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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 439-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergic effects of a novel oral supplement formulation, containing prebiotics, yeast β-glucans, minerals and silymarin (Silybum marianum), on lipid and glycidic metabolism, inflammatory and mitochondrial proteins of the liver, in control and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.@*METHODS@#After an acclimation period, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: nonfat diet (NFD) vehicle, NFD supplemented, high-fat diet (HFD) vehicle and HFD supplemented. The vehicle and experimental formulation were administered orally by gavage once a day during the last four weeks of the diet (28 consecutive days). We then evaluated energy homeostasis, inflammation, and mitochondrial protein expression in these groups of mice.@*RESULTS@#After four weeks of supplementation, study groups experienced reduced glycemia, dyslipidemia, fat, and hepatic fibrosis levels. Additionally, proliferator-activated receptor-α, AMP-activated protein kinase-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression levels were augmented; however, levels of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase subunit α and p65 nuclear factor-κB expression, and oxidative markers were reduced. Notably, the cortisol/C-reactive protein ratio, a well-characterized marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immune interface status, was found to be modulated by the supplement.@*CONCLUSION@#We discovered that the novel supplement was able to modify different antioxidant, metabolic and inflammatory pathways, improving the energy homeostasis and inflammatory status, and consequently alleviated hepatic steatosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Dietary Supplements , Glucans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Milk Thistle , Minerals , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prebiotics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2838-2849, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878533

ABSTRACT

(2S)-taxifolin is an important flavonoid that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation effects. It is widely used in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) can catalyze the synthesis of (2S)-taxifolin and other 3-hydroxylated flavonoids from (2S)-eriodictyol. Due to the low catalytic efficiency of F3H, the titer of many 3-hydroxyflavones, such as taxifolin, synthesized by microbial method is relatively low. In this study, a SmF3H was identified from the transcriptome of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. The results of fermentation showed that SmF3H can catalyze the flavone 3-hydroxylation reaction, and its catalytic efficiency was significantly higher than that of commonly used SlF3H from Solanum lycopersicum. Six promoters with different transcription strength were selected to optimize the synthesis pathway from the flavonoid precursor (2S)-naringenin to (2S)-taxifolin. The results showed that the highest titer of (2S)-taxifolin (695.90 mg/L in shake flask) could be obtained when the P(GAL7) promoter was used to control the expression of SmF3H. The titer of (2S)-taxifolin was further improved to 3.54 g/L in a 5-L fermenter, which is the highest titer according to current available literatures.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Flavonoids , Milk Thistle , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741613

ABSTRACT

Silymarin is the standardized extract from Silybum marianum which consists mainly of flavonoids and polyphenols. It is highly regarded for its hepatoprotective ability. Silybin B is a flavonolignan and one of the active components of silymarin. The content of silybin B in various parts of S. marianum was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Results show that the extract of seeds contain the highest amount of silybin B (7.434 mg/g DW). The petioles of S. marianum showed a low content of silybin B. This study revealed that seeds of S. marianum contain high amount of silybin B and could be a good source of the compound.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Milk Thistle , Polyphenols , Silymarin
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775405

