tablas SoF de la guía de SCCM (6) para pacientes no críticos. Metodología considerada para la elaboración de las recomendaciones: Marco de Evidencia a la Decisión/Recomendación (EtD: Evidence to decisión framework): Los marcos EtD (1,2) son una herramienta del Enfoque GRADE, que tiene como finalidad fomentar el uso de la evidencia de una manera estructurada y transparente para informar decisiones relacionadas al manejo clínico de una enfermedad, salud pública, políticas del sistema de salud o en situaciones como el contexto actual de pandemia acerca de acciones con repercusión socio-económica entre otras. Se aplicaron los principios del enfoque "GRADE-ADOLOPMENT" para identificar guías de práctica clínica orientadas a las preguntas PICO propuestas por el grupo de trabajo de MINSA, además que tener disponibles los perfiles de evidencia GRADE o Tablas de resumen de hallazgos y los marcos EtD. Dependiendo de la evaluación, estas pueden ser consideradas para la adaptación con contextualización o para la adopción (11). Los siguientes criterios del marco EtD fueron seleccionados para la discusión y juicio por el grupo de trabajo: Efectos deseables, Efectos indeseables, Certeza de la evidencia, Valores y preferencias de los pacientes, Balance de efectos, Recursos necesarios, Equidad, Aceptabilidad y Factibilidad. En caso de no haber consenso en la valoración del juicio, se efectuó una votación, determinándose la valoración por mayoría simple. La perspectiva fue del sistema de salud. Elaboración de las Recomendaciones: La metodología EtD considera determinar la fuerza y dirección de una recomendación (12). Ambas, como resultado del juicio acerca del balance beneficio-riesgo, calidad global de la evidencia, confianza en los valores y preferencias de los pacientes, uso de recursos, equidad en salud, aceptabilidad, y factibilidad. En este sentido, existirán recomendaciones "a favor de la intervención" o "en contra de la intervención" (a favor de la alternativa u opción). Asimismo, las recomendaciones fueron determinadas como fuertes o condicionales. Una recomendación será fuerte si existe una clara diferencia entre los efectos deseables e indeseables de la intervención, la certeza global de la evidencia alta o moderada, todos o casi todos los pacientes informados toman la misma decisión, el costo de la intervención está plenamente justificado, existe un impacto favorable en la equidad en salud, la intervención es aceptable para los usuarios interesados (pacientes y personal de salud) y la implementación de dicha intervención es viable. Una recomendación será condicional si alguna de las consideraciones siguientes está presente: Exista poca diferencia entre los efectos deseables e indeseables de la intervención, la calidad de la evidencia es baja o muy baja, existe variabilidad o incertidumbre respecto de lo que decidirán los pacientes informados o el costo de la intervención pudiera no estar justificado en algunas circunstancias. Diálogo Deliberativo para la valoración de los criterios del Marco EtD y elaboración de las recomendaciones: El Diálogo deliberativo se llevó a cabo el día 27 de octubre de 2021, reunión virtual a través de la herramienta Zoom, con la participación de: 1. Profesionales del Grupo de trabajo designado por el Ministerio de Salud: integrantes de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Intensiva y Representantes del Ministerio de Salud, en su calidad de panel de expertos, habilitados para emitir los juicios para cada criterio, votar en caso de ser necesario y elaborar la recomendación. 2. Representantes de la Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP) del INS, quienes efectuaron la identificación de la evidencia presentada ante los expertos, en calidad de facilitadores y conductores de los aspectos metodológicos de la reunión. RECOMENDACIÓN: Se sugiere el uso de Propofol sobre benzodiazepinas para la sedación en pacientes con COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva. Recomendación condicional, basada en evidencia de muy baja calidad: Consideraciones adicionales: La sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva debe ser precedida por una adecuada analgesia. En los pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva que no se alcance el objetivo de sedación con las dosis adecuadas de Propofol, o se tenga efectos colaterales, se podría considerar el uso de otro sedante. No se ha establecido la seguridad de Propofol en el embarazo, porque atraviesa la barrera placentaria y puede causar depresión neonatal. Se sugiere usar dexmedetomidina sobre benzodiazepinas para la sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica durante la fase de destete. Recomendación condicional, calidad de la evidencia muy baja: Consideraciones adicionales: Tener precaución sobre los efectos adversos como bradicardia e hipotensión. Evitar su uso en pacientes inestables hemodinámicamente. No se recomienda dar dosis de carga de dexmedetomidina. Se sugiere el uso de dexmedetomidina sobre Propofol para la sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica durante la fase de destete.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lorazepam/administration & dosage , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 428-433, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347287

