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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 390-397, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377390

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Reduced antioxidant defenses may reflect a poor protective response against oxidative stress and this may be implicated in progression of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia plays a major role in micro and macrovascular complications, which imply endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between GDM and oxidative stress markers measured in plasma, with regard to revealing changes to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) among mothers showing impairments in oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at a university hospital in Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 50 mothers with GDM, and 59 healthy mothers served as controls. Umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all mothers during delivery and breast milk samples on the fifth day after delivery. TAC, TOS, thiol and disulfide levels were measured. RESULTS: No statistically significant relationship between the blood and milk samples could be found. An analysis on correlations between TAC, TOS and certain parameters revealed that there were negative correlations between TOS and total thiol (r = -0.386; P < 0.001) and between TOS and disulfide (r = -0.388; P < 0.001) in milk in the control group. However, these findings were not observed in the study group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that a compensatory mechanism of oxidative stress was expected to be present in gestational diabetes mellitus and that this might be ameliorated through good glycemic regulation and antioxidant supplementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Prospective Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Milk/metabolism , Milk/chemistry , Disulfides/analysis , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis
2.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 46(2): 124-134, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901211

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dos factores importantes han sido descritos como contribuyentes en la aparición de fatiga durante el ejercicio físico: la disminución de las reservas de glucógeno muscular y la pérdida de agua con electrolitos a través del sudor, que favorecen la deshidratación. Debido a esto, la reposición de líquidos y electrolitos posterior al ejercicio físico se transforma en la prioridad para restablecer la homeostasis corporal alterada durante el ejercicio físico. Por su composición nutricional, la leche parece ser una buena alternativa natural como bebida rehidratante posterior al ejercicio físico. Objetivo: comparar la efectividad como bebida de rehidratación de la leche descremada chocolatada contra una bebida deportiva artificial en militares, a partir de la hipótesis de que la leche descremada chocolatada tiene iguales o mejores efectos sobre la hidratación post ejercicio, que una bebida deportiva artificial. Método: 30 militares (23,0 ± 3,2 años) se dividieron en 2 grupos: 1) rehidratación con bebida deportiva con 6 pòr ciento de carbohidratos y relación de Na/K 2:1 (grupo ISO). Rehidratación con leche descremada chocolatada (grupo LECHE). Se evaluó la retención de fluidos a través del peso corporal y la gravedad específica de la orina (GEO) antes y después del ejercicio físico y posterior a las 2 horas de rehidratación. Resultados: se encontraron diferencias significativas (p< 0,05) en la retención de fluidos en el grupo LECHE comparado con el grupo ISO. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la GEO de ambos grupos. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la rehidratación con leche descremada es más efectiva en la retención de fluidos y recuperación del peso previo al ejercicio que la bebida deportiva(AU)


ntroduction: Two important factors have been described as contributing to the onset of fatigue during physical exercise: Decreased muscle glycogen stores and the loss of water with electrolytes through sweating, favoring dehydration. Because of this, fluid and electrolyte replacement after physical exercise becomes the priority to restore altered body homeostasis during physical exercise. Due to its nutritional composition, milk appears to be a good natural alternative as a rehydration beverage after exercise. Objective: To compare the effectiveness chocolate skim milk as pots-exercise rehydration beverage with an artificial sports drink in the military, based on the hypothesis that chocolate skim milk has equal or better effects on post-exercise hydration than an artificial sports drink. Method: 30 soldiers (23.0 ± 3.2 years) were divided into 2 groups: 1) rehydration with sports drink with 6 percent carbohydrates and ratio of Na / K 2: 1 (ISO group). Rehydration with chocolate skim milk (LECHE group). Fluid retention was assessed through body weight and the specific gravity of urine (GEO) before and after physical exercise and after 2 hours of rehydration. Results: significant differences were found (p < 0.05) in fluid retention in the LECHE group compared to the ISO group. There were no significant differences between the GEO of both groups. Conclusion: The results show that rehydration with skim milk is more effective in fluid retention and weight recovery prior to exercise than sports drink(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Exercise/physiology , Dehydration/etiology , Milk/metabolism , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 573-578, Jan.-Apr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709299