ABSTRACT

Fructus Arctii is a traditional Chinese medicine. The main counterfeit species are the seeds of Arctium tomentosum, Onopordum acanthium, Silybum marianum, Saussurea costus, Amorpha fruticosa. Traditional identification methods or molecular barcoding techniques can identify Fructus Arctii and its counterfeit species. However, the identification of the mixture of it and its spurious species is rarely reported. In this paper, we sequenced the ITS2 sequences of Fructus Arctii and 5 kinds of spurious species mix powder by high-throughput sequencing to identify the mixed powder species and providing new ideas for the identification of Fructus Arctii mix powder. The total DNA in mixed powder was extracted, and the ITS2 sequences in total DNA was amplified. Paired-end sequencing was performed on the DNA fragment of the community using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The sequence was analyzed by the software FLASH, QIIME and GraPhlAn etc. The results showed that the high quality ITS2 sequences of 39910 mix samples were obtained from the mixed samples, of which the total ITS2 sequence of the samples genus was 34 935. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the samples contained Fructus Arctii, A. tomentosum, O. acanthium, S. marianum, S. costus and A. fruticosa. Using ITS2 sequences as DNA barcodes, high-throughput sequencing technology can be used to detect the Fructus Arctii and its spurious specie in mixed powder, which can provide reference for the quality control, safe use of medicinal materials of Fructus Arctii and the identification of mixed powder of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Arctium , Chemistry , Classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fabaceae , Fruit , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Milk Thistle , Onopordum , Phylogeny , Saussurea
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic steatosis is caused by an imbalance between free fatty acids (FFAs) uptake, utilization, storage, and disposal. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in FFAs accumulation and its modulation could drive the development of potential therapies for Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of picroside II, a phytoactive found in Picrorhiza kurroa, on fatty acid accumulation vis-à-vis silibinin, a known hepatoprotective phytoactive from Silybum marianum. METHODS: HepG2 cells were loaded with FFAs (oleic acid:palmitic acid/2:1) for 20 hours to mimic hepatic steatosis. The FFAs concentration achieving maximum fat accumulation and minimal cytotoxicity (500 μM) was standardized. HepG2 cells were exposed to the standardized FFAs concentration with and without picroside II pretreatment. RESULTS: Picroside II pretreatment inhibited FFAs-induced lipid accumulation by attenuating the expression of fatty acid transport protein 5, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and stearoyl CoA desaturase. Preatreatment with picroside II was also found to decrease the expression of forkhead box protein O1 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that picroside II effectively attenuated fatty acid accumulation by decreasing FFAs uptake and lipogenesis. Picroside II also decreased the expression of gluconeogenic genes.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Hep G2 Cells , Lipogenesis , Milk Thistle , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Picrorhiza , Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
6.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 183-191, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83907

ABSTRACT

Luteolin 5-O-glucoside is the major flavonoid from Korean thistle, Cirsium maackii. We previously reported the anti-inflammatory activities of luteolin 5-O-glucoside in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of luteolin 5-O-glucoside through the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro and in vivo. Results revealed that luteolin 5-O-glucoside dose-dependently inhibited NO production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Luteolin 5-O-glucoside also significantly inhibited the translocation of NF-κB, the activation of MAPKs, and ROS generation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, protein expressions of Nrf-2 and HO-1 were also upregulated by luteolin 5-O-glucoside treatment. Moreover, luteolin 5-O-glucoside inhibited λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema by 65.34% and 48.31% at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively. These findings indicate potential anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin 5-O-glucoside particularly by downregulating NF-κB and upregulating HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Cirsium , Edema , In Vitro Techniques , Luteolin , Mice , Milk Thistle , Milk , Nitric Oxide
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of Silybum marianum protein hydrolysate (SMPH) in D-galactose-treated mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>D-galactose (500 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected daily for 7 weeks to accelerate aging, and SMPH (400, 800, 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively) was simultaneously administered orally. The antioxidant and anti-aging effects of SMPH in the liver and brain were measured by biochemical assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the ultrastructure of liver mitochondri.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SMPH decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the D-galactose-treated mice. It significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), which were suppressed by D-galactose. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the concentrations of caspase-3 and 8-OHdG in the liver and brain were significantly reduced by SMPH. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 levels in the liver and brain. Furthermore, SMPH significantly attenuated D-galactose-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and fluidity. TEM showed that the degree of liver mitochondrial damage was significantly decreased by SMPH.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicated that SMPH protects against D-galactose-induced accelerated aging in mice through its antioxidant and anti-aging activities.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Brain , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Galactose , Toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Glutathione Peroxidase , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Maze Learning , Mice , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Mitochondria, Liver , Oxidative Stress , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Protein Hydrolysates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728589

