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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236471, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249254

ABSTRACT

Abstract Date fruit is known to be the staple food in the Arab countries. It provides a lot of potential health benefits and can be the essential source of nutrients. The majority of Moroccan varieties are not characterized for their chemical, biochemical and quality properties. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition of 17 varieties of Moroccan date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and to determine their nutritive components. The analysis showed that the dates are rich in sugars (51.80-87.98%), they contain low concentration of proteins (1.09-2.80%) and lipids (0.16-0.39%). The predominant mineral is potassium (1055.26-1604.10 mg/100 g DW). Moreover, they contain high concentrations of malic acid (69.48-495.58 mg/100 g (DW)), oxalic acid (18.47-233.35 mg/100 g DW) and tartaric acid (115.70-484.168 mg/100 g DW). These results suggest that the date fruit are nutritious and can be an excellent source for human nutrition and health benefits.


Resumo A fruta da tâmara é conhecida por ser o alimento básico nos países árabes. Oferece muitos benefícios potenciais à saúde e pode ser a fonte essencial de nutrientes. A maioria das variedades marroquinas não se caracteriza por suas propriedades químicas, bioquímicas nem de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química de 17 variedades de frutos de tâmara marroquina (Phoenix dactylifera L.) e determinar seu valor nutritivo. A análise mostrou que as tâmaras são ricas em açúcares (51,80-87,98%) e contêm baixa concentração de proteínas (1,09-2,80%) e lipídios (0,16-0,39%). O mineral predominante é o potássio (1.055,26-1.604,10 mg/100 g DW). Além disso, contêm altas concentrações de ácido málico (69,48-495,58 mg/100 g DW), ácido oxálico (18,47-233,35 mg/100 g DW) e ácido tartárico (115,70-484,168 mg/100 g DW). Esses resultados sugerem que o fruto da tamareira é nutritivo e pode ser uma excelente fonte de nutrição humana e conferir benefícios à saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phoeniceae , Clone Cells/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 171-180, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115486

ABSTRACT

La bioaccesibilidad de un nutriente en un alimento sirve para determinar la calidad nutricional de éste para el consumo humano. El arroz es uno de los alimentos más importantes en la dieta por su gran aporte calórico y nutricional. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la bioaccesibilidad in vitro del zinc en arroz mediante espectrofotometría ultravioleta-visible y espectrometría de absorción atómica de llama y su relación con el contenido de ácido fítico. El porcentaje de bioaccesibilidad del zinc, respecto al porcentaje de ácido fítico, presentó una relación logarítmica inversamente proporcional (r= −0,669; p<0,05). Los valores porcentuales de bioaccesibilidad del zinc y ácido fítico en las líneas de arroz evaluadas se hallaron en un rango de 1,98,7% y 0,039-0,946% respectivamente. Se encontró que el ácido fítico afecta la bioaccesibilidad del zinc y que ésta no estuvo ligada a la concentración total del zinc presente en las líneas de arroz evaluadas. Las técnicas implementadas para cuantificar el zinc dializado presentaron diferencias significativas y se mostró que la técnica ultravioleta-visible no fue apta para este tipo de ensayos.


The bioavailability of a nutrient in a food serves to determine the nutritional quality for human consumption. Rice is one of the most important foods in diet due to its caloric and nutritional contribution. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro bioavailability of zinc in rice by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry and its relationship with phytic acid content. The percentage of zinc bioaccessibility with respect to phytic acid percentage, showed an inverse proportional logarithmic relationship (r= −0.669; p<0.05). The percentage values of zinc bioavailability and phytic acid in the evaluated rice varieties had a range of 1.9-8.7% and 0.039-0.946%, respectively. Phytic acid affected the bioaccessibility of zinc and was not linked to the total concentration of zinc present in the rice lines evaluated. The techniques implemented to quantify zinc dialyzed presented significant differences. It was shown that the ultraviolet-visible technique was not suitable for this type of assay.


Subject(s)
Phytic Acid/analysis , Oryza , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Zinc/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Biological Availability , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , Absorption , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 783-791, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The need to obtain nutritious foods from new sources and lower waste in industry has created a high interest in studying different parts of plants or foods that today are considered waste, but could be considered by-products with high nutritional value with potential use in human diets. Pumpkin seeds are commonly considered as waste but they have a high content of fatty and amino acids, which when used as a by-product or ingredient can add value to food products. The aim of this work was to perform a wide review of the nutritional and functional properties of Cucurbita maxima seeds and their potential medicinal influence.