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Construir um modelo de custo-efetividade para comparar o uso de propofol com o de midazolam em pacientes críticos adultos sob uso de ventilação mecânica. Métodos: Foi construído um modelo de árvore decisória para pacientes críticos submetidos à ventilação mecânica, o qual foi analisado sob a perspectiva do sistema privado de saúde no Brasil. O horizonte temporal foi o da internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os desfechos foram custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e custo-efetividade por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada. Foram obtidos os dados do modelo a partir de metanálise prévia. Assumiu-se que o custo da medicação estava incluído nos custos da unidade de terapia intensiva. Conduziram-se análises univariada e de sensibilidade probabilística. Resultados: Pacientes mecanicamente ventilados em uso de propofol tiveram diminuição de sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e na duração da ventilação mecânica, respectivamente, em 47,97 horas e 21,65 horas. Com o uso de propofol, ocorreu redução média do custo de U$2.998,971 em comparação ao uso do midazolam. A custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada foi dominante, respectivamente, em 94,40% e 80,8% do tempo. Conclusão: Ocorreu diminuição significante do custo associado ao uso de propofol, no que se refere à permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e à duração da ventilação mecânica para pacientes críticos adultos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To build a cost-effectiveness model to compare the use of propofol versus midazolam in critically ill adult patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: We built a decision tree model for critically ill patients submitted to mechanical ventilation and analyzed it from the Brazilian private health care system perspective. The time horizon was that of intensive care unit hospitalization. The outcomes were cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay avoided and cost-effectiveness per hour of mechanical ventilation avoided. We retrieved data for the model from a previous meta-analysis. We assumed that the cost of medication was embedded in the intensive care unit cost. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Mechanically ventilated patients using propofol had their intensive care unit stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation decreased by 47.97 hours and 21.65 hours, respectively. There was an average cost reduction of US$ 2,998.971 for propofol when compared to midazolam. The cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay and mechanical ventilation avoided were dominant 94.40% and 80.8% of the time, respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in costs associated with propofol use related to intensive care unit stay and duration of mechanical ventilation for critically ill adult patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Midazolam , Propofol , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitalization , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride combined with midazolam in fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 118 children who planned to undergo fiberoptic bronchoscopy from September 2018 to February 2021 were enrolled. They were divided into a control group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly decreased MAP at T@*CONCLUSIONS@#Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride combined with midazolam is a safe and effective way to administer general anesthesia for fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children, which can ensure stable vital signs during examination, reduce intraoperative adverse reactions and postoperative agitation, shorten examination time, and increase amnesic effect.


Subject(s)
Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Midazolam , Prospective Studies
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 368-375, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Comparison of post-anesthesia recovery time in sedated patients for colonoscopy using two drug combinations: midazolam and propofol or fentanyl and propofol. Method: Fifty patients ASA I and II, from 18 to 65 years of age, candidates for elective colonoscopy under sedation administered by an anesthesiologist, were randomized in two groups: Group A (midazolam and propofol) and Group B (fentanyl and propofol). Each patient was evaluated as for the length of the exam (Exam length), length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit 1 and 2 (LSPACU1 and LSPACU2) and hospital discharge. Episodes of awakening, and of movement, drop in SpO2 < 90%, need for mechanical ventilation, propofol consumption, heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure (MBP) were also evaluated. Results: Patients of group B had a recovery time in LSPACU1 statistically shorter than that for those in group A. In both groups, LSPACU1 was considered inversely proportional to LSPACU2. Hospital discharge time was similar between groups. Patients of group B had a significant decrease in MBP during and at the end of the exam, when compared to the initial measurement and that during sedation. Nevertheless, this variation was lower than 20%. No adverse event was observed. All patients were discharged on the same day, with no unexpected hospitalization. Conclusions: The combined use of fentanyl and propofol for colonoscopy sedation had a post-anesthesia recovery time in LSPACU1 shorter than that with the combination of midazolam and propofol. Nevertheless hospital discharge time was similar between groups.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o tempo de recuperação pós-anestésica de pacientes sedados para colonoscopia usando duas combinações de fármacos: midazolam e propofol ou fentanil e propofol. Método: Cinquenta pacientes ASA I e II, entre 18 e 65 anos, candidatos a colonoscopia eletiva sob sedação administrada por anestesiologista, foram randomizados em dois grupos: Grupo A (midazolam e propofol) e Grupo B (fentanil e propofol). Cada paciente foi avaliado quanto ao tempo de realização do exame (TExame), tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica 1 e 2 (TSRPA 1 e TSRPA2) e a alta domiciliar. Episódios de despertar, movimentação, queda de SpO2 < 90%, necessidade de assistência ventilatória, consumo de propofol, frequência cardíaca (FC) e pressão arterial média (PAM) também foram avaliados. Resultados: Pacientes do grupo B apresentaram tempo de recuperação na SRPA1 inferior estatisticamente ao grupo A. Em ambos os grupos o TSRPA1 foi considerado inversamente proporcional ao TSRPA2. O tempo de alta domiciliar foi semelhante entre os grupos. Pacientes do grupo B apresentaram redução significativa na PAM no tempos exame e final, em relação ao inicial e sedação. Entretanto, essa variação foi inferior a 20%. Não foram observados eventos adversos. Todos os pacientes evoluíram com alta domiciliar no mesmo dia, sem ocorrência de internação não prevista. Conclusões: O uso combinado de fentanil e propofol para sedação em colonoscopia produziu tempo de recuperação pós-anestésica na SRPA1 inferior a combinação midazolam e propofol. No entanto, o tempo de alta domiciliar foi semelhante entre os grupos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Colonoscopy/methods , Anesthesia/statistics & numerical data , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Propofol/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1727-1730, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131576

ABSTRACT

There is a need for various anesthetic agents to obtain sperm in the field of human and veterinary medicine. Propofol and midazolam are among the most preferred among these agents. The aim of this study was to determine how sperm paramaters are affected according to the anesthetic agent used. Propofol (2mg/kg) and midazolam (3,5-7,5mg/kg) were administered twice a day (morning-evening) for one week. As a result of this study, there was no statistical difference in sperm density and abnormal sperm rates (respectively P=0,673, P=0,479). Sperm motility rates are similar in the control and propofol groups, while the motility rate in the midazolam group is statistically lower. (Control group %85 - Midazolam group %68.75 - Propofol group %83.75), (P<0.05). As a result of this study, the confidence interval of propofol was higher than the other anesthetic agents used for sperm retrieval.(AU)


São necessários vários agentes anestésicos para obter espermatozoides no campo da medicina humana e veterinária. Propofol e midazolam estão entre os agentes preferidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar como os parâmetros de esperma são afetados de acordo com o agente anestésico utilizado. Propofol (2mg / kg) e midazolam (3,5-7,5mg / kg) foram administrados duas vezes ao dia (manhã e noite) durante uma semana. Neste estudo, não houve diferença estatística na densidade espermática e nas taxas anormais de espermatozoides (respectivamente P = 0,673, P = 0,479). As taxas de motilidade espermática são semelhantes nos grupos controle e propofol, enquanto a taxa de motilidade no grupo midazolam é estatisticamente menor. (Grupo controle % 85 - grupo midazolam % 68,75 - grupo propofol % 83,75), (P <0,05). Neste estudo, o intervalo de confiança do propofol foi maior do que os outros agentes anestésicos utilizados na recuperação espermática.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Semen/chemistry , Spermatozoa/physiology , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage
7.
Brasília; s.n; 29 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117728

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 3 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Propofol/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Copper/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Ketamine/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e560, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093126

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las técnicas de administración de anestesia en cirugía torácica han experimentado gran evolución y mayor fundamento científico. La anestesia intravenosa total basada en la analgesia favorece a que el período perioperatorio transcurra sin dolor y la recuperación sin complicaciones. Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad y seguridad de dos técnicas de anestesia intravenosa total en cirugía torácica electiva con remifentanilo como base analgésica. Métodos: Estudio causiexperimental, prospectivo realizado en el Hospital Docente Clínico Quirúrgico Dr. Salvador Allende, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2013 a enero de 2015, en 45 pacientes, programados para cirugía torácica electiva, divididos en dos grupos según hipnótico utilizado. Grupo A: Propofol/Remifentanil y Grupo B: Midazolam/Remifentanil. Se evaluaron variables hemodinámicas en diferentes momentos del período intraoperatorio. Variables de oxigenación (PaO2 y SaO2) durante la ventilación unipulmonar y los tiempos de recuperación anestésica. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes mayores de 60 años en los dos grupos, con estado físico ASA III. No hubo diferencias en la oxigenación arterial entre los grupos. Hubo disminución de la tensión arterial sistólica en el grupo A sin diferencias significativas. La recuperación de la anestesia fue significativamente más demorada en el grupo B. Conclusiones: La técnica de anestesia intravenosa total con remifentanil como base analgésica asociado a propofol resultó segura y efectiva en pacientes operados de cirugía torácica(AU)


Introduction: Anesthesia administration techniques in thoracic surgery have undergone great evolution and greater scientific foundation. Total intravenous anesthesia based on analgesia favors the perioperative period without pain and recovery without complications. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of two techniques of total intravenous anesthesia in elective thoracic surgery with remifentanil as an analgesic base. Methods: Prospective and causiexperimental study carried out at Dr. Salvador Allende Clinical-Surgical Teaching Hospital, in the period from January 2013 to January 2015, with 45 patients scheduled for elective thoracic surgery, who were divided into two groups according to the hypnotic drug used. Group A: propofol/remifentanil, and group B: midazolam/remifentanil. Hemodynamic variables were evaluated at different times during the intraoperative period. Oxygenation variables (PaO2 and SaO2) during unipulmonary ventilation and anesthetic recovery times. Results: Patients older than 60 years predominated in the two groups, with a physical status of ASA III. There were no differences in arterial oxygenation between the groups. There was a decrease in systolic blood pressure in group A without significant differences. The recovery of anesthesia was significantly more delayed in group B. Conclusions: The total intravenous anesthesia technique with remifentanil as an analgesic base associated with propofol was safe and effective in patients undergoing thoracic surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Propofol/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, Intravenous/methods , Prospective Studies , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Remifentanil/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e579, ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093133

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El paraganglioma es un tumor neuroendocrino poco frecuente que surge de los paraganglios autonómicos extraadrenales en diversos lugares del organismo. También se les conoce como feocromocitomas extraadrenales. Alrededor de 90 por ciento son benignos y se curan mediante la extirpación quirúrgica, el restante 10 por ciento son malignos, y pueden provocar metástasis a distancia. El diagnóstico es importante por su riesgo de malignidad, por las implicaciones de otras neoplasias asociadas y dada la posibilidad de realizar estudios genéticos para la detección de otros casos dentro de una misma familia. Objetivo: Exponer aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de esta enfermedad y las implicaciones perioperatorias concernientes a la conducta anestésica perioperatoria de estos pacientes. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina, de 56 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial de más dos años de evolución y difícil control, diabetes mellitus e historia de cefalea, palpitaciones y sensación de calor. Diagnóstico imagenológico de una masa pararrenal sospechosa de paraganglioma que se confirmó por estudio histopatológico posterior a la exceresis. Conclusiones: La técnica anestésica para la resección de estos tumores es un desafío importante para el anestesiólogo que debe enfrentar dicha intervención quirúrgica, planteándose los riesgos de las etapas pre-, intra- y posoperatoria(AU)


Introduction: Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that emerging from the extra-adrenal autonomic paraganglia and it may occur in several parts of the body. Paraganglioma is also named extra-adrenals pheochromocytomas. Roughly 90 percent of these tumors are benign and can be excised through surgery whereas 10 percent of them are malignant and cause distant metastasis. Paragangliomas are closely linked to pheochromocytomas because they cannot be differentiated at cell level and often share the same clinical manifestations such as hypertension, episodic headache, sweating and tachycardia. The diagnosis of these tumors is important because of risk of becoming malignant, the implications of other related neoplasias and the possibility of making genetic studies to detect other cases in the same family. Objective: To expose about epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests and perioperative management of these tumors by a presentation of a clinical case. Case Report: Female 56 years old, clinical history of 2 years of uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes mellitus, who presented with headache, palpitations and feeling of warm. She was diagnosed with a pararrenal mass suspected of paraganglioma associated with catecholamine hypersecretion, confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: The treatment of these tumors requires a more complete surgical resection possible since the prognosis depends. Surgical management of pheochromocytoma needs special perioperative requirements. The anesthesiologist must observe this surgery, establish the risks of the phase pre-intra and postoperative(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Paraganglioma/surgery , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Anesthesiologists
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 452-460, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128369

ABSTRACT

A presente pesquisa comparou os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, hemogasométricos e sedativos da associação midazolam (0,41mg/kg) e butorfanol (0,31mg/kg) acrescida de detomidina (157µg/kg) (DTMB) ou dexmedetomidina (36µg/kg) (DXMB) em catetos. Catetos adultos (n=20) foram distribuídos em dois grupos, DTMB ou DXMB. As variáveis (FC, f, PAM, SpO2, EtCO2 e TR) foram avaliadas após aplicação dos fármacos. A sedação foi avaliada por meio de escala analógica visual, relaxamento muscular, postura e resposta auditiva. Foi realizada ANOVA, seguida de teste t pareado (paramétricos) e teste de Mann-Whitney rank-sum test (não paramétricos), com P<0,05. Não foi observada diferença estatística entre os grupos para o período de latência. Observou-se diferença significativa entre grupos para as variáveis f, PAM e SpO2, com maiores valores para DTMB, e EtCO2, com maiores valores para DXMB. Os dois grupos apresentaram redução da FC e da concentração de lactato, bem como aumento da concentração de bicarbonato. A SpO2 permaneceu abaixo de 90%, durante todo o período experimental, nos dois grupos estudados. Os animais dos dois grupos apresentaram sedação profunda e relaxamento muscular máximo. Conclui-se que os dois protocolos testados proporcionaram adequada sedação, podendo ser indicados para contenção química de catetos adultos.(AU)