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to show that pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β] synergistically induce the production of nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse mesangial cells, which play an important role in inflammatory glomerular injury. We also found that co-treatment with cytokines at low doses (TNF-α; 5 ng/ml, IFN-γ; 5 ng/ml, and IL-1β; 1.25 U/ml) synergistically induced NO production, whereas treatment with each cytokine alone did not increase NO production at doses up to 100 ng/ml or 50 U/ml. Silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), attenuates cytokine mixture (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β)-induced NO production. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that silymarin inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin also inhibited extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, we have demonstrated that silymarin inhibits NO production in mouse mesangial cells, and may act as a useful anti-inflammatory agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Interferons , Interleukins , Mesangial Cells , Mice , Milk Thistle , Necrosis , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation , Silymarin
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 266-277, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18846

ABSTRACT

Silibinin, an active constituent of silymarin extracted from milk thistle, has been previously reported to confer protection to the adult brain against neurodegeneration. However, its effects against epileptic seizures have not been examined yet. In order to investigate the effects of silibinin against epileptic seizures, we used a relevant mouse model in which seizures are manifested as status epilepticus, induced by kainic acid (KA) treatment. Silibinin was injected intraperitoneally, starting 1 day before an intrahippocampal KA injection and continued daily until analysis of each experiment. Our results indicated that silibinin-treatment could reduce seizure susceptibility and frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) induced by KA administration, and attenuate granule cell dispersion (GCD), a morphological alteration characteristic of the dentate gyrus (DG) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Moreover, its treatment significantly reduced the aberrant levels of apoptotic, autophagic and pro-inflammatory molecules induced by KA administration, resulting in neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Thus, these results suggest that silibinin may be a beneficial natural compound for preventing epileptic events.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hippocampus , Humans , Kainic Acid , Mice , Milk Thistle , Neuroprotection , Seizures , Silymarin , Status Epilepticus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68876

ABSTRACT

Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been reported to show an anti-cancer activity. In previous study, we reported that silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through NF-κB-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation. However, mechanism for the inhibition of Wnt signaling by silymarin still remains unanswered. Thus, we investigated whether silymarin affects Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells to elucidate the additional anti-cancer mechanism of silymarin. Transient transfection with a TOP and FOP FLASH luciferase construct indicated that silymarin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Silymarin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin protein but not mRNA. The inhibition of proteasome by MG132 and GSK3β inhibition by SB216763 blocked silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of β-catenin and a point mutation of S33Y attenuated silymarin-mediated β-catenin downregulation. In addition, silymarin decreased TCF4 and increased Axin expression in both protein and mRNA level. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin and TCF4 may result in the inhibition of Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Cyclin D1 , Down-Regulation , Humans , Luciferases , Milk Thistle , Phosphorylation , Point Mutation , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , RNA, Messenger , Silymarin , Transfection
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178038

ABSTRACT

Silibinin, a natural flavonoid antioxidant isolated from extracts of the milk thistle herb, has recently been identified as having anti-hepatotoxic and anticancer properties. In this paper, we investigated the effects of silibinin on behavior and neuroplasticity in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). After 5 consecutive weeks of CUMS, the mice were treated with silibinin (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by oral gavage) for 3 consecutive weeks. The results showed that silibinin administration significantly alleviated the CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior, including the total number of squares crossed and the frequency of rearing in the open field test, the immobility time in the tail suspension test and the forced swimming test. Furthermore, silibinin treatment increased the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our study provides new insight into the protective effects of silibinin on the depressive status of CUMS mice, specifically by improving neuroplasticity and neurotransmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Depression , Hindlimb Suspension , Hippocampus , Mice , Milk Thistle , Neuronal Plasticity , Norepinephrine , Physical Exertion , Prefrontal Cortex , Serotonin , Synaptic Transmission
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728522