RESUMEN La necesidad de obtener alimentos nutritivos de nuevas fuentes y menores desperdicios en la industria ha generado un gran interés en el estudio de diferentes partes de plantas o alimentos que hoy en día se consideran desechos, pero que podrían considerarse subproductos con alto valor nutricional y uso potencial en alimentación humana. Las semillas de calabaza se consideran comúnmente como desechos, pero tienen un alto e importante contenido de ácidos grasos y aminoácidos, que cuando se utilizan como subproducto o ingrediente pueden aportar un alto valor agregado a los productos alimenticios. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una amplia revisión de las propiedades nutricionales y funcionales de las semillas de Cucurbita maxima y su potencial influencia medicinal asociada a ellas.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Cucurbita/chemistry , Functional Food , Plant Oils/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Flour , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 594-602, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011288

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a concentração sérica de cálcio, cloretos, ferro, fósforo e magnésio, as características morfométricas ósseas e a deposição de cálcio e fósforo nas tíbias de frangos de corte recebendo dieta com zero, 0,25 ou 0,50% de bentonita. Um ensaio foi conduzido com 288 frangos de corte de 14 a 21 dias de idade, submetidos a três dietas experimentais: sem inclusão (0,0); com inclusão de 0,25 e com inclusão de 0,50% do adsorvente bentonita. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) no desempenho das aves, nos níveis séricos de cálcio, cloretos, ferro e magnésio, no entanto os níveis de fósforo foram reduzidos (P<0,05) nas aves que ingeriram dieta com 0,50% de bentonita. Em relação às tíbias, observou-se redução (P<0,05) na matéria mineral (g e %) e no teor de cálcio com a inclusão de 0,50% de bentonita. Houve redução (P<0,05) nos níveis de fósforo das tíbias com a inclusão de 0,25 e 0,50% de bentonita. Conclui-se que a inclusão de até 0,50% do adsorvente de micotoxinas bentonita na dieta de frangos de corte não altera o desempenho zootécnico das aves. A inclusão de 0,25% de bentonita, na dieta de frangos de corte, não altera a concentração dos minerais séricos e a deposição de minerais nas tíbias, entretanto a inclusão de 0,5% reduz os níveis séricos de fósforo, o teor de matéria mineral e a concentração de cálcio e fósforo ósseos, sem afetar as características morfométricas ósseas.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate performance, serum concentration of calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and bone characteristics, ash, calcium, and phosphorus in tibias of broilers receiving diet with zero, 0.25 or 0.50% of bentonite. No differences were found on performance of poultry, on serum mineral calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, however phosphorus levels of broilers fed on diets containing 0.5% bentonite was reduced. With respect to tibia, reduction was observed on mineral matter (g and %) and calcium levels with inclusion of 0.50% bentonite, and reduction on phosphorus levels with inclusion of 0.25 or 0.50% of bentonite on diet. We conclude that the inclusion of up to 0.50% of mycotoxin adsorbent bentonite in diet of broiler does not change broiler performance. The inclusion of 0.25% of bentonite in diet of broiler does not change serum mineral concentration and mineral deposition; however, the inclusion of 0.5% decrease serum levels of phosphorus, the content of bone mineral matter, with not effects on bone morphometric characteristics.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bentonite/administration & dosage , Bentonite/therapeutic use , Bone Development , Antitoxins/administration & dosage , Chickens/growth & development , Diet/veterinary , Food Additives/therapeutic use , Animal Feed , Minerals/analysis , Minerals/blood , Chickens/microbiology
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 135 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052884

ABSTRACT

A castanha-do-brasil é um alimento de alta complexidade nutricional, devido ao alto teor de selênio, micronutriente com ação antioxidante e anti-inflamatória, e de outros importantes componentes, como fibras, ácidos graxos insaturados, compostos fenólicos e diversos minerais, como zinco, cobre e magnésio. Essa noz é amplamente consumida pela população brasileira e mundial e seus efeitos à saúde devem ser compreendidos em todas as vertentes. Até o momento, não eram conhecidos os efeitos da ingestão dessa castanha na constituição de bactérias intestinais, cuja relevância vem sendo exponencialmente comprovada na literatura nacional e mundial devido sua participação em importantes processos no contexto saúde e doença. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição da microbiota intestinal e o perfil de minerais (metaloma) no organismo após a ingestão de castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.). Este estudo prospectivo foi composto por 97 indivíduos sem doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, de ambos os gêneros, com idade média de 28,7 ± 8,5 anos. Os participantes foram avaliados antes e após a suplementação de uma unidade de castanha-do-brasil (~370 µg de selênio) por dia, durante 60 dias, quanto ao status de minerais (plasma, eritrócitos e fezes), atividade da enzima glutationa peroxidase (GPX), concentração de selenoproteína P (SEPP), avaliação da ingestão alimentar (recordatório alimentar de 24 horas) e caracterização do microbioma intestinal. Os dados brutos do microbioma foram analisados por meio do software Quantitative Insight into Microbial Ecology (v1.9.0) e a estatística foi realizada utilizando o pacote R (v1.1.463). Nossos resultados indicaram que a castanha-do-brasil melhorou significativamente o status de selênio da população, de acordo com o aumento expressivo das concentrações no organismo (plasma, eritrócitos e fezes) e de seus marcadores funcionais (selenoproteína P e atividade da GPX) (p<0,0001). A intervenção também alterou a concentração de outros elementos químicos (cobalto, arsênio, manganês, bário, chumbo, cobre, zinco, alumínio, ferro e magnésio) no plasma, eritrócitos e fezes (p<0,001). Esse estudo foi inédito em reportar os efeitos da intervenção com castanha-do-brasil na comunidade bacteriana intestinal. Apesar da composição global do microbioma intestinal não ter sido alterada após a ingestão de castanha, a abundância de gêneros importantes à saúde humana, como Faecalibacterium, Bilophila e Bulleidia, foi aumentada. Além disso, o perfil metalômico nas fezes também influenciou a constituição e distribuição de grupos bacterianos, após o consumo da noz. Observamos também correlações significativas entre os minerais avaliados e as bactérias produtoras de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta, como Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Oscillospira e Coprococcus. Portanto, pode-se concluir que a intervenção com castanha-dobrasil beneficiou a constituição e distribuição da microbiota intestinal e evidenciou a influência do perfil metalômico nas fezes sobre grupos bacterianos importantes à saúde humana


Brazil nut is a food of high nutritional complexity, due to the high selenium content, micronutrient with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, and other important components such as fibers, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds and various minerals, like zinc, copper and magnesium. This nut is widely consumed by the Brazilian and world population and its health effects must be understood in all aspects. To date, the effects of ingestion of this nut on the constitution of intestinal bacteria were unknown, whose relevance has been exponentially proven in the national and world literature due to its participation in important processes of health and disease. In this sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the mineral profile (metalloma) in the organism after ingestion of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excels H.B.K.). This prospective study consisted of 97 subjects without chronic noncommunicable diseases of both genders, with a mean age of 28.7 ± 8.5 years. Participants were evaluated before and after supplementation with one unit of Brazil nut (~ 370 µg selenium) per day for 60 days for mineral status (plasma, erythrocytes and feces), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), selenoprotein P (SEPP) concentration, assessment of food intake (24-hour dietary recall) and characterization of the intestinal microbiome. Raw microbiome data were analyzed using Quantitative Insight into Microbial Ecology software (v1.9.0) and statistics were performed using the R package (v1.1.463). Our results indicated that Brazil nuts significantly improved the selenium status of the population, according to the significant increase in concentrations in the body (plasma, erythrocytes and feces) and its functional markers (selenoprotein P and GPX activity) (p <0.0001). The intervention also altered the concentration of other chemical elements (cobalt, arsenic, manganese, barium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron and magnesium) in plasma, erythrocytes and feces (p <0.001). This study was unprecedented in reporting the effects of Brazil nut intervention on the intestinal bacterial community. Although the overall composition of the intestinal microbiome did not change after ingestion of nuts, the abundance of genera important to human health, such as Faecalibacterium, Bilophila and Bulleidia, was increased. In addition, the metallomic profile in faeces also influenced the constitution and distribution of bacterial groups after nut consumption. We also observed significant correlations between the evaluated minerals and short chain fatty acid producing bacteria, such as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Oscillospira and Coprococcus. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intervention with Brazil nuts benefited the constitution and distribution of the intestinal microbiota and evidenced the influence of the fecal metallomic profile on bacterial groups important to human health


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Selenium , Bertholletia/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Minerals/analysis , Population , Prospective Studies , Eating , Food/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(2): 141-147, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-957374

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar e comparar as concentrações de eletrólitos e minerais no leite humano em três grupos: amostras analisadas antes e após pasteurização de lactantes doadoras a termo e amostra de leite cru colhida à beira do leito de mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de corte transversal. Foram dosadas concentrações de cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P), magnésio (Mg), sódio (Na) e potássio (K) em amostras aleatórias de leite humano nos três grupos. As amostras foram analisadas por mineralização ácida assistida por radiação micro-ondas e posteriormente por espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado e expressas em mg/L, com cálculo de médias e desvio padrão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita por análise de variância (ANOVA)/teste de Tukey. Nível de significância aceito de 5%. Resultados: Observou-se redução significante dos teores de Ca (259,4±96,8 vs. 217,0±54,9; p=0,003), P (139,1±51,7 vs. 116,8±33,3; p=0,004) e K (580,8±177,1 vs. 470,9±109,4; p<0,0001) após a pasteurização. As amostras de leite cru colhidas à beira do leito apresentaram teores estatisticamente mais elevados de Na (2 vezes) do que o leite a termo de doadora. Ca e P só atingiriam a ingestão recomendada pela European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition se o leite materno fosse ofertado em volume de 60 mL a cada 3 horas. Concentrações de Mg não diferiram entre os grupos. Conclusões: Houve uma redução significativa de Ca, P e K nas amostras após pasteurização e os valores de Na no leite cru coletado à beira do leito foram superiores àqueles pré-pasteurização.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine and compare the concentrations of electrolytes and minerals in three different types of maternal milk samples: term donor milk before pasteurization, term donor milk after pasteurization and raw milk of mothers of preterm newborns at bedside. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were measured in random samples of three human breast milk groups. Samples were analyzed using acid mineralization assisted by microwave radiation and further analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Concentrations were expressed in mg/L, described as mean and standard deviation. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test were applied to determine the variability between the means of each group. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction in the content of Ca (259.4±96.8 vs. 217.0±54.9; p=0.003), P (139.1±51.7 vs. 116.8±33.3; p=0.004) and K (580.8±177.1 vs. 470.9±109.4; p<0.0001) in donor maternal milk before and after pasteurization. Samples of raw milk presented higher contents of Na than the donated milk (twice). The elements P and Ca would only reach the daily intake levels recommended by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition if at least 60 mL of milk could be offered every 3 hours. Mg levels were not different between the three groups. Conclusions: There was a significant reduction in Ca, P and K levels in samples after pasteurization. The Na value in raw milk, collected at bedside, was higher than in the samples of donor's milk before pasteurization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Electrolytes/analysis , Pasteurization , Milk, Human/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Tissue Donors , Term Birth
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 695-704, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Zea mays/chemistry , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zea mays/drug effects
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 811-817, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828087

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.


Resumo As comunidades faunísticas das lagoas efêmeras do sul do Chile são caracterizadas pela heterogeneidade dos seus táxons. Entretanto, estudos detalhados da sua estrutura de comunidade ainda não existem. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a estrutura da comunidade de crustáceos em dois grupos de lagoas efêmeras (Puaucho e Nigue) na zona costeira da região de Araucanía. A matriz de correlação foi feita com a abundância das espécies em função da temperatura, condutividade, pH e sólidos totais dissolvidos. Num segundo passo, um modelo nulo para as espécies de coocorrência foi aplicado aos dados totais e para cada grupo. Os resultados para os dados totais revelaram uma relação direta e significativa entre a abundância de H. costera, C. dubia e Mesocyclops. Para as lagoas Puaucho, os mesmos resultados foram encontrados, juntamente com associações diretas com sólidos totais dissolvidos, condutividade e pH. Finalmente, diferentes resultados foram encontrados para as lagoas Nigue, sem associações significativas claras, diretas ou indiretas entre a abundância de diferentes táxons de crustáceos e parâmetros abióticos. Estes resultados foram suportados pela análise de modelo de coocorrência nula, a qual revelou a presença de fatores reguladores para o total de dados, e para cada um dos dois grupos. Temas ecológicos são discutidos com ênfase na dinâmica de meta-comunidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crustacea/classification , Seawater/chemistry , Temperature , Chile , Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Marine Biology/classification , Minerals/analysis
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 396-401, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781383

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, “intelligent” collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test to compare the mean values (p<0.05). The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca).


Resumo A influência da sazonalidade e de métodos de produção de própolis por abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, sobre a concentração de magnésio (Mg), zinco (Zn), ferro (Fe), sódio (Na), cálcio (Ca), cobre (Cu) e potássio (K) foram avaliados. 25 colmeias foram utilizadas, e a colheita de propolis ocorreu por raspagem ou a partir de coletores (tela, coletor de própolis “inteligente” – CPI, abertura lateral da melgueira – ALM e calço). Durante um ano a própolis foi colhida mensalmente, homogeneizada e armazenada em freezer a -10 ºC. A análise sazonal de minerais foi realizada por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica e os resultados avaliados por análise de variância (ANOVA) seguida do teste de Tukey-Kramer para comparação de médias (p<0,05). Os resultados demostraram que a sazonalidade afetou o conteúdo de cinco minerais (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca e Cu) e os métodos de coleta afetaram o conteúdo de quatro minerais (Mg, Zn, Fe e Ca).


Subject(s)
Animals , Propolis/chemistry , Seasons , Bees , Minerals/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Sodium/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zinc/analysis , Calcium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Magnesium/analysis
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 297-306, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782969

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição centesimal (cinzas, umidade, proteínas, lipídeos e carboidratos totais) e mineral (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn e Zn) das plantas medicinais Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville), Carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C.), Mangava-Brava (Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil.), e Quebra Pedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.) comercializadas no mercado do Porto de Cuiabá, MT. As amostras foram identificadas botanicamente por meio da exsicata feita no Instituto de Botânica da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Campus Cuiabá. A composição centesimal foi determinada de acordo com as recomendações da Association of Official Analytical Chemists e a concentração dos minerais foi quantificada por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica em Chama. Os resultados obtidos foram: umidade (7,72% a 12,10%); cinzas (1,64% a 8,44%); proteínas (2,36% a 9,35%); lipídeos (0,41% a 2,05%); carboidratos totais (72,09% a 82,37%) e, foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as amostras (p < 0,05). As concentrações dos minerais nas amostras variaram de 0,01 a 21,57 mg/g nas plantas secas e 0,01 a 32,17 mg/200mL das infusões. Os resultados médios obtidos indicam que, exceto para o K, Ca e Mn todas as amostras não apresentaram diferenças significativas (p ≥ 0,05) nas concentrações de minerais. A capacidade de extração dos minerais da matéria seca para a infusão obedeceu à seguinte ordem: Na>K>Zn>Cu>Mg>Mn>Ca>Fe. Os valores obtidos em 200 mL das infusões quando comparados aos índices diários recomendados para minerais sugerem que os chás avaliados podem ser fonte de minerais, principalmente de K e Mn.


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the proximal (ash, moisture, protein, lipids, and total carbohydrates) and mineral (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) composition of the medicinal plants barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville), carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C.), mangava-brava (Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil.), pau-tenente (Quassia amara L.), and quebra pedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.), commercialized in the Cuiabá Port Market in Mato Grosso. The samples were botanically identified by the voucher specimen grown in the Botanical Institute of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, at the Cuiabá campus. Proximal composition was determined according to the recommendations of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists and the concentration of minerals was quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained were: moisture content (7.72% to 12.10%); ashes (1.64% to 8.44%); protein (2.36% to 9.35%); lipids (0.41% to 2.05%), and total carbohydrates (72.09% to 82.37%), and significant differences were found between the samples (p≥0.05). The mineral concentrations varied from 0.01 to 21.57 mg/g in the plants and 0.01 to 32.17 mg/200mL in the infusions. No significant differences (p≥0.05) were found between the samples for mineral composition, except for K, Ca, and Mg. The mineral extraction capacity of the dry matter for infusions was as follows: Na>K>Zn>Cu>Mg>Mn>Ca>Fe. The daily index values of the metal species quantified in 200 mL infusions suggest that teas can be a source of minerals, especially K and Mn.


Subject(s)
Centesimal Scale , Metals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Minerals/analysis
12.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-19, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950851

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of varied salinity regimes on the morphological traits (plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, fresh and dry weight) and major mineral composition of 13 selected purslane accessions. Most of the morphological traits measured were reduced at varied salinity levels (0.0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 dS m-1), but plant height was found to increase in Ac1 at 16 dS m-1 salinity, and Ac13 was the most affected accession. The highest reductions in the number of leaves and number of flowers were recorded in Ac13 at 32 dS m-1 salinity compared to the control. The highest fresh and dry weight reductions were noted in Ac8 and Ac6, respectively, at 32 dS m-1 salinity, whereas the highest increase in both fresh and dry weight was recorded in Ac9 at 24 dS m-1 salinity compared to the control. In contrast, at lower salinity levels, all of the measured mineral levels were found to increase and later decrease with increasing salinity, but the performance of different accessions was different depending on the salinity level. A dendrogram was also constructed by UPGMA based on the morphological traits and mineral compositions, in which the 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters, indicating greater diversity among them. A three-dimensional principal component analysis also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis.


Subject(s)
Portulaca/anatomy & histology , Portulaca/chemistry , Salinity , Minerals/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Reference Values , Sodium/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Calcium/analysis , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Flowers/anatomy & histology , Salt Tolerance , Iron/analysis , Magnesium/analysis
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 65(4): 243-253, dic. 2015. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-783959

ABSTRACT

Se analizaron características morfológicas relacionadas con el fruto, espinas, endocarpio y semilla, así como parámetros fisicoquímicos y nutricionales (humedad, proteínas, ºBrix, fibra alimentaria, cenizas, pH, acidez, ácido ascórbico, compuestos fenólicos totales, minerales: Na, K, Ca y Mg y elementos traza: Fe, Cu, Zn y Mn), en muestras de chayota (Sechium edule) pertenecientes a 7 entradas cultivadas en las islas de Tenerife y La Palma (España) y cosechadas durante el período comprendido entre junio y noviembre de 2005. Se observaron diferencias importantes en la composición química y características morfológicas entre las diferentes entradas de chayota estudiadas. La entrada 4 destacó por su alto contenido en minerales y sólidos solubles totales (ºBrix) y bajo contenido en agua, mientras que la entrada 1 presentó altos contenidos en Na, cenizas y ácido ascórbico. El contenido de humedad y de ácido ascórbico varió en función de la parte del fruto analizada, sin embargo, los contenidos de compuestos fenólicos y de cenizas no fueron dependientes de las partes. La fecha de muestreo mostró una gran influencia sobre la composición química, observándose las mayores diferencias en las muestras cosechadas en el mes otoñal de noviembre respecto a las restantes cosechadas en meses estivales. El análisis discriminante permitió diferenciar las muestras de chayota en función de la entrada y fecha de muestreo, por lo que es una herramienta muy útil para la caracterización de muestras(AU)


Morphological and chemical composition characterization of chayotas (Sechium edule) grown in the Canary Islands (Spain). Morphological characteristics related to the fruit, thorns, endocarp and seed, as well as physicochemical and nutritional parameters (moisture, protein, ºBrix, fiber, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, minerals: Na, K, Ca and Mg, and trace elements: Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analyzed in samples of chayote (Sechium edule) belonging to 7 accessions grown on the islands of Tenerife and La Palma (Spain) and harvested during the period between June and November 2005. Significant differences in chemical composition and morphology between the chayote accessions studied were observed. The accession 4 features a high mineral content and soluble solids (Brix degree) and low water content, while the accession 1 had high contents of Na, ash and ascorbic acid. The moisture content and ascorbic acid varied depending on the portion of the fruit analyzed, however, the contents of phenolic compounds and ash were not affected. The sampling date showed a great influence on the chemical composition, the greatest differences observed in the samples harvested in the month of November autumn, with respect to the remaining summer months. Discriminant analysis allowed differentiate samples chayota according to the accession and sampling date, so it is a very useful tool for the characterization of these samples(AU)


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Chemical Phenomena , Citrus/metabolism , Phenolic Compounds , Minerals/analysis , Plants , Dietary Fiber , Fruit
14.
Bol. Acad. Nac. Med. B.Aires ; 93(2): 217-231, jul.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-997159

ABSTRACT

El cabello y especialmente el localizado en la cabeza provee importante información sobre posibles exposiciones ambientales y/o laborales a diferentes elementos. El pelo puede ser considerado como un producto excretor, y su estudio reflejaría el metabolismo de minerales en el cuerpo. Nuestro propósito en el presente estudio es conocer si datos existentes dan información poblacional sobre la presencia de elementos tóxicos o no a través del análisis del cabello humano. RESULTADOS: Fue analizada la información proveniente de 241 muestras de cabello, de los cuales 163 (67,6%) corresponden al sexo femenino y 78 (32,4%) al masculino. Fueron analizados 22 elementos esenciales y 17 elementos de tóxicos. Entre los elementos esenciales presentaron resultados elevados Calcio (Ca), Magnesio (Mg), Manganeso (Mn), Molibdeno (Mo), Vanadio (V), Estroncio (Sr) y Circonio (Zr); entre los elementos tóxicos tuvieron valores elevados Aluminio (Al), Arsénico (As), Bario (Ba), Bismuto (Bi), Cadmio (Cd), Níquel (Ni), Plomo (Pb), Mercurio (Mg), Plata (Ag), Estaño (Sn). CONCLUSIÓN. Nuestro estudio muestra a nivel poblacional, no individual, puntos de alerta por la carencia o exceso de algunos elementos analizados debiéndose continuar con estudios locales interdisciplinarios en los cuales exista información sobre enfermedades, hábitos alimentarios, hábitos tóxicos, actividad laboral y exposición ambiental a los diferentes elementos. (AU)


Hair, especially localized in the head, provides important information on possible environmental and/or labor exposures to different elements. Hair can be considered as an excretory product, and its study would reflect the metabolism of minerals in the body. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether existing population data provide information on the presence of toxic and non-toxic elements by analizing human hair. RESULTS: We analyzed information from 241 hair samples, of which 163 (67.6%) are from females and 78 (32.4%) are from males. There were analyzed 22 essential elements and 17 toxic elements. Among the essential elements that had elevated results there were: Calcium (CA), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), strontium (Sr) and zirconium (Zr); among the toxic elements, those with higher values were: Aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (BA), bismuth (Bi), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Mercury (Mg), silver (Ag), tin (Sn). CONCLUSION. Our study shows at population level, not individual, warning points due to the lack or excess of some elements analyzed. It is reccommended to continue the research with local interdisciplinary studies which include information on diseases, eating habits, toxic habits, work activity and environmental exposure to different elements. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/chemistry , Hair/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Minerals/chemistry , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(1): 315-320, fev. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704040

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a influência do número de parições nos valores de alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e do perfil eletroforético do soro lácteo de vacas de corte. Trinta e cinco vacas da raça Canchim foram alocadas em cinco grupos: vacas de primeira lactação, segunda lactação, terceira e quarta lactações, quinta lactação e sexta lactação. As amostras de secreção láctea foram coletadas imediatamente após (dia 0) e 1, 2, 7, 15 e 30 dias após o parto. As concentrações de gamaglutamiltranferase (GGT), proteína total, cálcio, fósforo, magnésio e cálcio ionizado foram avaliadas. A separação eletroforética das proteínas foi realizada em matriz de gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). A atividade de GGT e as concentrações de imunoglobulina G, cálcio e fósforo não foram influenciadas pelo número de parições. As concentrações de proteína total, cálcio ionizado, magnésio imunoglobulina A, lactoferrina, β - lactoglobulina e α - lactoalbumina, foram influenciadas pelo número de partos das vacas. À exceção dos teores de fósforo e α - lactoalbumina em poucos grupos, a concentração d a s demais características decresceu no decorrer do período de lactação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biochemistry , Colostrum , Enzymes/analysis , Milk/classification , Minerals/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Cattle/classification
16.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 51(2): 142-148, 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-733554

ABSTRACT

Foi avaliado o efeito da inclusão de minerais orgânicos na alimentação de potros sobre a concentração ossea de cálcio e fósforo, densitometria óssea e variáveis de desempenho de desenvolvimento e crescimento corporal. Foram utilizados dez potros com peso de 240,7 +- 30,2 kg e idade de 10 de 10 +- 0,15 meses, distribuidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em dois tratamentos: dieta formulada com fonte de minerais na forma orgânica ou inorgânica. A dieta foi composta de 40% de volumoso e 60% de concentrado, à qual foi adicionada mistura mineral na forma orgânica ou inorgãnica na quantidade de 3% do concentrado.Não foi observado efeito das fontes minerais orgãnicas durante 90 dias, quando comparada aos potros alimentados com minerais em forma. Os animais alimentados com minerais organicos aprosentaram maior ganho de peso médio e diario em relação aos animais alimentados com com minerais inorgânicos. O uso de minerais em forma orgânico aumenta a densidade e o ganho de peso dos potrosem fase de crescimento.


This study examined the effect of organic minerals in foals diet evaluating the concentration of bone calcium and phosphorus, bone densitometry and growth and development performance variables. Ten horses weighing 240.7 ± 30.2 kg and 10 ± 0.15 months were used in the study, with two treatments: basal diet with minerals in organic or inorganic forms. The diet was composed of 40% forage and 60% concentrate, which was added as mineral mixture in organic or inorganic quantity of 3% of the concentrate. No effect of mineral sources was observed on bone deposition of calcium and phosphorus. At 90 days, the bone density of foals fed with minerals in organic form was higher than that observed in animals fed with minerals in the inorganic form. Animals fed with organic minerals showed greater weight increase compared to animals fed ino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Radiography , Biopsy/methods , Horses
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(8): 1045-1048, ago. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686084

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a atividade sérica dos microminerais ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês em 30 equinos atletas da raça Puro-sangue Lusitano (PSL), antes e depois de exercícios, atestados por avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas, antes e imediatamente após 20 minutos de exercício físico de trote e galope suaves realizados em pista de areia, para a realização das dosagens dos microminerais. A concentração dos microelementos foi determinada por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Observou-se que após o exercício, a atividade sérica de ferro não sofreu variações (P=0,2365), enquanto os valores de cobre se elevaram significativamente após o treinamento (P<0,001). Já o zinco e o manganês diminuíram após o exercício (P<0,001). Pode-se concluir que o exercício físico de curta duração pode gerar sudorese capaz de alterar as concentrações séricas de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês em cavalos atletas da raça Puro-sangue Lusitano.


In order to evaluate the sera concentrations of iron, copper, zinc and manganese trace minerals in thirty Pure-bred Lusitano athlete horses before and after exercise certified by clinical and laboratory assessments were studied. Blood samples were taken before and after 20 minutes of a dairy trot and gallop slight training, perfomed in a sandy floor ring, to measure the mineral concentrations, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was observed that after exercising, the serum activity of iron did not change (P=0.2365), whereas copper values have significantly risen after training (P<0.001). On the other hand, zinc and manganese trace minerals decreased after exercise (P<0.001). In conclusion, it is possible to consider that the short time exercise may trigger sweating and consequently to change the serum concentration of iron, cooper, zinc and manganese in Pure-bred Lusitano athlete horses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Horses/metabolism , Equidae/classification , Spectrophotometry
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 63(2): 105-113, June 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-740230

ABSTRACT

Evaluation at all levels is a fundamental function at World Health Organization (WHO). Evaluation of public health surveillance systems is essential to ensure that problems of public health importance are monitored efficiently and effectively. The WHO's Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System (VMNIS) was evaluated from the perspective of public health surveillance and informatics. Steps included: engaging the stakeholders of the evaluation; describing the surveillance system; focusing the evaluation design; gathering credible evidence regarding system performance; justifying and stating conclusions and recommendations, and sharing lessons learned from the evaluation. Following this assessment, WHO has begun major efforts to upgrade and expand the VMNIS and now the database is more flexible and efficient. The database evaluation summarized in this paper provides a good example of how public health evaluation frameworks can lead to improved surveillance and enhanced information systems, thus making progress toward the ultimate goal of improving public health.


La evaluación en todos los niveles es una función fundamental en la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La evaluación de los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica es esencial para asegurar que los problemas de importancia para la salud pública sean monitorizados de manera eficiente y efectiva. El Sistema de Información Nutricional sobre Vitaminas y Minerales (VMNIS, por sus siglas en inglés) se evaluó desde la perspectiva de sistema de vigilancia e informática en salud pública. Los pasos incluyeron: el involucramiento de las partes interesadas en la evaluación, la descripción del sistema de vigilancia, el enfoque del diseño para la evaluación, la recopilación de pruebas fiables sobre el rendimiento del sistema, la justificación y desarrollo de conclusiones y recomendaciones, y la diseminación de las lecciones aprendidas de la evaluación. Después de este proceso, la OMS inició importantes esfuerzos para mejorar y ampliar el Sistema de Información Nutricional sobre Vitaminas y Minerales para lograr una base de datos más flexible y eficiente. Este artículo resume la evaluación de esta base de datos para documentar un buen ejemplo de cómo los marcos de evaluación en salud pública pueden llevar a mejorar la información en los sistemas de vigilancia contribuyendo de esta manera al objetivo final de mejorar la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Minerals/analysis , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Vitamins/analysis , World Health Organization , Databases, Factual
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 253-257, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681877

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 µgF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 µgF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 µgF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%∆Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %∆Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p<0.05). The mineral gain (%SH and %∆Z) was higher for toothpastes diluted in saliva (p<0.05), except for the 450 µgF/g dentifrice with Cacit/TMP (p>0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito de um dentifrício com reduzida concentração de fluoreto (450 µgF/g, NaF) associado ao citrato de cálcio (Cacit) e trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) na remineralização do esmalte. Blocos de esmalte bovino tiveram sua superfície de esmalte polida seqüencialmente para determinação da dureza de superfície. Após o desenvolvimento de lesões artificiais de cárie, os blocos selecionados através da dureza de superfície foram submetidos a ciclagem de remineralização e tratamento diário com suspensões de dentifrícios (diluição em água deionizada ou saliva artificial): placebo, 275, 450, 550 e 1.100 µgF/g e com dentifrício comercial (controle positivo, 1.100 µgF/g). Ao término, determinou-se a dureza de superfície e em secção longitudinal, para cálculo da variação da dureza de superfície (%SH) e do conteúdo mineral (%∆Z). O fluoreto presente no esmalte também foi determinado. Os dados de %SH, %∆Z e fluoreto foram submetidos a análise de variância a dois critérios seguido pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). O ganho mineral (%SH e %∆Z) foi maior para os dentifrícios diluídos em saliva (p<0,05), exceto para os dentifrícios 450 µg F/g com Cacit/TMP (p>0,05). Os dentifrícios 450 Cacit/TMP e controle positivo apresentaram resultados semelhantes (p>0,05) quando diluídos em água. Uma relação dose-resposta foi observada entre a concentração de fluoreto nos dentifrícios e o fluoreto presente no esmalte, independente da diluição. Concluiu-se que é possível melhorar a capacidade de remineralização de dentifrícios com reduzida concentração de fluoreto pela adição de compostos orgânico (Cacit) e inorgânico (TMP) com afinidade a hidroxiapatita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium Citrate/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dental Caries/physiopathology , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentifrices/analysis , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Minerals/analysis , Placebos , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Water/chemistry
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 153-160, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676901

ABSTRACT

To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium...


Subject(s)
Cattle , Copper/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections , Mycobacterium avium/enzymology , Mycobacterium avium/isolation & purification , Paratuberculosis , Selenium/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Methods , Minerals/analysis , Minerals/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry
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