The study compared the cardiorespiratory, hemogasometric and sedative effects of the combination of midazolam (0.41mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.31mg/kg) plus detomidine (157µg/kg) (DTMB) or dexmedetomidine (36µg/kg) (DXMB) in collared peccaries. Collared peccaries (n= 20) were divided into two groups, either DTMB or DXMB. The variables (FC, f, PAM, SpO2, EtCO2 and TR) were evaluated after application of the drugs. Sedation was assessed by visual analogue scale, muscle relaxation, posture and auditory response. ANOVA followed by paired t-test (parametric) and Mann Whitney Rank Sum Test (non-parametric) with P< 0.05 were performed. No statistical difference was observed for the latency period. A significant increase was observed between groups for the variables f, PAM and SpO2 with higher values for DTMB and EtCO2 with higher values for DXMB. The two groups presented a reduction in HR and lactate concentration, and an increase in bicarbonate concentration. SpO2 remained below 90% throughout the experiment in both groups. The animals of the two groups presented deep sedation and maximum muscle relaxation. It is concluded that the two protocols tested provided adequate sedation and could be indicated for chemical containment of collared peccaries.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Artiodactyla/physiology , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Butorphanol/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Anesthetics, Combined/analysis , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811208

ABSTRACT

Behaviour management and dental procedures performed in very young, pre-cooperative, highly anxious, or medically disabled children are challenging tasks. Various drugs and methods have, however, been introduced to facilitate treatment for this patient population. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine used as an adjunct to behavior management techniques in the dental treatment of pediatric patients. Midazolam can be used as a safe and effective drug for conscious sedation, general anesthetic premedication, and treatment of seizures during dental procedures. Nevertheless, further research involving pediatric patients would be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines , Conscious Sedation , Disabled Children , Humans , Midazolam , Pediatric Dentistry , Premedication , Seizures
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare intranasal midazolam and intramuscular phenobarbital sodium for their sedative effect in neonates undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).@*METHODS@#A total of 70 neonates who underwent cranial MRI from September 2017 to March 2019 were randomized into an observation group and a control group, with 35 cases in each group. The observation group received intranasal drops of midazolam (0.3 mg/kg), and the control group received intramuscular injection of phenobarbital sodium (10 mg/kg). The sedation status of the neonates was evaluated using the Ramsay Sedation Scale. Meanwhile, the two groups were compared for the success rate of MRI procedure and incidence of adverse reactions.@*RESULTS@#In the observation group, the sedation score was the highest at 20 minutes post administration, then was gradually decreasing, and decreased to the lowest level at 70 minutes post administration. In the control group, the sedation score was the lowest at 10 minutes post administration, then was gradually increasing, and increased to the highest level at 40 minutes and 50 minutes post administration, followed by a gradual decrease. Comparison of the sedation score at each time period suggested that the sedation score was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group within 40 minutes post administration (P0.05). The success rate of MRI procedure was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (89% vs 69%, P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intranasal midazolam is superior to intramuscular phenobarbital sodium in the sedative effect in neonates undergoing MRI, with the benefits of being fast, convenient, safe, and effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Pharmacology , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Midazolam , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method
13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 649-656, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058196

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Se analiza la efectividad y seguridad de un protocolo específico de sedoanalgesia para procedimien tos, y evalúa la satisfacción del personal sanitario con cada procedimiento. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia para procedimientos en ámbito hospitalario en menores de 18 años, con una estrategia individualizada según la situación basal del paciente, el tipo de procedimiento y la experiencia del pediatra responsable de la sedación. Se registraron las variables: diagnóstico que motiva el procedimiento, tipo de procedimiento, datos antropométri cos, alergias, medicación, estado ASA y enfermedad de base, tiempo de ayuno, auscultación pul monar, temperatura, saturación de oxígeno, frecuencia respiratoria, frecuencia cardiaca, tensión arterial, lugar de sedación, tipo de fármaco, dosis, tipo de vía, escala de sedación Ramsay, duración de la sedación, tipo y tratamiento de efectos adversos, presencia de familiares durante todo el pro cedimiento y satisfacción del paciente. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 279 sedaciones. Los fármacos más usados fueron óxido nitroso (62,7%) y midazolam (16,5%); las vías de administración más utili zadas fueron la inhalada (62,4%) y la intravenosa (15,8%). La satisfacción fue alta para el pediatra (92,5%), el enfermero (94,3%), los familiares (96,8%) y los pacientes (93,6%), con una buena correlación entre ellos, y fue significativamente menor al usar midazolam y las vías nasal y bucal. La tasa de efectos adversos fue del 3,2%, y ninguno fue grave. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de un protocolo específico de sedoanalgesia para procedimientos en el ámbito hospitalario consigue una alta efectividad y seguridad, además de un alto nivel de satisfacción, tanto en familiares como en personal sanitario.


INTRODUCTION: We analyze the effectiveness and safety of a specific analgosedation protocol for procedures, and eva luate the satisfaction of the health personnel with each procedure. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Prospective study of an analgosedation protocol for hospital procedures in children under 18 years of age, with an individualized strategy based on the patient's baseline situation, the type of procedure and the experience of the pediatrician responsible for the sedation. The following variables were recorded: diagnosis motivating the procedure, type of procedure, anthropometric data, allergies, medication, ASA status and baseline disease, fasting time, lung auscultation, temperature, oxygen saturation, res piratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, sedation location, type of drug, dose, route of administra tion, Ramsay sedation scale, duration of sedation, type and treatment of adverse effects, presence of family members throughout the procedure, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: 279 sedations were performed. The most commonly used drugs were nitrous oxide (62.7%) and midazolam (16.5%); the most commonly used routes of administration were the inhaled one (62.4%) and the intravenous one (15.8%). The satisfaction was high for the pediatrician (92.5%), the nurse (94.3%), the family (96.8%), and patients (93.6%), with a good correlation between them, and it was significantly lower when using midazolam and the nasal and oral routes. The adverse effects rate was 3.2%, and none was severe. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a specific analgosedation protocol for procedures in the hospital environment achieves high levels of effectiveness and safety, as well as a high level of satisfaction, both in family members and in health personnel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Clinical Protocols , Patient Satisfaction , Pediatricians/psychology , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Job Satisfaction , Midazolam , Family/psychology , Prospective Studies , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Pain, Procedural/prevention & control , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesia/psychology , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/psychology , Nitrous Oxide , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1558-1564, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038680

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chemical restraint, general anesthesia and opioid treatment on hematological components in Cuniculus paca. Eight healthy, adult, captivity female animals , underwent three laparoscopic procedures with a 15-day interval were evaluated. After physical restraint, an association of ketamine (25mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for chemical restraint. Posteriorly, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; and randomly administered methadone (0.5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) or saline-placebo (0,1mL/kg) intramuscularly. After pharmacological restraint and in the final laparoscopy stage, venous blood samples were obtained for complete blood count, total plasma protein (TP), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium, potassium, chloride and ionized calcium analysis. During general anesthesia, hemoglobin, TP concentration and lymphocytes decreased (P=0.029; <0.001; 0.022 respectively), whereas the potassium levels increased (P=0.034). In conclusion, chemical restraint with ketamine/midazolam association causes a slight decrease in blood cellular components. Isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopic procedure lead to decrease in hemoglobin, lymphocytes and protein concentrations, while potassium increased, without any influence from the tramadol or methadone treatment. However, these alterations were transient, and its hematologic values can collaborate in carrying out epidemiological, pathophysiological or case studies in the Cuniculus paca.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de contenção química, anestesia geral e tratamento com opiáceos nos parâmetros hematológicos em Cuniculus paca. Foram avaliados oito animais saudáveis, fêmeas, adultas, de cativeiro, que foram submetidas a três procedimentos laparoscópicos, com intervalo de 15 dias. Após a contenção física, uma associação de cetamina (25mg/kg) e midazolam (0,5mg/kg) foi administrada por via intramuscular para contenção química. Posteriormente, a anestesia foi induzida e mantida com isoflurano, e administrou-se aleatoriamente metadona (0,5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) ou placebo salina por via intramuscular. Após a contenção farmacológica e em estágio final da laparoscopia, foram obtidas amostras de sangue venoso para contagem sanguínea completa, proteína de plasma total (TP), creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), cálcio, sódio, potássio e cloreto ionizado. Durante a anestesia geral, a concentração de hemoglobina, TP e linfócitos diminuiu (P= 0,029;< 0,001; 0,022, respectivamente), enquanto os níveis de potássio aumentaram (P= 0,034). Em conclusão, a contenção química com associação de cetamina/midazolam promove uma ligeira diminuição dos componentes celulares do sangue. A anestesia com isoflavano para o procedimento laparoscópico levou a uma diminuição das concentrações de hemoglobina, linfócitos e proteínas, enquanto o potássio aumentou, sem qualquer influência do tratamento com tramadol ou metadona. No entanto, essas alterações foram transitórias, e os seus valores hematológicos obtidos podem colaborar na realização de estudos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos ou casuísticas para Cuniculus paca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cuniculidae/surgery , Cuniculidae/blood , Anesthesia/veterinary , Anesthetics/blood , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Methadone/administration & dosage
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 305-311, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043432