ABSTRACT

The present study showed that silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced morphological changes in the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. We also showed that silymarin inhibited the nuclear translocation and transactivation activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), which is important for macrophage activation-associated changes in cell morphology and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. BAY-11-7085, an NF-kappaB inhibitor, abrogated LPS-induced morphological changes and NO production, similar to silymarin. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with silymarin also inhibited LPS-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Collectively, these experiments demonstrated that silymarin inhibited LPS-induced morphological changes in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. Our findings indicated that the most likely mechanism underlying this biological effect involved inhibition of the MAPK pathway and NF-kappaB activity. Inhibition of these activities by silymarin is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of inflammation because of the critical roles played by MAPK and NF-kappaB in mediating inflammatory responses in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cytokines , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Macrophages , Mice , Milk Thistle , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Negotiating , NF-kappa B , Silymarin , Transcriptional Activation
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199235

ABSTRACT

We show that silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits cytokine mixture (CM: TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-1beta)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6N8a. Immunostaining and Western blot analysis showed that silymarin inhibits iNOS gene expression. RT-PCR showed that silymarin inhibits iNOS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. We also showed that silymarin inhibits extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. A MEK1 inhibitor abrogated CM-induced nitrite production, similar to silymarin. Treatment of MIN6N8a cells with silymarin also inhibited CM-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB, which is important for iNOS transcription. Collectively, we demonstrate that silymarin inhibits NO production in pancreatic beta cells, and silymarin may represent a useful anti-diabetic agent.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Gene Expression , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Milk Thistle , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Phosphorylation , Silymarin , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299842

ABSTRACT

This research uses six Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601, R15384, R1000, A4, R1025 and R1 to infect silymarin explants to induce hairy roots and silibin. All of the six A. rhizogenes can induce Silybum marianum to generate hairy roots and the A. rhizogene A4 shows comparatively high infection on the plant. This research determines the condition to induce silymarin hairy roots by the factors of infection time, pre-culturing, co-culturing and pH value. The fact that MS liquid medium fits the proliferation of silymarin hairy roots is determined. Through PCR molecular identification, it can be seen that the DNA plasmids in the A. rhizogenes are successfully integrated into the genome of transformed roots. Using liquid chromatography, it is determined that the silibin content in silymarin hairy roots is 2.5 times that in the plant In this research, the silymarin hairy roots culturing system is established, which lays a foundation for the study of culturing silymarin hairy roots and producing silibin.


Subject(s)
Agrobacterium , Genetics , Physiology , Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Genetics , Microbiology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Genetics , Microbiology , Silymarin , Transformation, Genetic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59935

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate herein that silibinin, a polyphenolic flavonoid compound isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits LPS-induced activation of macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells. Western blot analysis showed silibinin inhibits iNOS gene expression. RT-PCR showed that silibinin inhibits iNOS, TNF-alpha, and IL1beta. We also showed that silibinin strongly inhibits p38 MAPK phosphorylation, whereas the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways are not inhibited. The p38 MAPK inhibitor abrogated the LPS-induced nitrite production, whereas the MEK-1 inhibitor did not affect the nitrite production. A molecular modeling study proposed a binding pose for silibinin targeting the ATP binding site of p38 MAPK (1OUK). Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that silibinin inhibits macrophage activation by blocking p38 MAPK signaling.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Binding Sites , Blotting, Western , Gene Expression , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Milk Thistle , Models, Molecular , Nitric Oxide , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812646

