Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 120
Filter
1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(4): 173-186, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359369

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (covid-19) se presenta en una amplia variedad de cuadros clínicos que van desde formas completamente asintomáticas o leves hasta una enfermedad rápidamente progresiva, incluidas manifestaciones pulmonares y extrapulmonares. El SARSCoV-2, el agente etiológico del covid-19, accede a sus células diana a sistema renina-angiotensina. Esta enzima se expresa en células endoteliales vasculares, epitelio tubular renal, células de Leydig en los testículos, pulmones, riñones, cerebro, corazón, vasculatura y tracto gastrointestinal. ,,,,,, Como tal, las manifestaciones clínicas del covid-19 se explican por la distribución tisular de la ECA-2. Más allá de la afectación tisular "per se", otra característica patológica es el fenómeno de la "tormenta de citocinas" (CS). El CS es una respuesta inmune exagerada caracterizada por un alto nivel de citocinas inflamatorias circulantes sostenidas en el tiempo. Es rápidamente progresivo y tiene una alta mortalidad. El CS se ha detectado en pacientes críticos con covid-19 y se considera una de las principales causas de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) e insuficiencia multiorgánica. Los niveles séricos de citocinas proinflamatorias aumentan significativamente en pacientes con causar inflamación y lesión del sistema nervioso central (SNC). Respaldando este punto de vista, los niveles de IL-6 se correlacionan positivamente con la gravedad del covid-19. Este síndrome se ha descrito en sepsis, síndrome hemofagocítico y en otras infecciones por coronavirus como el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS) o el síndrome respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS). Aunque la afectación pulmonar se ha descrito bien en muchos informes, las manifestaciones extrapulmonares todavía están mal descritas. Este artículo revisará las manifestaciones no pulmonares del covid-19. Los principales síntomas extrapulmonares comprenden los neurológicos, cardíacos, oftalmológicos, musculares, hematológicos, cutáneos y gastrointestinales, así como la afectación hepática y renal. Cada una de estas manifestaciones puede surgir durante la evolución de la enfermedad o construir su manifestación inicial


Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) presents in a wide variety of clinical pictures ranging from completely asymptomatic or mild forms to rapidly progressive disease, including pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. SARS-CoV-2 ­the etiological agent of covid-19- access to their target cells via a transmembrane protein, the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). ACE-2 is a type-I metallocarboxypeptidase with homology to ACE, an essential enzyme in the Renin-Angiotensin System. [1] This enzyme is expressed in vascular endothelial cells, renal tubular epithelium, Leydig cells in the testes, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, vasculature, and gastrointestinal tract.[2-7] As such, the clinical manifestations of covid-19 are explained by the tissular distribution of ACE-2. Beyond the tissular affectation "per se", another pathological feature is the "cytokine storm" phenomenon (CS). CS is an exaggerated immune response characterized by a high level of circulating inflammatory cytokines sustained over time. It is rapidly progressive and has a high mortality. CS has been detected in critical patients with covid-19 and it is considered a major cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines are significantly increased in patients with ARDS, and their levels are positively correlated with mortality.[8, 9] CS may also cause inflammation and injury of the Central Nervous System (CNS) Supporting this view, IL-6 levels positively correlate with covid-19 severity.[10] This syndrome has been described in sepsis, hemophagocytic syndrome and in other coronavirus infections like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Although lung involvement has been well described in many reports, extra-pulmonary manifestations are still poorly described. This paper will review the non-pulmonary manifestations of covid-19. Main extra-pulmonary symptoms comprise the neurologic, cardiac, ophthalmologic, muscular, hematologic, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal ones, as well as hepatic and renal involvement. Each one of these manifestations can arise during the disease evolution or constitute their initial manifestation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Signs and Symptoms , Cytokines , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/etiology
3.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(3): 129-131, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289201

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, along with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, forms part of the three highly pathogenic coronaviruses identified since the start of the millennium.1,2 While SARS-CoV was identified on 2003 and MERS-CoV on 2012, the initial reports of SARS-CoV-2 (the etiological agent of COVID-19) were first released at the end of December 2019.3,4 Now, after less than four months, the virus has distributed globally and has become the focus of extensive medical research, as the number of cases keeps rising.A significant part of the investigative effort has been directed to the search for an effective therapy or intervention that could stop the spread of the disease or be used to effectively treat infected patients. Likewise, potential predisposing factors to develop a more severe clinical presentation are progressively being identified. Some of the more relevant are older age and the presence of certain comorbidities, such as cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes.5­8 It is important to highlight that the last two are chronic conditions commonly treated with ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers.9­11 However, the evidence suggests that these medications can upregulate the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.11­16 Thus, a group of researchers hypothesized that ACE2-increasing drugs could raise the risk of infection and prompt a more severe clinical course or a fatal outcome in diabetic and hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Lung Injury , Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Infections , Angiotensins , Receptors, Angiotensin , Coronary Disease , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
4.
Rev. Soc. Peru. Med. Interna ; 33(2): 68-75, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1103779