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring can positively affect cognitive performance through decreasing the use of sedative agents. We aimed to evaluate the effect of BIS monitoring on early cognitive performance among patients undergoing sedation for colonoscopy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled trial in a university hospital. METHODS: 100 patients were randomized into two groups. In the monitored group (n = 50), the depth of anesthesia was monitored using the BIS, and BIS scores were maintained between 60 and 80. In the usual care group (n = 50), BIS monitoring was not performed. To determine the patients' baseline cognitive performance levels, the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Trieger dot test (TDT) and clock drawing test (CDT) were used. The patients' post-procedure cognitive performance levels were determined when they were classified as ready for discharge. RESULTS: The total volume (mg) of propofol used [median (range) IQR] in the sedation procedure was lower in the monitored group [100 (50-200) 100-140] than in the usual care group [150 (75-200) 100-200] (P < 0.001). The discharge scores [mean (SD)] using MMSE and CDT were higher in the monitored group [26 (3) and 3 (1), respectively] than in the usual care group [23 (3) and 2 (1), respectively] (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). The discharge scores using TDT [mean (SD)] were lower in the monitored group [11 (7)] than in the usual care group [15 (11)] (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring among sedated patients was associated with lower propofol use and smaller decline in cognitive performance. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12617000134325).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Colonoscopy/methods , Cognition/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Patient Satisfaction , Electroencephalography
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 404-409, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Crossover studies continue to be published in spite of warnings about their inherent risks in relation to behavioral outcomes. This study took the opportunity of access to secondary data analysis in order to demonstrate the impact of a crossover design on the outcomes of randomized clinical trials aimed at the behavior of children during dental treatment. We evaluated the effect of the sequence of sedative administration, the sedative and the participant's age on the behavior of children undergoing two sequential dental visits. Eighteen uncooperative healthy young children were equally randomly assigned to: (G1) 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (first session) and oral placebo (second session); (G2) oral placebo (first) and 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (second). One trained observer assessed children's behavior. Data were analyzed by three-way mixed ANOVA. Both midazolam [mean(SD); 71.7%(16.5)] and placebo [48.6%(33.1)] produced more struggling behavior when they were administered in the first session compared to the second one (p=0.001). For the placebo, children aged 2-3 years exhibited more struggling behavior [G1 54.9%(36.2); G2 80.5%(8.3)] than those aged 4-5 years (p=0.04). Also, the reduction of percentage of struggling behavior was higher in G1 for older children (76.2%) and in G2 for younger children (32.9%). There were significant interactions between drug and sequence of administration, and between drug and age. The results of our study confirm the conventional wisdom that crossover study design is inappropriate to evaluate children's behavior/anxiety related-dental treatment under sedation and the results of crossover studies of dental sedation should be treated with extreme caution.


Resumo Pouco se sabe sobre o impacto de um delineamento cruzado nos desfechos de ensaios clínicos randomizados voltados ao comportamento de crianças durante tratamento odontológico. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da sequência de administração do sedativo, da droga em si e da idade dos participantes no comportamento de crianças que receberam duas consultas odontológicas consecutivas. Dezoito crianças saudáveis não colaboradoras, 2-5 anos de idade, foram randomizadas em dois grupos: G1 - 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (primeira sessão) e placebo oral (segunda sessão); G2 - placebo (primeira) e 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (segunda). Um observador treinado avaliou o comportamento infantil. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de três fatores (alfa=0,05). Midazolam [média(DP); 71,7%(16,5)] e placebo [48,6%(33,1)] resultaram em mais comportamento não cooperativo quando administrados na primeira sessão comparado com a segunda (p=0,001). Com o uso do placebo, crianças de 2-3 anos de idade exibiram mais comportamento não cooperativo [G1 54,9%(36,2); G2 80,5%(8,3)] que as de 4-5 anos de idade (p=0,04). Além disso, a porcentagem de redução do comportamento não cooperativo foi maior em crianças mais velhas em G1 (76,2%) e em crianças mais novas em G2 (32,9%). Considerando a avaliação do comportamento infantil sob sedação, a primeira sessão odontológica influenciou a segunda visita. Os resultados deste estudo confirmam a especulação de que o delineamento cruzado é inadequado para avaliar o comportamento odontológico relacionado à ansiedade/comportamento infantil; os resultados dos ensaios cruzados de sedação odontológica devem ser tratados com extrema cautela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Conscious Sedation , Anesthesia, Dental , Midazolam , Child Behavior , Cross-Over Studies , Hypnotics and Sedatives
17.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 61(273): 81-87, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103002

ABSTRACT

La utilización de sedación y analgesia durante procedimientos diagnósticos y/o terapéuticos es un estándar de cuidado en pediatría. El pediatra a cargo debe conocer las condiciones del paciente y los recursos institucionales necesarios para la realización de una sedoanalgesia segura. Proponemos la utilización de ketamina, y en algunos casos su asociación con midazolam, para la sedoanalgesia realizada por pediatras


The use of sedation and analgesia during diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures is a standard of care in pediatrics. The pediatrician in charge must know the conditions of the patient and the institutional resources necessary for the realization of a safe sedoanalgesia. We propose the use of ketamine, and in some cases its association with midazolam, for sedoanalgesia performed by paediatricians


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Conscious Sedation , Analgesia , Midazolam , Child , Deep Sedation , Ketamine
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17351, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019534

ABSTRACT

This study was done to determine the time while the binary admixtures with midazolam and haloperidol drugs are administered by perfusion to the patients in the clinical routine. Samples with different concentrations of both drugs were prepared following the usual clinical practice. Solvents used were 0.9 % sodium chloride solution and 5% dextrose, and viaflo plastic bags were used as the containers of the admixtures. Samples were not protected from light and were stored at 20 ºC or at 4 ºC. Compatibility and physicochemical stability were studied by visual inspection, turbidity measurement, pH determination and ultraviolet detection high performance liquid chromatography (UV-HPLC) was used to determine midazolam and haloperidol concentrations. The assay was validated following the FDA and EMA guidelines. Darunavir was used as internal standard (IS). For the studied admixtures, turbidity measurements and pH determinations showed little changes in function of the time. Haloperidol and midazolam concentrations determined by HPLC are within the acceptable range of drug concentrations, which are considered stable for four days in case of admixtures stored at 20 ºC and for seven days for refrigerated admixtures. Taking into account the microbiological risk matrix, the compatibility and the chemical and microbiological stability of the midazolam and haloperidol in the co-administered admixtures in viaflo plastic bags with 0.9 % sodium chloride solution and 5% dextrose can be set as 48 hours when samples are stored at 20 ºC and one week if they are refrigerated.


Subject(s)
Midazolam/pharmacology , Haloperidol/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
19.
Sahel medical journal (Print) ; 22(1): 1-7, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1271696

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Emergence from general anaesthesia can be complicated by the presence of agitation in children and thus presents a challenging situation for postanesthesia care providers. Several factors are associated with emergence agitation (EA). These include pain, preoperative anxiety, young age, poor adaptability, short time to recovery, among others. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of oral midazolam inpreventing postoperative EA in children. Materials and Methods: This was a case­control study carried out among 80 healthy children aged 1­10 years scheduled for day­case surgery. The children were randomly assigned to receive either a syrup of paracetamol 10 mg/kg with injectable midazolam 0.5 mg/kg added to the syrup (Group A) or a placebo in the form of paracetamol syrup (Group B) at a dose of 10 mg/kg 30 min before induction of anesthesia. Patients' state of agitation was assessed every 5 min for the 1st h by means of an EA scale. Children with an agitation score of 3 or 4 were classified as agitated.Prolonged agitation was defined as a score of ≥3 lasting 15 min after arrival in the recovery room. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Software for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Eighty children aged 1­10 years were enrolled in the study. Majority of the procedures were circumcisions (48.75%), while urethral dilatation, examination under anesthesia, and tongue release were the least (1.25%). There was no statistically significant difference in the agitation state of the two groups (P = 0.60). Conclusion:Premedication with oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg administered 30 min preoperatively does not prevent EA in all cases


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Child , Emergence Delirium , Midazolam
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 437-445, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a serious complication after surgery, especially in elderly patients. The anesthesia technique is a potentially modifiable risk factor for POCD. This study assessed the effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol or midazolam sedation on POCD in elderly patients who underwent hip or knee replacement under spinal anesthesia.@*METHODS@#The present study was a prospective randomized controlled preliminary trial. From July 2013 and December 2014, a total of 164 patients aged 65 years or older who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty at China-Japan Friendship Hospital and 41 non-surgical controls were included in this study. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to 3 sedative groups. All the patients received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) with midazolam, dexmedetomidine or propofol sedation. The sedative dose was adjusted to achieve light sedation (bispectral index[BIS] score between 70 and 85). All study participants and controls completed a battery of 5 neuropsychological tests before and 7 days after surgery. One year postoperatively, the patients and controls were interviewed over the telephone using the Montreal cognitive assessment 5-minute protocol.@*RESULTS@#In all, 60 of 164 patients (36.6%) were diagnosed with POCD 7 days postoperatively, POCD incidence in propofol group was significantly lower than that in dexmedetomidine and midazolam groups (18.2% vs. 40.0%, 51.9%, χ = 6.342 and 13.603, P = 0.012 and < 0.001). When the patients were re-tested 1 year postoperatively, the incidence of POCD was not significantly different among the 3 groups (14.0%, 10.6% vs. 14.9%, χ = 0.016 and 0.382, P = 0.899 and 0.536).@*CONCLUSION@#Among dexmedetomidine, propofol and midazolam sedation in elderly patients, propofol sedation shows a significant advantage in term of short-term POCD incidence.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction , Epidemiology , Dexmedetomidine , Pharmacology , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Pharmacology , Male , Midazolam , Pharmacology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Postoperative Complications , Epidemiology , Propofol , Pharmacology , Prospective Studies
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