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variação do perfil proteico e do cálcio solúvel na coagulação do leite pelo etanol nas temperaturas de 4ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Amostras de leite de 61 animais foram avaliadas quanto à estabilidade ao etanol nas concentrações de 66 a 92 por cento (v/v) nas temperaturas de 4ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Três amostras, após 24 horas de armazenamento a 4ºC, foram ultracentrifugadas em quadruplicata (40.000 x g) a 4ºC e a 20ºC, respectivamente, por 60 minutos. Em seguida, o sobrenadante foi retirado e submetido à análise do cálcio solúvel pela técnica via úmida (digestão nitroperclórica) e leitura em espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. O perfil proteico foi analisado pela técnica de eletroforese capilar empregando kit específico para determinação proteica. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação positiva entre o aumento da temperatura das amostras e a estabilidade do leite frente às diferentes concentrações de etanol. A porcentagem de cálcio solúvel no sobrenadante após ultracentrifugação foi maior nas amostras tratadas a 4ºC (P<0,05). As amostras ultracentrifugadas na temperatura de 4ºC apresentaram quantidades superiores de β-caseína no sobrenadante em comparação com as amostras tratadas a 20ºC. O abaixamento da temperatura favoreceu a migração da β-caseína e do cálcio coloidal para a fase solúvel do leite, o que possivelmente favoreceu o aumento da instabilidade das amostras no teste do etanol. Os resultados sugerem que a temperatura ideal para a realização de teste de estabilidade do leite frente ao etanol deveria ser de 21ºC...


The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation in protein profile and soluble calcium in milk coagulation by ethanol at 4ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC and 20ºC. Milk samples from 61 dairy cows were evaluated for stability of ethanol concentrations from 66 to 92 percent (v/v) at temperatures of 4°C, 10°C, 15°C and 20°C. Three samples were ultracentrifuged (40,000 x g) after 24 hours of storage at 4°C and 20°C, respectively, for 60 minutes. Their supernatants were removed and subjected to analyses of soluble calcium through nitro-perchloric digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The protein profiles were determined by capillary electrophoresis using a specific kit for protein determination. The results showed a positive correlation between the increase in temperature of the samples and the stability of milk against various concentrations of ethanol. The percentage of soluble calcium in the supernatant after centrifugation was higher in samples treated at 4°C (P<0.05). The samples ultracentrifuged at 4°C showed higher amounts of β-casein in the supernatant compared with samples stored at 20°C. The lowering of the temperature favored the migration of β-casein and colloidal calcium to the soluble phase of milk, which may also have favored the instability of milk in the ethanol test. According to the results, the milk sample temperature for the ethanol stability test should be 21ºC...


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/chemistry , Ethanol/adverse effects , Milk Proteins/chemistry , Ultracentrifugation , Milk/metabolism , Transition Temperature
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(5): 1352-1359, out. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-655910

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a composição do leite de animais em pastejo de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) alimentados com trevo branco (Trifolium repens L.) como substituição ao componente proteico da ração (farelo de soja), em porcentagens de proteína, lactose, sólidos totais e contagem de células somáticas. Utilizaram-se dois grupos com oito vacas da raça Holandesa, agrupados por produção, período de lactação e peso corporal, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Um grupo recebeu, diariamente, 3kg de suplemento energético subtraído de farelo de soja e teve acesso à pastagem de trevo branco por, aproximadamente, 2,5 horas (TB); o outro recebeu o mesmo suplemento, adicionado de quantidade de proteína equivalente ao consumo diário no tratamento anterior via trevo, na forma de farelo de soja (FS). Foram observadas diferenças significativas para teor de proteína e lactose, sendo os maiores valores encontrados de proteína em TB (3,02%) e de lactose em FS (4,64%). Para as demais variáveis não houve diferença, com valores de 10,40 e 10,39% de sólidos totais e 182,88 e 153,53 (x1000) células somáticas em TB e FS, respectivamente, mostrando que a utilização dessa fonte alternativa de proteína foi eficiente.


Was evaluated the composition of milk from animals grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), as a replacement for the protein component of the ration (soybean meal), in percentages of protein, lactose, total solids and somatic cell counts. Were used two groups with eight Holstein cows, grouped by production, lactation period and body weight, in a randomized block design. One group received 3kg of energetic supplement subtracted of soybean meal daily and had access to the white clover pasture for approximately 2.5 hours (TB); the other received the same supplement, added of a quantity of protein equivalent to daily intake in previous treatment via white clover, in the form of soybean meal (FS). Significant differences were observed for protein and lactose content, with the highest values found for protein on TB (3.02%) and lactose on FS (4.64%). For the other variables there was no difference, with values from 10.40 and 10.39% of total solids and 182.88 and 153.53 (x1000) somatic cells on TB and FS respectively, showing that the use of this alternative source of protein was efficient.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Milk/metabolism , Pasture/analysis , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Trifolium/administration & dosage , Food Composition
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(5): 1360-1366, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-655911

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the CombiScope FTIR equipment based on Fourier Transform Infrared methodology (FTIR), to assess the content of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) in Brazil. Repeatability and reproducibility of CombiScopeTM FTIR (Delta Instruments), and comparison with an enzymatic automated method (Chemspec® 150; Bentley Instruments) were tested to measure raw milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Additionally, MUN levels stability after storage of raw milk samples at 4ºC, and 20ºC for up to 15 days, and capability and precision to detect extraneous urea added as an adulterant to the milk were evaluated by FTIR equipment. There was a high correlation coefficient for the analysis of MUN by FTIR equipment, when compared with the automated enzymatic method, with no significant difference between both. MUN concentration in raw milk remained stable at temperatures of 4ºC for up to 15 days of storage, but after 3 days of storage at 20ºC there was an increase in the MUN levels. The CombiScope FTIR equipment proved to be a reliable method for analysis of MUN content in raw milk. However, results for MUN were not linear with the amount of extraneous urea added to raw milk, having a significant difference for samples when 40mg/dL of urea was added to milk.


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a avaliação do CombiScopeTM FTIR (Delta Instruments), um equipamento baseado na espectroscopia de infravermelho por metodologia em Transformada Fourier (FTIR) para a avaliação do teor de nitrogênio uréico no leite (NUL) cru produzido no Brasil. A repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade do CombiScopeTM FTIR (Delta Instruments) e a comparação com um método enzimático automatizado (ChemSpec® 150; Bentley Instruments) foram testados para a medição do nitrogênio uréico no leite (NUL) cru. Adicionalmente, os níveis de NUL após armazenamento das amostras de leite a 4ºC e 20ºC por até 15 dias, e a capacidade e precisão para detectar uréia adicionada de forma fraudulenta ao leite foram avaliados por FTIR. Houve alta correlação entre os métodos FTIR e enzimático automatizado para a análise de uréia, sem diferença significativa entre ambos (p>0,05). A concentração de uréia no leite cru manteve-se estável durante o armazenamento das amostras a 4ºC por até 15 dias. No entanto, após três dias à temperatura de 20ºC houve um aumento nos níveis de uréia. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que o equipamento CombiScopeTM FTIR é um método confiável para a análise do teor de uréia no leite cru. Entretanto, a detecção de uréia adicionada de forma fraudulenta ao leite cru não foi linearmente proporcional, com diferença significativa para adição de uréia em níveis de 40mg/dL.


Subject(s)
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Milk/metabolism , Nitrogen/analysis , Urea
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(5): 1367-1372, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-655912

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.


Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos.


Subject(s)
Milk/metabolism , Milk , Cheese/analysis , Bacterial Load
7.
Behbood Journal. 2011; 15 (4): 287-295
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117489

ABSTRACT

Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone [E1], 17beta -estradiol [E2], and estriol [E3] in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos. Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector. Free E1 [554.1 +/- 77.0 ng/L] and deconjugated E1 [701.6 +/- 44.7 ng/L] was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit [10 ng/L]. The lowest E1: 554.1 +/- 77.0 and E2: 28.1 +/- 4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7 +/- 123.8 and E2: 108.2 +/- 9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant [P>0.05] differences with those in raw milk. As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Milk/metabolism , Buffaloes , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Chromatography, Liquid , Risk Factors
8.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2011; 66 (3): 247-253
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117514

ABSTRACT

Rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid [CLA] may increase the protein to fat ratio in milk, and potentially improve the energy balance of early lactation cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production performance and blood metabolite changes in Holstein cows supplemented with four different doses of CLA postpartum in early lactation. Eight multiparous Holstein cows with at least 25 kg/day milk production were randomly chosen and were included in an experimental design with four three week periods [7 days of adaptation and 14 days of treatment and sampling]. The experiment was carried out with four levels of protected CLA supplement including 0, 50, 100, and 150 g per day per cow. Blood metabolites such as cholesterol and LDL-C content decreased significantly [p<0.05], but other metabolites such as HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride and BHBA did not change [p>0.05]. Milk production increased significantly [p<0.05], and 100 g/day of CLA supplemented treatment resulted in the highest production compared with the other groups. Milk fat percentage of the treated cows was reduced significantly and followed a dose-dependent response. No significant results were observed with regard to the protein content, solids-non-fat and milk density of the milk [p>0.05]. The increased milk production, and decreased blood LDL-C and cholesterol levels indicate an improvement in the physiological state of the cows. Given the enrichment of produced milk using this supplement, it is highly recommended to provide these supplements in dairy cow diets


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rumen/metabolism , Dairying , Milk/metabolism , Cattle
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135460

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces fat deposition in the body, but the mechanism of action is not clear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of CLA on body fat metabolism. Since milk fat is the best natural source of dietary CLA, intervention of non-fat milk constituents on CLA treatment was also investigated. Methods: Diets containing CLA (1%) with or without skim milk powder (SMP) was fed to male Swiss albino mice for 60 days. Adipose depots weight, faecal fat and the activities of selected enzymes of lipid metabolism were determined. Results: The mice on CLA and CLA+SMP diets gained weight similar to those on control diet, despite higher feed intake in the former two groups. Total fat pad mass was significantly (P<0.05) less in CLA group than in control group, and inclusion of SMP in the diet enhanced the fat reducing effect of CLA. Adiposity index was also less on CLA and CLA+SMP diets than on control diet, and CLA+SMP was more efficacious in reducing adiposity index. The weight of liver and spleen was increased by CLA, and this effect was eliminated by inclusion of SMP in the diet. The fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in liver and retroperitoneal adipose tissue decreased substantially on CLA and CLA+SMP diets compared to that on control diet. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data show that dietary CLA reduces body fat mass by decreasing fatty acid biosynthesis, and the effect is enhanced by inclusion of SMP in the diet.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Body Weight , Drug Synergism , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Female , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/pharmacology , Lipids/chemistry , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Milk/metabolism , Models, Biological , Models, Statistical , Spleen/metabolism
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(2): 11-12, Apr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-551372

ABSTRACT

High quality DNA is essential for many molecular biology techniques. However, the reagents used for that purpose usually are expensive and/or cause a high environmental impact. Here, we describe two alternative protocols that use inexpensive reagents and are not hazardous to the environment. The first protocol utilizes the enzyme chymosin, normally used as “rennet” in cheese production and which is easily obtained on the commercial market. The second protocol uses “rennet DNA extraction protocol” combined with the DNA binding capacity of glass powder (glass milk), which can easily be “home made”. The first protocol is used when a high yield of DNA is needed, whereas the second protocol is used for production of a higher quality DNA, being able to work with sparse samples.


Subject(s)
Chymosin , DNA , Milk/enzymology , Milk/metabolism , Milk/standards , Guidelines as Topic/analysis , Guidelines as Topic/economics , Cheese/economics , Cheese/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Blotting, Southern
11.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 46(5): 355-362, 2009. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-538427

ABSTRACT

Com a finalidade de estabelecer os valores de referência dos teores de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais do leite de bovinos da raça Jersey,criados no Estado de São Paulo, durante o primeiro mês de lactação,bem como avaliar a influência da fase colostral, examinaram-se 418 amostras de leite, provenientes de quartos mamários sadios e sem crescimento bacteriano. O leite foi colhido assepticamente antes da ordenha e os valores de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais foram determinados por radiação infra vermelho. Os teores de proteína na secreção láctea diminuíram abruptamente do 1º para o 2º dia de lactação,enquanto os teores de sólidos totais diminuíram abruptamente nas primeiras 24 horas após o parto. Após oscilaram muito nos primeiros três dias de lactação, observou-se que os valores de gordura diminuíam atingindo os valores mínimos entre o 15º e 30º dia de lactação. Sugere-se nas primeiras 24 horas de lactação (período colostral) a adoção dos seguintes valores de referência: proteína - entre 7,35 e 11,45 g/dL;gordura – 0,98 e 2,00 g/dL; e sólidos totais - entre 12,39 e 19,45 g/dL


With the aim to establish reference values of the protein, fat and total solids of milk from Jersey cows, raised in the State of São Paulo, during the first month of lactation, as well as to evaluate the influence of the colostral phase, 418 milk samples, obtained from healthy mammary glands without bacterial growth, were analized. Milk samples were aseptically collected before milking and protein, fat and total solids determined by infrared radiation. The milk protein level decrease from first to second day of lactation, while milk total solids level decreased during the first 24 hours after parturition. Milk fat level oscillated in the first 3 days of lactation and then decreased to the minimum values between 15-30 days of lactation. We suggest, forthe first 24 hours of lactation (colostral phase) the use of the following reference values: protein- between 7,35 and 11,45 g/dl; fat- between 0,98 and 2,00 g/dl ; total solids – between 12,39 and 19,45 g/dl


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/physiology , Milk/chemistry , Milk Proteins/analysis , Total Solids/analysis , Brazil , Lactation/metabolism , Milk/metabolism
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 06 fev. 2008. 115 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-494817

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho visa desenvolver métodos analíticos que permitam determinar as concentrações de oxitetraciclina por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiência, no leite, plasma e liquido sinovial, alem de analisar as concentrações correspondentes em gado leiteiro em lactação portadoras de doenças do casco submetidos aos tratamentos intramuscular e tópico. Adicionalmente, são tecidos comentários sobre a eficácia clinica destes tratamentos. Desta forma, objetivando determinar a depuração de oxitetraciclina no organismo dos animais tratados, a concentração no sitio de ação e a quantidade residual em leite, as amostras biológicas foram colhidas e quantificadas em diferentes tempos pré e pós-administração do fármaco. Os métodos analíticos validados apresentaram linearidade, limite de detecção, quantificação, exatidão, precisão e recuperação adequadas a quantificação do antibiótico nas matrizes estudadas. Através da administração do medicamento por via intramuscular, observou-se resíduos acima dos limites máximos (1OOppb) estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira para oxitetraciclina no leite ate 120 horas após a última administração do medicamento pelo esquema seriado de doses. Já pela via tópica, não foram observados valores residuais na matriz biológica. Do ponto de vista clinico, o tratamento tópico foi eficiente nos animais tratados, levando a cura das lesões. Com relação ao tratamento intramuscular, não foram observados resultados satisfatórios, pois a maioria das lesões não regrediu após as administrações.


Subject(s)
Animals , Milk/metabolism , Synovial Fluid/metabolism , Oxytetracycline/pharmacokinetics , Toxins, Biological , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Food Contamination
13.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 44(5): 315-321, 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-497716

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da retirada mecânicadas células somáticas do leite cru sobre a taxa de lipólise durante o armazenamento refrigerado do leite pasteurizado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi totalmente casualizado, com três repetições e arranjo fatorial de tratamentos 2 X 2 X 2, constituídos por dois nível de gordura do leite (desnatado e integral), dois níveis de contagem de células somáticas (CCS baixa - CCSB e CCS alta - CCSA), e pela aplicação ou não da microfiltração ao leite. Três lotes de leite cru CCSB (75.000 cél./mL) e CCSA (1.150.000 cél./mL) foram obtidos de vacas selecionadas e submetidos ao desnate centrífugo, à microfiltração em sistema a vácuo, sendo em seguida pasteurizados e armazenados por 21 dias sob refrigeração a 6ºC. Foram realizadas medidas repetidas no tempo, as quais corresponderam aos dias de coleta do leite pasteurizado durante o período de armazenamento (1, 7, 14 e 21). A microfiltração associada ao desnate foram eficazes na remoção das células somáticas do leite, com reduções de 92,5 e 99,5% para o leite CCSB e CCSA, respectivamente. A lipólise do leite aumentou em função do tempo de armazenamento e foi maior para o leite microfiltrado, contudo não sofreu influência da CCS. Independentemente da CCS, ocorreu aumento da lipólise do leite pasteurizado durante o período de armazenamento.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of raw milk somatic cell removal by microfiltration on lipolysis of pasteurized milk during refrigerated storage. A completely randomized design was used, with 3 repetitions and a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments as follow: milk fat level (skimmed and whole milk), two different levels of somatic cell counts - low somatic cell count (LSCC) and high somatic cell count (HSCC) - and, use of microfiltration ornot. LSCC raw milk - 75,000 cells/ml - and HSCC raw milk - 1,150,000 cells/ml - were obtained from selected cows, skimmed and submitted to vacuum microfiltration. Milk from all treatments was pasteurized and kept refrigerated at 6ºC for 21 days. Repeated measures during storage time were taken from pasteurized milk at days 1, 7, 14 and 21. The application of milk microfiltration was efficient on somatic cell removal, with reduction of 92,5 and 99,5% for LSCC and HSCC,repectively. Lipolysis of milk was increased during storage period and was higher for milk submitted to icrofiltration, however no effect of SCC was observed. Lipolysis in pasteurized milk increased independently of SCC, during its refrigerated storage period.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Activation/physiology , Cell Count/methods , Food Storage , Hydrolysis , Milk/enzymology , Milk/metabolism , Lipolysis/physiology , Mastitis/metabolism , Dairying/economics
14.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 62 (3): 191-195
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-146215

ABSTRACT

Assessing the effects of monensin on economic factors of milk [percents of protein and fat], and quality of milk fat during early lactation. Thirteen multiparous Holstein cows were blocked into a control and a treatment group from 3 weeks prepartum to 45 days postpartum according the number of their calving. The groups received similar diets. The treatment group received monensin added to grain mix at 340 mg/head/day during prepartum weeks, 160-480 mg/head/day during first two weeks postpartum and 350 mg/head/day during days 15-35 postpartum. Milk samples were obtained on days 15, 25, 35 and 45 postpartum. Milk volume during a standard period of 305 days and during the first 3 months of lactation, percentages milk protein and milk fat and iodine value of milk fat were determined. Data were studied with the SPSS statistical software using analysis of variance for repeated measures and independent t test. No significant differences were observed between control and experiment groups in volumes of milk during the first 3 months of lactation and the standard production of the entire lactation period. The natural decrease in the percentage of milk protein and fat postpartum was observed in both groups. However, the pattern of decrease in milk protein was slower in the treatment group. There was no difference between the groups in milk protein at various stages of sampling. Milk fat increased in the treatment group from day 25 of lactation and on day 45, it was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control cows. The iodine index of milk fat was nonsignificantly higher in the treatment group throughout of the experiment. The present study showed that administration of monensin during periparturient weeks has no adverse effect on milk volume, percentage of milk protein and fat and the quality of milk fat. It may lessen the decreasing pattern of milk protein and fat, or accelerate the time for their increasing. Increased level of unsaturated fatty acids in milk is a positive point in feeding monensin


Subject(s)
Animals , Milk , Cattle/physiology , Milk/chemistry , Fats/analysis , Lactation/drug effects , Milk/metabolism
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(5): 852-861, out. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-439066

ABSTRACT

O cálcio (Ca) dietético é fundamental para a saúde óssea. Tanto o teor como a biodisponibilidade do elemento nos alimentos devem ser considerados. Este artigo objetiva sumarizar os fatores envolvidos na absorção e destacar os alimentos com melhor disponibilidade do Ca. Este é absorvido principalmente no jejuno e o pH baixo parece favorecer sua absorção, que é maior no crescimento, na gestação/lactação e na carência de Ca ou fósforo (P), e menor no envelhecimento. As maiores fontes, e com melhor absorção, são os laticínios bovinos. Outros alimentos apresentam concentrações elevadas de Ca, mas com biodisponibilidade variável: os ricos em ácidos oxálico e fítico apresentariam uma menor absorção, enquanto que os ricos em carboidratos teriam uma absorção maior. Por apresentarem uma biodisponibilidade do Ca mais próxima da do leite bovino, o leite de outros animais, o de soja enriquecido e alguns vegetais, em quantidades adequadas, poderiam ser usados como alternativas a este.