ABSTRACT

Los coronavirus han estado presentes entre los humanos hace décadas, causando entre el 10 - 30% de los resfríos comunes en los humanos. Dos coronavirus han causado pandemias y alertas globales en las últimas décadas: SARS-CoV Y MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 es el séptimo coronavirus en generar una infección en humanos, y el tercero en generar una pandemia. En este artículo, presentamos y comparamos la cronología, epidemiología y las medidas de control de cada una de las pandemias: SARS, MERS y COVID-19. (AU)


Coronaviruses have been present in humans for decades, causing 10-30% of common colds in humans. Two coronaviruses have caused global pandemics and alerts in recent decades: SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus to generate an infection in humans, and the third to generate a pandemic. In this article, we present and compare the chronology, epidemiology, and control measures of each of the pandemics: SARS, MERS and COVID-19. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3365-3376, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133166

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a eficácia das máscaras faciais padrão tecido não tecido (TNT) para a prevenção de doenças respiratórias (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV e SARS-CoV-2) na população. Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip. Também busca complementar no Google Acadêmico, Rayyan e medRxiv. Não foram aplicados filtros relacionados a data, idioma ou status de publicação. Títulos e resumos foram rastreados e, posteriormente, textos completos foram avaliados. Foram incluídos três estudos: um ensaio clínico randomizado tipo cluster e duas revisões sistemáticas. O ensaio clínico indica benefício potencial de máscaras médicas para controle da fonte de infecção, para a doença respiratória clínica. Em uma das revisões sistemáticas, não foi possível estabelecer relação conclusiva entre uso da máscara e proteção contra infecção respiratória. Por fim, outra revisão sistemática demonstrou que máscaras são eficazes na prevenção da propagação de vírus respiratórios. As evidências apontam para benefício potencial das máscaras faciais padrão TNT. Para o cenário atual de pandemia por COVID 19, recomenda-se educação sobre uso adequado de máscaras, associado a medidas individuais de proteção.


Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-woven face masks for the prevention of respiratory infections (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the population. Methods: search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip databases. Google Scholar, Rayyan and medRxiv were also consulted for complementary results. No filters related to date, language or publication status were applied. Titles and abstracts were screened, and later, full texts were evaluated. Results: three studies were included: a randomized cluster clinical trial and two systematic reviews. The clinical trial indicates a potential benefit of medical masks to control the source of clinical respiratory disease infection. In one of the systematic reviews, it was not possible to establish a conclusive relationship between the use of the mask and protection against respiratory infection. Finally, another systematic review indicated that masks are effective in preventing the spread of respiratory viruses. Conclusion: Evidence points to the potential benefit of standard non-woven face masks. For the current pandemic scenario of COVID-19, education on the appropriate use of masks associated with individual protection measures is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3517-3554, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133149

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos de tratamentos medicamentosos para infecções por coronavírus. Revisão sistemática rápida com buscas nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, BVS, Global Index Medicus, Medrix, bioRxiv, Clinicaltrials.gov e International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Foram incluídos 36 estudos avaliando alternativas medicamentosas contra SARS, SARS-CoV-2 e MERS. A maioria dos estudos incluídos foi conduzida na China com delineamento observacional para tratamento da COVID-19. Os tratamentos mais estudados foram antimaláricos e antivirais. Nos antimaláricos, a metanálise de dois estudos com 180 participantes não identificou benefício da hidroxicloroquina em relação à negativação da carga viral via reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real e o uso de antivirais comparado ao cuidado padrão foi similar em relação aos desfechos. As evidências científicas disponíveis são preliminares e de baixa qualidade metodológica, o que sugere cautela na interpretação dos dados. Pesquisas que avaliem a eficácia comparativa em ensaios clínicos randomizados, controlados, com tempo de acompanhamento adequado e com os métodos devidamente divulgados e sujeitos à revisão científica por pares são necessárias. Recomenda-se atualização periódica da presente revisão.


Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effects of drug therapies for coronavirus infections. Rapid systematic review with search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, BVS, Global Index Medicus, Medrix, bioRxiv, Clinicaltrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases. Thirty-six studies evaluating alternative drugs against SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS were included. Most of the included studies were conducted in China with an observational design for the treatment of COVID-19. The most studied treatments were with antimalarials and antivirals. In antimalarial, the meta-analysis of two studies with 180 participants did not identify the benefit of hydroxychloroquine concerning the negative viral load via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the use of antivirals compared to standard care was similar regarding outcomes. The available scientific evidence is preliminary and of low methodological quality, which suggests caution when interpreting its results. Research that evaluates comparative efficacy in randomized, controlled clinical trials, with adequate follow-up time and with the methods properly disclosed and subject to scientific peer review is required. A periodic update of this review is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/drug effects , Pandemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Antimalarials/administration & dosage
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 571-592, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827010

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as named by the World Health Organization has millions of confirmed cases around the world and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The virus was named SARS-CoV-2 in February by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. COVID-19 presents as fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache and pneumonia. In a small subset of severe cases, the disease quickly progresses to respiratory failure and even death. Since the 21st century, there have been three major outbreaks caused by human coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that broke out in 2003, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and the recent pandemic of COVID-19. Since 2003, significant progress has been made in the study of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV concerning their natural origins, pathogenesis, antiviral development and vaccine design. Since SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are closely related, previous findings on SARS-CoV are highly relevant to a better understanding as well as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we highlight recent progresses in the field; compare the biological characteristics of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2; summarize the urgently-needed diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control options; and provide future perspectives for the outcome of the outbreak and research questions to be answered, including some of the difficulties in vaccine development. Hopefully, our comments and suggestions would prove useful for the control of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in China and the world.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , Viral Vaccines
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 593-604, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827009

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, which appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019, was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This disease was named as "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 was first identified as an etiological pathogen of COVID-19, belonging to the species of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV). The speed of both the geographical transmission and the sudden increase in numbers of cases is much faster than SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). COVID-19 is the first global pandemic caused by a coronavirus, which outbreaks in 211 countries/territories/areas. The vaccine against COVID-19, regarded as an effective prophylactic strategy for control and prevention, is being developed in about 90 institutions worldwide. The experiences and lessons encountered in the previous SARS and MERS vaccine research can be used for reference in the development of COVID-19 vaccine. The present paper hopes to provide some insights for COVID-19 vaccines researchers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Internationality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816642

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks that emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, have led to a formidable number of confirmed cases that resulted in >5,700 deaths globally, including 143 countries in all 6 continents. The World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern with a very high level of global risk assessment. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of COVID-19, has >79% nucleotide sequence homology to SARS-CoV; therefore, both belong to the genus betacoronavirus and subgenus sarbecovirus. The S1 domains of the two appeared to share the cellular receptor ACE2, but revealed a much higher S1-ACE2 binding affinity. As seen in many other human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 also shows respiratory infection, but the basic reproductive number (R₀) in transmission and the clinical latency are quite dissimilar from those of SARS- or MERS-CoVs. Many scientists infer that the time point of cross-barrier transfer from bats to mediate animals or to humans should be a rather recent event based on the full-length genome analyses obtained from the very first patients. Copy-choice polymerization, which often leads to a significant genome recombination rate in most coronaviruses, predicts the continued emergence of novel coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Chiroptera , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Emergencies , Genome , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Molecular Biology , Polymerization , Polymers , Public Health , Recombination, Genetic , Risk Assessment , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , World Health Organization
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically summarize the clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Weipu Database, and Wanfang Database were searched for clinical studies on COVID-19 in children published up to May 21, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened the articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of the studies included. A descriptive analysis was then performed for the studies. Related indices between children with COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 75 studies were included, with a total of 806 children with COVID-19. The research results showed that the age of the children ranged from 36 hours after birth to 18 years, with a male-female ratio of 1.21 : 1. Similar to SARS and MERS, COVID-19 often occurred with familial aggregation, and such cases accounted for 74.6% (601/806). The children with COVID-19, SARS, and MERS had similar clinical symptoms, mainly fever and cough. Some children had gastrointestinal symptoms. The children with asymptomatic infection accounted for 17.9% (144/806) of COVID-19 cases, 2.5% (2/81) of SARS cases, and 57.1% (12/21) of MERS cases. The children with COVID-19 and MERS mainly had bilateral lesions on chest imaging examination, with a positive rate of lesions of 63.4% (421/664) and 26.3% (5/19) respectively, which were lower than the corresponding positive rates of viral nucleic acid detection, which were 99.8% and 100% respectively. The chest radiological examination of the children with SARS mainly showed unilateral lesion, with a positive rate of imaging of 88.9% (72/81), which was higher than the corresponding positive rate of viral nucleic acid detection (29.2%). Viral nucleic acid was detected in the feces of children with COVID-19 or SARS, with positive rates of 60.2% (56/93) and 71.4% (5/7) respectively. The children with COVID-19 had a rate of severe disease of 4.6% (31/686) and a mortality rate of 0.1% (1/806), the children with SARS had a rate of severe disease of 1.5% (1/68) and a mortality rate of 0%, and those with MERS had a rate of severe disease of 14.3% (3/21) and a mortality rate of 9.5% (2/21).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with COVID-19 have similar symptoms to those with SARS or MERS, mainly fever and cough. Asymptomatic infection is observed in all three diseases. Children with COVID-19 or SARS have milder disease conditions than those with MERS. COVID-19 in children often occurs with familial aggregation. Epidemiological contact history, imaging examination findings, and viral nucleic acid testing results are important bases for the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Cough , Virology , Female , Fever , Virology , Humans , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Virology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828561