ABSTRACT

AIM@#Silybin (SB), a major constituent of the milk thistle, has been used to treat several liver disorders. However, liver diseases were always accompanied by CYP450 dysfunction. This study was designed to explore the relationship between the hepatoprotective effect and CYP3A regulation of SB during thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rat liver injury.@*METHODS@#Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological study were taken to evaluate the hepatoprotectinve effect of SB. α-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical analysis and cytokine release in rat liver was determined by ELISA assay. CYP3A and PXR expression were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and CYP3A activity was based on the midazolam 4-hydroxylation reaction. Also, siRNA transfection was induced in HepG2 cells to evaluate the effect of PXR on cytotoxicity and CYP3A4 dysregulation caused by TAA.@*RESULTS@#SB showed powerful hepatoprotective effects, and anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis effects, and reversed the loss of CYP3A and PXR in TAA-injured rat liver, and decreased PXR translocation into the cell nucleus. PXR silencing weakened the effect of SB on cytoprotection and CYP3A regulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PXR was a very important factor of CYP3A regulation and might be the target of SB in TAA-induced liver disease. Also, because of the potential interactions of SB and co-administered medicines, it might be necessary to adjust the dosage in the clinical medication of liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Pregnane X Receptor , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Steroid , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Silymarin , Silymarin , Thioacetamide
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chemotherapies for breast cancer generally have strong cellular cytotoxicity and severe side effects. Thus, significant emphasis has been placed on combinations of naturally occurring chemopreventive agents. Silibinin is a major bioactive flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle with chemopreventive activity in various organs including the skin, prostate, and breast. However, the mechanism underlying the inhibitory action of silibinin in breast cancer has not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effect of silibinin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and determined whether silibinin enhances ultraviolet (UV) B-induced apoptosis. METHODS: The effects of silibinin on MCF-7 cell viability were determined using the MTT assay. The effect of silibinin on PARP cleavage, as the hallmark of apoptotic cell death, and p53 protein expression in MCF-7 cells was analyzed using Western blot. The effect of silibinin on UVB-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: A dose- and time-dependent reduction in viability was observed in MCF-7 cells treated with silibinin. Silibinin strongly induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, and induction of apoptosis was associated with increased p53 expression. Moreover, silibinin enhanced UVB-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: Silibinin induced a loss of cell viability and apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the combination of silibinin and UVB resulted in an additive effect on apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that silibinin might be an important supplemental agent for treating patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Milk Thistle , Prostate , Silymarin , Skin
18.
Hepatitis Monthly. 2011; 11 (3): 173-177
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-131160

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] is one the most common causes of chronic liver disorders in the Western world. These patients have many significant comorbidities. The therapeutic approach to NAFLD is based on lifestyle intervention, but there is no consensus on the ideal pharmacological treatment. Silybum marianum, commonly known as milk thistle [MT], is one of the oldest and most extensively researched plants in the treatment of liver diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that the active components of MT silymarin have many hepatoprotective properties. In recent years, several preclinical and clinical reports have described the efficacy of silymarin as a treatment for NAFLD. The chief aim of this review is to discuss the newest and most promising applications of MT in the treatment of NAFLD


Subject(s)
Humans , Milk Thistle , Silymarin , Chronic Disease
19.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49 (10): 637-642
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113963

ABSTRACT

To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine [CAM], diabetes mellitus, plant [herb], Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials [RCT] published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb [limited to Iran] on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Citrullus , Ipomoea , Milk Thistle , Trigonella
20.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9 (Supp. 6): 86-96
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98665

ABSTRACT

As increased outdoor activities of people, they are more exposed to UV radiation, which causes harmful effects on skin. Silymarin has protective potentials against DNA damage and non-melanoma skin cancers, and also it has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulation characteristics. Nano formulation of plant material showed to be more effective than common ones. In present study, nano-formulated silymarin was used in a cream, and its effects were investigated against destructive effects of UV rays. Methods: Silymarin standardized extract was prepared, nano formulated in cream base, and applied to skin of the animals. Four groups of animals [n=15] were examined; Group 1; without any treatment [control], Group 2; Vaseline, Group 3; nano-formulated silymarin extract cream, and Group 4; silymarin-carnosine. UV was radiated on the shaved area of the four groups for 45 minutes with dose of 180 mJ/cm2. Dermal scaling, skin irregularity, erythema, skin hyperpigmentation, and edema were evaluated in animals. Histopathological observation was done on the skin samples of the animals. silymarin nano-formulation was effective in decreasing both physical damages and histopathological injuries significantly. from the observed results, it can be concluded that the cream containing nanoformulated silymarin can prevent UV radiation lesions better than pure silymarin


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Ultraviolet Rays , Skin/drug effects , Milk Thistle , Plant Extracts , Seeds
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