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1.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 49-56, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981585

ABSTRACT

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension, with its main manifestations including hypertension and hypokalemia. Early identification of PA is extremely important as PA patients can easily develop cardiovascular complications such as atrial fibrillation, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The past decade has witnessed the rapid advances in the genetics of PA, which has shed new light on PA treatment. While surgery is the first choice for unilateral diseases, bilateral lesions can be treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). The next-generation non-steroidal MRAs are under investigations. New medications including calcium channel blockers, macrophage antibiotics, and aldosterone synthase inhibitors have provided a new perspective for the medical treatment of PA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Adrenalectomy/adverse effects , Aldosterone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1023-1030, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970097

ABSTRACT

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists not only are used as a diuretics to treat essential hypertension, but also protect the heart and kidney by inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis. Since the discovery of spironolactone, the first generation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, two types of non-steroid mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (finerenone and esaxerenone) approved for clinical use have been developed, which have the advantages of high affinity, high selectivity and balanced distribution in heart and kidney, and can be used in clinic as a cardiorenal protective drug. In this paper, the development history of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists was reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammation and fibrosis caused by mineralocorticoid receptors and the similarities and differences of different generations of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists were analyzed. In particular, the phase III clinical research evidence of finerenone and esaxerenone was discussed. This paper also reviews the research progress of cardiorenal protection of non-steroid mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibrosis , Heart Failure , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Mineralocorticoids/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
3.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8036, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128881

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La coriorretinopatía central serosa consiste en la filtración de fluido desde la coroides y su acumulación en el espacio subretinal. Su forma crónica se asocia a pérdida visual permanente. Los antagonistas de mineralocorticoides son una alternativa de tratamiento para esta patología, aunque no existe evidencia clara sobre su efectividad. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 22 estudios primarios, de los cuales, cuatro corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que el uso de antagonistas de mineralocorticoides en coriorretinopatía central serosa crónica probablemente resulta en poca o nula diferencia en la agudeza visual corregida. No es posible establecer con claridad si su uso disminuye el grosor del fluido subretinal, debido a que la certeza de la evidencia ha sido evaluada como muy baja. Además, esta intervención podría resultar en poca o nula diferencia en la aparición de efectos adversos, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja.


INTRODUCTION: Central serous chorioretinopathy consists of the leakage of fluid from the choroid and its accumulation into the subretinal space. Its chronic form is associated with permanent vision loss. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are an alternative treatment for this condition, although there is no clear evidence about their effectiveness. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews including 22 studies overall and four of them are randomized trials. We concluded that in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists probably make little or no difference to best-corrected visual acuity. We are uncertain whether this intervention reduces subretinal fluid height because the certainty of the evidence is very low. Furthermore, this intervention may make little or no difference in terms of adverse effects, but the certainty of the evidence is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Visual Acuity/drug effects , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Chronic Disease , Databases, Factual , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/physiopathology , Subretinal Fluid/drug effects
4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 345-355, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040247

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that aldosterone plays a role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on the progression of coronary calcification (CC) in peritoneal dialysis patients and to identify the factors involved in this progression. Methods: Thirty-three patients with a coronary calcium score (CCS) ≥ 30, detected through multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and expressed in Agatston units, were randomly assigned to a group receiving 25mg spironolactone per day for 12 months (spironolactone group) and a control group not receiving this drug. The primary outcome was a percentage change in CCS from baseline to end of the study (relative progression), when a further MDCT was conducted. Patients who had progression of CC were compared with those who did not progress. Results: Sixteen patients, seven in the spironolactone group and nine in the control group, concluded the study. The relative progression of the CCS was similar in both groups, 17.2% and 27.5% in the spironolactone and control groups respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the treated patients and 67% of those in the control group presented progression in the CC scores (p = 0.697). Progressor patients differed from non-progressors because they presented higher levels of calcium and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower levels of albumin. Conclusion: In peritoneal dialysis patients, spironolactone did not attenuate the progression of CC. However, large-scale studies are needed to confirm this observation. Disorders of mineral metabolism and dyslipidemia are involved in the progression of CC.