ABSTRACT

The three known human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are composed of non-structural proteins, structural proteins and accessory proteins. Viral particles recognize host receptors via spike glycoprotein (S protein), enter host cells by membrane fusion, replicate in host cells through large replication-transcription complexes, and promote proliferation by interfering with and suppressing the host's immune response. Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are hosted by humans and vertebrates. Viral particles are transmitted through droplets, contact and aerosols or likely through digestive tract, urine, eyes and other routes. This review discusses the mechanisms of proliferation and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses based on the results of existing research, providing basis for future study on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of human highly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Physiology , Virus Replication , Physiology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828493

ABSTRACT

The three known highly pathogenic human coronaviruses are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are composed of non-structural proteins, structural proteins, accessory proteins and ribonucleic acid. Viral particles recognize host receptors via spike glycoprotein (S protein), enter host cells by membrane fusion, replicate in host cells through large replication-transcription complexes, and promote proliferation by interfering with and suppressing the host's immune response. Highly pathogenic human coronaviruses are hosted by humans and vertebrates. Viral particles are transmitted through droplets, contact and aerosols or likely through digestive tract, urine, eyes and other routes. This review discusses the mechanisms of replication and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses providing basis for future studies on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of these pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828459

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the similarities and differences of early CT manifestations of three types of viral pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), SARS-CoV (SARS) and MERS-CoV (MERS) using a systemic review. Methods Electronic database were searched to identify all original articles and case reports presenting chest CT features for adult patients with COVID-19, SARS and MERS pneumonia respectively. Quality of literature and completeness of presented data were evaluated by consensus reached by three radiologists. Vote-counting method was employed to include cases of each group. Data of patients' manifestations in early chest CT including lesion patterns, distribution of lesions and specific imaging signs for the three groups were extracted and recorded. Data were compared and analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Results A total of 24 studies were included, composing of 10 studies of COVID-19, 5 studies of MERS and 9 studies of SARS. The included CT exams were 147, 40, and 122 respectively. For the early CT features of the 3 pneumonias, the basic lesion pattern with respect to "mixed ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation, GGO mainly, or consolidation mainly" was similar among the 3 groups (=7.966, >0.05). There were no significant differences on the lesion distribution (=13.053, >0.05) and predominate involvement of the subpleural area of bilateral lower lobes (=4.809, >0.05) among the 3 groups. The lesions appeared more focal in COVID-19 pneumonia at early phase (=23.509, <0.05). The proportions of crazy-paving pattern (=23.037, <0.001), organizing pneumonia pattern (<0.05) and pleural effusions (<0.001) in COVID-19 pneumonia were significantly lower than the other two. Although rarely shown in the early CT findings of all three viral pneumonias, the fibrotic changes were more frequent in SARS than COVID-19 and MERS (=6.275, <0.05). For other imaging signs, only the MERS pneumonia demonstrated tree-in-buds, cavitation, and its incidence rate of interlobular or intralobular septal thickening presented significantly increased as compared to the other two pneumonia (=22.412, <0.05). No pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and lymphadenopathy was present for each group. Conclusions Imaging findings on early stage of these three coronavirus pneumonias showed similar basic lesion patterns, including GGO and consolidation, bilateral distribution, and predominant involvement of the subpleural area and the lower lobes. Early signs of COVID-19 pneumonia showed less severity of inflammation. Early fibrotic changes appeared in SARS only. MERS had more severe inflammatory changes including cavitation and pleural effusion. The differences may indicate the specific pathophysiological processes for each coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Lung , Diagnostic Imaging , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnostic Imaging , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 21(4): 258-271, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256095