Dietary calcium (Ca) is fundamental to the bone's health. Both the purport and the element bioavailability in the food need to be considered. The purpose of this work was to summarize the factors involved in Ca absorption and point out the sources with higher bioavailability. Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and low pH seems to favor its absorption, which is higher during growth, gestation/lactation and Ca and phosphorus (P) deficiency, and lower with aging. The richest and best-absorbed Ca source is cow's milk and its derivatives. Other foods show high Ca concentrations but variable bioavailability: foods rich in phytates and oxalates show a smaller absorption and carbohydrate-rich foods show higher absorption. Since Ca bioavailability in other animal's milk, soymilk and some vegetables is closer to that in cow's milk, adequate amounts of these foods could be used as an alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Calcium, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Diet , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Nutritional Requirements , Biological Availability , Bone Density/physiology , Calcium Carbonate/metabolism , Calcium/deficiency , Lactation/metabolism , Lactose Intolerance/metabolism , Lactose/metabolism , Milk/metabolism , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Soy Milk/pharmacokinetics , Vegetables/metabolism
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 81(5): 361-367, set.-out. 2005.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-418518

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Revisar aspectos do consumo de leite de vaca associados à anemia na infância. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos publicados nas 2 últimas décadas, pesquisados nas bases de dados Lilacs e MEDLINE, livros técnicos e publicações de organizações internacionais. SíNTESE DOS DADOS: A anemia ferropriva é um grave problema de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimento. Até os 6 meses de idade, o leite materno supre as necessidades de ferro das crianças nascidas a termo. A partir daí, torna-se necessária a ingestão de uma alimentação complementar rica em ferro. Considerando a importância da dieta na determinação da anemia e o alto consumo de leite de vaca na infância, discute-se neste artigo a relação desse alimento com a deficiência de ferro. A introdução precoce ou a substituição do leite materno por leite de vaca pode ocasionar problemas gastrintestinais e alérgicos. Além disso, esse alimento apresenta baixa biodisponibilidade e densidade de ferro, excesso de proteínas e minerais, especialmente cálcio, interferindo na absorção do ferro de outros alimentos, e associa-se às micro-hemorragias intestinais, principalmente nas crianças menores. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização do leite de vaca em detrimento de outros alimentos ricos em ferro biodisponível constitui um risco para o desenvolvimento da anemia. O estímulo ao aleitamento materno exclusivo até os 6 meses de vida e sua continuidade até pelo menos 24 meses, juntamente com uma dieta complementar rica em ferro são medidas de grande importância para a prevenção da anemia e de suas conseqüências na infância.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Diet , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Milk/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Calcium, Dietary/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Iron/pharmacokinetics , Milk/metabolism , Prevalence , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-124459

ABSTRACT

Nutritional factors play a major role both in the pathogenesis as well as management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Physicians treating patients with chronic liver disease often restrict the intake of dietary protein to prevent a rise in blood ammonia levels. The role of protein restriction in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) has been questioned recently as the efficacy of protein withdrawal in patients with CHE has never been subjected to a controlled trial. Evidence suggests that protein intake plays only a limited role in precipitating encephalopathy. In fact, measures taken to suppress endogenous protein breakdown are more effective than dietary restrictions in reducing the load of amino acids on the decompensated liver. A protein intake of less than 40 g per day, as has been indicated, contributes to a negative nitrogen balance, which along with increased endogenous protein breakdown, worsens encephalopathy. A positive nitrogen balance may have positive effects on encephalopathy. Rather, depressed plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, implicated in the pathogenesis of HE, also supervene in cirrhosis only when malnutrition is present as well. Therefore, the emphasis in the nutritional management of patients with HE should not be on the reduction of protein intake. Instead, the goal should be to promote synthesis by making available ample amounts of amino acids, while instituting other measures to reverse the ongoing catabolism. Different protein sources have varying effects on HE and efforts should be made to identify the most tolerated protein source to prevent malnutrition and maintain these patients on a long-term basis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids, Branched-Chain/metabolism , Animals , Diet, Protein-Restricted/methods , Hepatic Encephalopathy/diet therapy , Humans , Milk/metabolism , Nutrition Therapy/methods
19.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 36(3): 121-124, 1999. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-365208

ABSTRACT

Foram analisadas eletronicamente 6.112 amostras de leite para CCS e concentração de gordura e proteína com o objetivo de verificar como estes teores são alterados pelo aumento da CCS. A CCS foi transformada para escore linear. O aumento do escore levou a um aumento da concentração de gordura, e a um aumento da concentração de proteína. Estes aumentos foram altamente significativos (p<0,0001), porém apenas 6,97 por cento da variação da concentração de gordura e 12,3 por cento da variação da concentração de proteína foram devidos à variação das CCS.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cattle , Cell Count/methods , Mammary Glands, Animal/microbiology , Milk/metabolism , Milk/chemistry , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis
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