RESUMO Introdução: Existem evidências de que a aldosterona exerça um papel na patogênese da calcificação vascular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da espironolactona, um antagonista do receptor mineralocorticoide, na progressão da calcificação coronariana (CC) de pacientes em diálise peritoneal, e identificar os fatores envolvidos nessa progressão. Métodos: Trinta e três pacientes com escore de cálcio coronariano (ECC) ≥ 30, detectado por tomografia computadorizada com múltiplos detectores (TCMD) e expresso em unidades de Agatston, foram randomizados para um grupo que recebeu 25 mg de espironolactona por dia durante 12 meses (grupo espironolactona) e um grupo controle que não recebeu este medicamento. O desfecho primário foi a mudança percentual do ECC do início para o final do estudo (progressão relativa), quando uma nova TCMD foi realizada. Os pacientes que tiveram progressão de CC foram comparados com aqueles que não progrediram. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes, sete no grupo espironolactona e nove no grupo controle, concluíram o estudo. A progressão relativa do ECC foi semelhante nos dois grupos, 17,2% e 27,5% nos grupos espironolactona e controle, respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tratados e 67% daqueles no grupo controle apresentaram progressão nos escores de CC (p = 0,697). Os pacientes progressores diferiram dos não progressores porque apresentaram níveis séricos mais elevados de cálcio e LDL-colesterol e menores níveis de albumina. Conclusão: Em pacientes em diálise peritoneal, a espironolactona não atenuou a progressão da CC. No entanto, estudos em grande escala são necessários para confirmar essa observação. Distúrbios do metabolismo mineral e dislipidemia estão envolvidos na progressão da CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Dialysis , Disease Progression , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Vascular Calcification/drug therapy , Vascular Calcification/blood , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Pilot Projects , Calcium/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Lost to Follow-Up , Vascular Calcification/pathology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
5.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 24-29, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009523

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are associated with the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, freshly isolated penile corpus cavernosum tissue from rats was treated with aldosterone, with or without MRs inhibitors. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B (NF-κB) activity was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR, luciferase assay, and immunoblot. The results demonstrated that mRNA levels of the NF-κB target genes, including inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκB-α), NF-κB1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were higher after aldosterone treatment. Accordingly, phosphorylation of p65/RelA, IκB-α, and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-β was markedly increased by aldosterone. Furthermore, knockdown of MRs prevented activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway by aldosterone. Consistent with this finding, ectopic overexpression of MRs enhanced the transcriptional activation of NF-κB by aldosterone. More importantly, the MRs antagonist, spironolactone blocked aldosterone-mediated activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, aldosterone has an inflammatory effect in the corpus cavernosum penis, inducing NF-κB activation via an MRs-dependent pathway, which may be prevented by selective MRs antagonists. These data reveal the possible role of aldosterone in erectile dysfunction as well as its potential as a novel pharmacologic target for treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aldosterone/pharmacology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Gene Knockdown Techniques , I-kappa B Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/genetics , Penis/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Rats, Inbred WKY , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Transcriptional Activation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , NF-kappaB-Inducing Kinase
6.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 257-265, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that aldosterone antagonists have a proteinuria-lowering effect in patients with proteinuria and progressive proteinuric disease not adequately controlled by the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Aldosterone antagonists, in combination with ARBs, might improve proteinuria in patients with glomerulonephritis (GN). METHODS: In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the proteinuria-lowering effect and drug safety of low-dose spironolactone (12.5 mg/day) in 42 patients with GN being treated with an ARB. RESULTS: Proteinuria decreased from a mean total-protein-to-creatinine (TP/Cr) ratio of 592.3 ± 42.0 mg/g at baseline to 335.6 ± 43.3 mg/g after three months of treatment with spironolactone (P < 0.001). After the initial three months, the mean TP/Cr ratio increased progressively at six, nine, and 12 months; however, it was still less than the baseline value (P = 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively). Although serum Cr levels increased significantly at three and nine months compared with baseline (P = 0.036 and 0.026, respectively), there was no time effect of treatment (P = 0.071). Serum potassium levels tended to increase with time (P = 0.118), whereas systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased with time (P = 0.122 and 0.044, respectively). CONCLUSION: Low-dose spironolactone in combination with an ARB reduced proteinuria in patients with GN, which could represent a novel treatment option in individuals whose proteinuria is not optimally controlled by the use of ARBs alone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensins , Glomerulonephritis , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists , Potassium , Proteinuria , Retrospective Studies , Spironolactone
7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 453-461, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714350

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. As hepatic fibrosis progresses, levels of the RAS components angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang-(1–7), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are increased. The primary effector Ang II regulates vasoconstriction, sodium homoeostasis, fibrosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in various diseases, including liver cirrhosis, through the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis in the classical RAS. The ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1–9)/AT2R axes make up the alternative RAS and promote vasodilation, antigrowth, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects; thus, countering the effects of the classical RAS axis to reduce hepatic fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. Patients with portal hypertension have been treated with RAS antagonists such as ACE inhibitors, Ang receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, with very promising hemodynamic results. In this review, we examine the RAS, its roles in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension, and current therapeutic approaches based on the use of RAS antagonists in patients with portal hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensins , Cell Proliferation , Fibrosis , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Portal , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists , Receptors, Angiotensin , Renin-Angiotensin System , Sodium , Vasoconstriction , Vasodilation
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(3): 305-312, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887562

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension (HTN), with an estimated prevalence of 4% of hypertensive patients in primary care and around 10% of referred patients. Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than age- and sex-matched patients with essential HTN and the same degree of blood pressure elevation. PA is characterized by an autonomous aldosterone production causing sodium retention, plasma renin supression, HTN, cardiovascular damage, and increased potassium excretion, leading to variable degrees of hypokalemia. Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) account for around 40% and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism for around 60% of PA cases. The aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most sensitive screening test for PA. There are several confirmatory tests and the current literature does not identify a "gold standard" confirmatory test for PA. In our institution, we recommend starting case confirmation with the furosemide test. After case confirmation, all patients with PA should undergo adrenal CT as the initial study in subtype testing to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method to define the PA subtype, but it is not indicated in all cases. An experienced radiologist must perform AVS. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferential treatment for patients with APAs, and bilateral hyperplasia should be treated with mineralocorticoid antagonist (spironolactone or eplerenone). Cardiovascular morbidity caused by aldosterone excess can be decreased by either unilateral adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonist. In this review, we address the most relevant issues regarding PA screening, case confirmation, subtype classification, and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hyperaldosteronism/therapy , Hypertension/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Renin/blood , Adrenal Glands/diagnostic imaging , Adrenalectomy , Aldosterone/blood , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperaldosteronism/blood
9.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(2): 106-115, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899574

ABSTRACT

Previamente hemos demostrado que la eficacia de enalapril, candesartán y de fasudil -inhibidor de la vía RhoA/ROCK,- en el tratamiento del remodelado cardíaco en la hipertensión (HTA) e infarto al miocardio está mediada por aumento en los niveles circulantes del péptido vasoactivo angiotensina [Ang]-(1-9). Sin embargo, no hay información disponible si el antagonista del receptor de mineralocorticoide, espironolactona (espiro) disminuye el remodelado cardíaco aumentando los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si espironolac-tona disminuye el remodelado cardíaco aumentando los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) en la hipertensión arterial experimental. Métodos. Estudio comparativo de 3 grupos experimentales. Se utilizaron ratas Sprague Dawley macho (150 ± 10 grs) unifrectomizadas tratadas con desoxi-corticosterona (DOCA, 60mg/Kg 2 veces sem, im) por 6 semanas. Como controles (Sham) se usaron ratas unifrectomizadas. A partir de la 3° semana las ratas DOCA con HTA> 140 mmHg fueron randomizadas a recibir vehículo o espiro (100 mg/kg día, gavage) por 3 sem. Al finalizar el tratamiento se determinó la presión arterial sistólica (PAS), masa corporal, peso del corazón (PC) y masa cardíaca relativa al largo de la tibia (MCR, mg ventrículos/LT*100). El grado de hipertrofia car-diomiocitaria se determinó midiendo el área y perímetro de los cardiomiocitos y la fibrosis por el contenido de colágeno en cortes teñidos con rojo picrosirio. Resultados (promedio ± ES): Conclusión: Espironolactona disminuye la PAS y aumenta los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9). Este aumento en los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) se asocia con una disminución significativa de la hipertrofia y la fibrosis cardiaca hipertensiva. Este nuevo efecto de espironolactona en los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9), - péptido vasoactivo de la vía paralela del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona,- podría contribuir al efecto antihipertensivo y disminución del daño cardiaco en la hipertensión y remodelamiento cardiovascular y renal patológico. Estos hallazgos pueden tener relevancia terapéutica en términos que Ang-(1-9) podría disminuir el daño cardiovascular patológico.


We have previously demonstrated that the efficacy of enalapril, candesartan and fasudil,- RhoA / ROCK inhibitor-, in the treatment of cardiac remodeling in hypertension (HT) and myocardial infarction is mediated by an increase in circulating levels of the vasoactive peptide angiotensin (Ang) -(1-9). However, it is not known whether the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (spiro) decreases cardiac remodeling by increasing the circulating levels of Ang- (1-9). The aim of this study was to determine whether spironolactone decreases cardiac remodeling by increasing circulating levels of Ang-(1-9) in experimental hypertension. Methods. Comparative study of 3 experimental groups. Unifirectomized male Sprague Dawley rats (150 ± 10 grams) were treated with deoxycorticos-terone (DOCA, 60 mg / kg 2 times a week, im) for 6 weeks. Unifirectomized rats were used as controls (Sham). At 3rd week after surgery, DOCA rats with HTA> 140 mmHg were randomized to receive vehicle or spironolactone (Spiro, 100 mg / kg day, gavage) for 3 weeks. At the end of treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass (BM), heart weight (HW) and relative cardiac mass to the tibia length (MCR, mg ventricles / LT * 100) were determined. The degree of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was determined by measuring the area and perimeter of cardiomyocytes and fibrosis by collagen content in sections stained with picrosirius red. Results (mean ± ES): Conclusion: Spironolactone decreases systolic blood pressure and increases circulating levels of Ang-(1-9). This increase in circulating levels of Ang- (1-9) was associated with a significant decrease in hypertrophy and hypertensive cardiac fibrosis. This new effect of spironolactone on the circulating levels of Ang- (1-9) - vasoactive peptide of the parallel pathway of the re-nin-angiotensin-aldosterone system - could contribute to the antihypertensive effect and decrease of cardiac damage in HT and cardiovascular remodeling and renal disease. These findings may have therapeutic relevance supporting that Ang-(1-9) may decreases pathologic cardiovascular damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Angiotensins/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5520, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839279

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), voltage-gated L-type calcium channel blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), on the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] on aorta and coronary arteries from pressure-overloaded rats. Pressure overload was induced by abdominal aortic banding (AB). To evaluate the role of antihypertensive drugs on the effect of Ang-(1-7), AB male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were treated with vehicle or low doses (5 mg·kg-1·day-1, gavage) of losartan, captopril, amlodipine, or spironolactone. Isolated aortic rings and isolated perfused hearts under constant flow were used to evaluate the effect of Ang-(1-7) in thoracic aorta and coronary arteries, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced a significant relaxation in the aorta of sham animals, but this effect was reduced in the aortas of AB rats. Chronic treatments with losartan, captopril or amlodipine, but not with spironolactone, restored the Ang-(1-7)-induced aorta relaxation in AB rats. The coronary vasodilatation evoked by Ang-(1-7) in sham rats was blunted in hypertrophic rats. Only the treatment with losartan restored the coronary vasodilatory effect of Ang-(1-7) in AB rat hearts. These data support a beneficial vascular effect of an association of Ang-(1-7) and some antihypertensive drugs. Thus, this association may have potential as a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 341-353, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The burden of heart failure has increased in Korea. This registry aims to evaluate demographics, clinical characteristics, management, and long-term outcomes in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a total of 5625 consecutive subjects hospitalized for AHF in one of 10 tertiary university hospitals from March 2011 to February 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the baseline characteristics of the study population and to compare them with those from other registries. RESULTS: The mean age was 68.5±14.5 years, 53.2% were male, and 52.2% had de novo heart failure. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 131.2±30.3 mmHg and 78.6±18.8 mmHg at admission, respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was ≤40% in 60.5% of patients. Ischemia was the most frequent etiology (37.6%) and aggravating factor (26.3%). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists were prescribed in 68.8%, 52.2%, and 46.6% of the patients at discharge, respectively. Compared with the previous registry performed in Korea a decade ago, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and heart transplantation have been performed more frequently (ECMO 0.8% vs. 2.8%, heart transplantation 0.3% vs. 1.2%), and in-hospital mortality decreased from 7.6% to 4.8%. However, the total cost of hospital care increased by 40%, and one-year follow-up mortality remained high. CONCLUSION: While the quality of acute clinical care and AHF-related outcomes have improved over the last decade, the long-term prognosis of heart failure is still poor in Korea. Therefore, additional research is needed to improve long-term outcomes and implement cost-effective care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Demography , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Follow-Up Studies , Guideline Adherence , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Heart , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Ischemia , Korea , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists , Mortality , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Health Care , Registries , Stroke Volume , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): 00601, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765006

ABSTRACT

Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Androstenes/administration & dosage , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Hypertension/drug therapy , Vasodilation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Estrogen Receptor alpha/drug effects , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Ethidium/analogs & derivatives , Femoral Artery , Hemodynamics , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Ovariectomy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred SHR , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
14.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 25(3): 174-177, sep.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-736991

ABSTRACT

El hiperaldosteronismo primario es una de las formas de hipertensión arterial secundaria de etiología endocrina potencialmente curable. Fue descrita por primera vez por Jerome Conn en 1955. Se caracteriza por la producción inapropiadamente elevada de aldosterona con relativa autonomía del sistema renina-angiotensina. Su diagnóstico se sospecha en pacientes con hipertensión arterial con o sin hipokaliemia y se confirma con la elevación del índice aldosterona/ actividad de renina plasmática. El tratamiento de elección es el quirúrgico, pero el empleo de agentes antagonistas de mineralocorticoides puede ser otra alternativa terapéutica, previa a la cirugía, o cuando esta no sea posible(AU)


Primary hyperaldosteronism is one of the potentially curable secondary blood hypertension forms of endocrine etiology. This disease was firstly described by Jerome Conn in 1955 and characterized by high production of aldosterone with relative autonomy of the renin-angiotensin system. This disease may be suspected in patients with blood hypertension with or without hypokalemia and confirmed with the increase of aldosteron/plasma rennin activity index. The treatment of choice is surgery, but the use of antagonist agents of mineralocorticoids can be another therapeutic alternative before the surgery or when this procedure is not possible(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/therapy , Hypertension/etiology
15.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 29(1): 100-109, abr. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754293

ABSTRACT

Los betabloqueantes y los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina / antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina II (I-ECA/ARA II) son medicamentos esenciales en el manejo del síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) con un efecto beneficioso en la sobrevida, aditivo al obtenido con otros fármacos, como aspirina y estatinas, reduciendo la morbi-mortalidad temprana y tardía en pacientes revascularizados o no. Los pacientes pos IAM con fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) < 40% e insuficiencia cardíaca o diabetes, se pueden beneficiar del tratamiento con antagonistas de los receptores mineralocorticoides si se aplican en forma temprana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(1): 61-71, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708852

ABSTRACT

In recent years, much attention has focused on the role of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Patients with primary aldosteronism, in whom angiotensin II levels are low, have a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications than patients with essential hypertension. The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES) demonstrated that adding a non-specific MR antagonist, spironolactone, to a standard therapy that included angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, loop diuretics, and digoxin, significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in patients with moderate to severe heart failure. Similarly, the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) showed that the addition of a selective MR antagonist (ARM), eplerenone, to an optimal medical therapy reduces morbidity and mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. These data suggest that aldosterone induces cardiac injury through activation of MRs and support the notion that MR blockade has beneficial effects on aldosterone-dependent cardiac injury, through mechanisms that cannot be simply explained by hemodynamic changes. Although, MRA are highly effective in patients with heart failure, the risk of hyperkalemia should not be overlooked. Serious hyperkalemia events were reported in some MRA clinical trials; however these risks can be mitigated through appropriate patient selection, dose selection, patient education, monitoring, and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4411-4417, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341844

ABSTRACT

By using the pharmacophore model of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists as a starting point, the experiment stud- ies the method of traditional Chinese medicine formula design for anti-hypertensive. Pharmacophore models were generated by 3D-QSAR pharmacophore (Hypogen) program of the DS3.5, based on the training set composed of 33 mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The best pharmacophore model consisted of two Hydrogen-bond acceptors, three Hydrophobic and four excluded volumes. Its correlation coefficient of training set and test set, N, and CAI value were 0.9534, 0.6748, 2.878, and 1.119. According to the database screening, 1700 active compounds from 86 source plant were obtained. Because of lacking of available anti-hypertensive medi cation strategy in traditional theory, this article takes advantage of patent retrieval in world traditional medicine patent database, in order to design drug formula. Finally, two formulae was obtained for antihypertensive.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Models, Molecular
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 6(3): 99-107, jul. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726612

ABSTRACT

The beneficial effect angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA) for diabetic nephropathy can be hampered by the phenomenon of aldosterone escape. Aldosterone antagonists such as espironolactone or epleronone could potentiate the effects of ACEI and ARA and avoid the later problem. We performed a systematic search of the literature on the effects of aldosterone antagonists on diabetic nephropathy. We searched for clinical trials and follow up studies measuring the effects of aldosterone antagonists on urinary albumin excretion among patients with diabetic nephropathy. We retrieved 1345 papers on the subject and 10 were selected for analysis. Among these, spironolactone was more effective than comparing drugs to achieve a reduction in urinary albumin excretion of approximately 30 to 40 percent. On the other hand epleronone was not superior to comparing drugs. All studies reported a modest reduction in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in serum potassium levels. In conclusion, spironolactone in doses of 25 to 100 mg/day reduces urinary albumin excretion but reduces also glomerular filtration rate and increases serum potassium levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus , Spironolactone/analogs & derivatives , Spironolactone/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Potassium
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 81-85, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252661

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of spironolactone on the concentration of collagen type I, III in the myocardium of spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty 8-week male SHR were assigned randomly into spironolactone (SHR-SPIRO, n=10) and control groups (SHR-CON, n=10), sex-age matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY group, n=7) were also served as controls. The rats of SHR-SPIRO group were given 20 mg/(kg*d) of spironolactone, the rats of SHR-CON and WKY groups were given the same volume of distilled water. After 16 weeks, the concentration of collagen type I was analyzed with Western blot. The areas of collagen type I and III were observed under polarized light microscopy and the ratio of type I/III collagen was calculated through accumulation score.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with WKY group,the concentration of collagen type I in SHR-CON group was significantly higher (1.87 ±0.2 Compared with 1.21 ±0.7, P<0.05). After 16 weeks of treatment the concentration of collagen type I (1.42 ±0.05 Compared with 1.87 ±0.2, P<0.05) and I/III ratio in SHR-SPIRO group were significantly reduced (15.64 ±1.34 Compared with 20.8 ±3.04, P<0.05) compared with SHR-CON group; but there were no differences in accumulation area scores of collagen type III among three groups (368.3 ±30.2 Compared with 481.6 ±32.4 Compared with 406.2 ±45.3, P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The deposition of collagen type I in myocardium may be involved in myocardial fibrosis of SHR, and spironolactone can decrease the concentration of collagen type I, which may be one of the mechanisms for its therapeutic effects.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Collagen Type III , Metabolism , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists , Pharmacology , Myocardium , Metabolism , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Spironolactone , Pharmacology
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