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses, which hitherto were causative agents of mild respiratory diseases of man, have recently become one of the most important groups of pathogens of humans the world over. In less than two decades, three members of the group, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-COV-2, have emerged causing disease outbreaks that affected millions and claimed the lives of thousands of people. In 2017, another coronavirus, the swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) coronavirus (SADS-CoV) emerged in animals killing over 24,000 piglets in China. Because of the medical and veterinary importance of coronaviruses, we carried out a review of available literature and summarized the current information on their properties and diversity. Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses with some unique characteristics such as the possession of a very large nucleic acid, high infidelity of the RNA-dependent polymerase, and high rate of mutation and recombination in the genome. They are susceptible to a number of physical agents and several chemical agents used for disinfection procedures in hospitals and laboratories. They exhibit considerable genetic and host diversity, causing diseases of gastrointestinal and respiratory system in a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. The high prevalence of coronaviruses in domestic and wild animals, especially bats and birds, and the propensity for their genomes to undergo mutation and recombination may lead to emergence of new coronaviruses that could pose a serious threat to human and animal health


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nigeria , SARS Virus
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758906

ABSTRACT

The 4a and 4b proteins of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been described for their antagonism on host innate immunity. However, unlike clustering patterns of the complete gene sequences of human and camel MERS-CoVs, the 4a and 4b protein coding regions did not constitute species-specific phylogenetic groups. Moreover, given the estimated evolutionary rates of the complete, 4a, and 4b gene sequences, the 4a and 4b proteins might be less affected by species-specific innate immune pressures. These results suggest that the 4a and 4b proteins of MERS-CoV may function against host innate immunity in a manner independent of host species and/or evolutionary clustering patterns.


Subject(s)
Camelus , Clinical Coding , Coronavirus Infections , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Zoonoses
16.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 126-130, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772712

ABSTRACT

Infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 as an important respiratory disease with high fatality rates of 40%-60%. Despite the increased number of cases over subsequent years, the number of pediatric cases remained low. A review of studies conducted from June 2012 to April 19, 2016 reported 31 pediatric MERS-CoV cases. In this paper, we present the clinical and laboratory features of seven patients with pediatric MERS. Five patients had no underlying medical illnesses, and three patients were asymptomatic. Of the seven cases, four (57%) patients sought medical advice within 1-7 days from the onset of symptoms. The three other patients (43%) were asymptomatic and were in contact with patients with confirmed diagnosis of MERS-CoV. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (57%), cough (14%), shortness of breath (14%), vomiting (28%), and diarrhea (28%). Two (28.6%) patients had platelet counts of < 150 × 10/L, and one patient had an underlying end-stage renal disease. The remaining patients presented with normal blood count, liver function, and urea and creatinine levels. The documented MERS-CoV Ct values were 32-38 for four of the seven cases. Two patients (28.6%) had abnormal chest radiographic findings of bilateral infiltration. One patient (14.3%) required ventilator support, and two patients (28.6%) required oxygen supplementation. All the seven patients were discharged without complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Dyspnea , Female , Fever , Humans , Infant , Lung , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Genetics , Pleural Effusion , Diagnostic Imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Saudi Arabia
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719483

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the neutralizing activity in serum from three patients >1 year after recovery from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) associated with mild pneumonia treated with antivirals during the MERS outbreak in South Korea at 2015. The neutralizing activity in serum was measured by pseudovirus inhibition assays. Three-fold diluted serum of subjects showed only 9.7%, 10.3%, and 2.2% reductions in relative light units. So, significant neutralizing activity was not demonstrated in any sera of three patients with mild pneumonia >1 year after being successfully treated with antiviral agents and recovering from MERS coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Korea , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718371

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in a 61-year-old businessman returning from Kuwait. The patient arrived there on August 16, 2018, developed watery diarrhea on August 28 (day 0), and came back to Korea on September 7 (day 10) as his condition worsened. Upon arrival, he complained of diarrhea and weakness, but denied any respiratory symptoms, and he directly went to visit an emergency room. Chest radiography revealed interstitial infiltrates in the lungs, and he was immediately transferred to an isolation unit. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sputum samples taken on day 11 returned positive for MERS-CoV. No secondary MERS-CoV infection was identified among people who had close contact with him. This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion of MERS-CoV infection in any febrile patients who present after a trip to the Middle East.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diarrhea , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Korea , Kuwait , Lung , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Radiography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sputum , Thorax
20.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018014-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status. METHODS: Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results. RESULTS: The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Infection , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Hypertension , Inpatients , Korea , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Osteoarthritis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL