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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878294


Objective@#This research was performed to evaluate the effect of tebuconazole (TBZ) on reproductive organs of male rats and to assess the protective role of combined essential trace elements in alleviating the detrimental effect of TBZ on male reproductive function.@*Methods@#For this purpose, 48 rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg TBZ, TBZ supplemented with zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe), TBZ + (Se + Zn); TBZ + Cu; or TBZ + Fe. The experiment was conducted for 30 consecutive days.@*Results@#TBZ caused a significant perturbation in mineral levels and reduction in reproductive organs weights, plasma testosterone level, and testicular antioxidant enzyme activities. The TBZ-treated group also showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities (count, motility, and viability percent), plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and severe DNA degradation in comparison with the controls. Histopathologically, TBZ caused testis impairments. Conversely, treatment with trace elements, in combination or alone, improved the reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, TBZ-induced toxicity, and histopathological modifications in testis.@*Conclusion@#TBZ exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system. The concurrent administration of trace elements reduces testis dysfunction, fertility, and toxicity induced by TBZ.

Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Diet , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects , Male , Minerals/metabolism , Mutagenicity Tests , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Triazoles/adverse effects
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(1): 119-127, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844589


El retraso del crecimiento de los niños con enfermedad renal crónica es de origen multifactorial, incluyendo la resistencia a hormona de crecimiento (GH) y alteraciones en el metabolismo mineral óseo. Objetivos: 1) Caracterizar marcadores del metabolismo mineral: FGF23-Klotho y del eje somatotrópico: IGF1, IGFBP3 y GHBP, en niños en diálisis peritoneal (DP); 2) Evaluar la evolución de la talla en aquellos pacientes tratados con rhGH. Pacientes y Método: Niños prepuberales en DP seguidos durante 12 meses. Criterios exclusión fueron Tanner > 1, síndrome nefrótico activo, tratamiento esteroidal, malabsorción gastrointestinal, enfermedades endocrinas, síndromes genéticos, uso de rhGH al ingreso del estudio. Se evaluaron variables demográficas, antropométricas: Z talla/edad, (ZT/E), velocidad de crecimiento (VC), bioquímicas (calcio, fósforo, PTH), marcadores del metabolismo mineral (25OHvitD, 1,25OHvitD, FGF23, Klotho), y de crecimiento (IGF-1, IGFBP-3, GHBP). Resultados: Quince pacientes, 7 varones, edad 6,9 ± 3,0 años, tiempo en DP 14,33 ± 12,26 meses. Puntaje ZT/E al mes 1= -1,69 ± 1,03. FGF23: 131,7 ± 279,4 y Klotho: 125,9 ± 24,2 pg/ml. Durante los 12 meses de seguimiento no hubo diferencia significativa en el promedio de las variables. El uso de rhGH en 8 pacientes no mostró mejoría significativa del ZT/E ni la VC. El análisis bivariado mostró correlación positiva entre niveles de Klotho y delta ZT/E, y entre GHBP y VC (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Los valores de FGF23 se encuentran elevados y los de Klotho disminuidos en niños con enfermedad renal crónica en DP en comparación con niños sanos. Las variables de eje somatotrópico, se encuentran normales o elevadas. rhGH tiende a mejorar la talla y GHBP se correlaciona positivamente con VC en estos niños.

Growth failure is one of the most relevant complications in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among others, growth hormone (GH) resistance and bone mineral disorders have been identified as the most important causes of growth retardation. Objectives: 1. To characterize bone mineral metabolism and growth hormone bio-markers in CKD children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). 2. To evaluate height change with rhGH treatment. Patients and Method: A longitudinal 12-month follow-up in prepuberal PD children. Exclusion criteria: Tanner stage >1, nephrotic syndrome, genetic disorders, steroids, intestinal absorption disorders, endocrine disturbances, treatment with GH to the entry of the study. Demographic and anthropometric data were registered. FGF23, Klotho, VitD, IGF-1, IGFBP3, and GHBP were measured to evaluate mineral and growth metabolism. Results: 15 patients, 7 male, age 6.9 ± 3.0 y were included. Time on PD was 14.33 ± 12.26 months. Height/age Z score at month 1 was -1.69 ± 1.03. FGF23 and Klotho: 131.7 ± 279.4 y 125.9 ± 24.2 pg/ml, respectively. 8 patients were treated with GH during 6-12 months, showing a non-significant increase in height/age Z-score during the treatment period. Bivariate analysis showed a positive correlation between Klotho and delta ZT/E, and between GHBP vs growth velocity index (p < .05). Conclusions: FGF23 values were high and Klotho values were reduced in children with CKD in PD, comparing to healthy children. Somatotropic axis variables were normal or elevated. rhGH tends to improve height and there is a positive correlation of GHBP and growth velocity in these children.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Growth Disorders/etiology , Minerals/metabolism , Time Factors , Body Height/drug effects , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Human Growth Hormone/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Growth Disorders/drug therapy
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 1030-1038, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828208


Abstract An actinobacterial strain VL-RK_09 having potential antimicrobial activities was isolated from a mango orchard in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh (India) and was identified as Arthrobacter kerguelensis. The strain A. kerguelensis VL-RK_09 exhibited a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Production of bioactive metabolites by the strain was the highest in modified yeast extract malt extract dextrose broth, as compared to other media tested. Lactose (1%) and peptone (0.5%) were found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for the optimum production of the bioactive metabolites. The maximum production of the bioactive metabolites was detected in the culture medium with an initial pH of 7, in which the strain was incubated for five days at 30 °C under shaking conditions. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from the culture broth led to the isolation of a compound active against a wide variety of Gram-positive and negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was identified as S,S-dipropyl carbonodithioate. This study is the first report of the occurrence of this compound in the genus Arthrobacter.

Arthrobacter/isolation & purification , Arthrobacter/metabolism , Mangifera/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Salts/metabolism , Temperature , Carbon/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Minerals/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism
Braz. dent. j ; 26(3): 249-257, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751865


The role of antibiotics containing sucrose on the formation of dental caries is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effect of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate suspension), with and without sucrose, on human dental hardness and Streptococcus mutans counts in dental biofilm. Primary tooth fragments (n=72) were coated with nail varnish leaving a window of 2.25 mm diameter. Specimens were fixed in 24-well polystyrene plates, containing BHI medium. S. mutans (clinical strains) represented the inoculum to form biofilm on the fragments for 24 h. Twelve fragments were separated for the initial count of microorganisms (baseline). The other fragments were divided into 4 groups (n=12) of treatment: G1 (Clavulin(r)), G2 (Betamox(r)), G3 (chlorhexidine 0.12%), G4 (sucrose 10%). All specimens had their self-control area (covered area). The cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) was evaluated for each specimen. All the treated groups had a loss of hardness compared to their self-controls (p<0.05). Both drugs inhibited the S. mutans growth and promoted no CSMH difference among them. Both antibiotics eliminated all formed biofilm and did not cause mineral loss from the enamel, regardless the presence of sucrose in its formulation.

O papel dos antibióticos contendo sacarose na formação de cárie dentária é ainda controverso. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito de dois antibióticos (amoxicilina / clavulanato de potássio suspensão oral), com e sem sacarose, na dureza do esmalte dental humano e na contagem de Streptococcus mutans no biofilme dental. Fragmentos de dentes decíduos (n = 72) foram revestidos com verniz deixando uma janela de exposição de 2,25mm de diâmetro. Os espécimes foram fixados em placas de poliestireno de 24 poços, contendo meio de cultura BHI. S. mutans (estirpes clínicas) representaram o inoculo para formar biofilmes sobre os fragmentos por 24 h. Doze fragmentos foram separados para a contagem inicial de microrganismos (baseline). Os restantes dos fragmentos foram divididos em 4 grupos (n = 12) de tratamento: G1 (Clavulin(r)), G2 (Betamox(r)), G3 (clorexidina 0,12%), G4 (sacarose a 10%). Todas as amostras tiveram sua área de controle (área coberta). A microdureza transversal (CSMH) foi avaliada para cada espécime. Todos os grupos tratados tiveram uma perda de dureza quando comparados com os seus respectivos controles (p <0,05). Ambos os fármacos inibiram o crescimento de S. mutans e não promoveram diferença da CSMH entre eles. Ambos os antibióticos eliminaram todo o biofilme formado, não promovendo assim, perda mineral do esmalte, independente da presença de sacarose na sua formulação.

Humans , Child , Biofilms , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Minerals/metabolism , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Sucrose/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(6): 619-624, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721395


Objective: To evaluate parathyroid function and mineral metabolism in psychiatric patients users of lithium salts. Materials and methods: We measured the serum levels of calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), urea, creatinine, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and lithium of 35 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in use of lithium carbonate (LC) for at least one year (Lithium Group – LG) and 35 healthy subjects (Control Group – CG). Results: The LG and CG were matched by sex and age. There was only statistic difference in relation to the levels of PTH and ionized calcium, with p < 0.004 and p < 0.03, respectively. Secondary form of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was found in eight (22.8%) LG patients and in none of the CG. There was no correlation between lithemia, usage time and dosage of LC. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that lithium may create an imbalance in the parathyroid axis, characterized by elevated levels of PTH. .

Objetivo: Avaliar a função paratireoidiana e o metabolismo mineral em pacientes psiquiátricos usuários de sais de lítio. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliados os níveis séricos de cálcio total, cálcio iônico, fósforo inorgânico, fosfatase alcalina, albumina, paratormônio (PTH), ureia, creatinina, 25-hidroxivitamina D e lítio de 35 pacientes diagnosticados com transtorno afetivo bipolar usuários de carbonato de lítio (CL) há pelo menos um ano (Grupo Lítio – GL) e 35 indivíduos saudáveis (Grupo Controle – GC). Resultados: O GL e o GC foram pareados por sexo e idade. Somente se observou diferença estatística em relação aos níveis de PTH e cálcio iônico, com p < 0,004 e p < 0,03, respectivamente. Hiperparatireoidismo secundário foi encontrado em oito (22.8%) pacientes do GL e em nenhum do GC. No GL, não houve correlação entre litemia, tempo de uso e posologia do CL. Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstram que o lítio pode suscitar um desequilíbrio no eixo paratireoideano, caracterizado por níveis elevados de PTH. .

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Bipolar Disorder/metabolism , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , Minerals/metabolism , Parathyroid Glands/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Calcium/blood , Creatinine/blood , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/diagnosis , Lithium Compounds/blood , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/metabolism , Parathyroid Glands/physiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Urea/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 452-463, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719190


Differently from most hormones, which commonly are specialized molecules able to influence other cells, tissues and systems, thyroid hormones (TH) are pleiotropic peptides, whose primordial function is difficult to identify. The complex action of TH on human economy can be easily witnessed by examining the diverse consequences of TH excess and deficiency during development and after maturity. In particular, different manifestations in bone modeling and remodeling reflect the circumstantial consequences of thyroid disturbances, which are age dependent. While hyperthyroidism during childhood enhances bone mineralization and accelerates epiphyseal maturation, in adults it induces bone loss by predominant activation of osteoclast activity. Furthermore, the syndrome of TH resistance is a multifaceted condition in which different sites exhibit signs of hormone excess or deficiency depending on the configuration of the TH receptor isoform. The investigation of the impact of TH resistance on the skeleton still remains to be elucidated. We present here a thorough review of the action of TH on bone and of the impact of thyroid disorders, including hyper- and hypothyroidism and the syndrome of TH resistance, on the skeleton.

Diferentemente da maioria dos hormônios, que usualmente são moléculas especializadas capazes de influenciar outras células, tecidos e sistemas, os hormônios da tireoide (HT) são peptídeos pleiotrópicos, cuja função primordial é difícil de identificar. A ação complexa dos HT na fisiologia humana pode ser facilmente reconhecida ao observar as diversas consequências do excesso e da deficiência de HT durante e após o pleno desenvolvimento. Em particular as diferentes manifestações na modelação e remodelação óssea refletem que as consequências esqueléticas das disfunções tireoidianas dependem das circunstâncias e variam com a idade. Enquanto o hipertireoidismo durante a infância aumenta a mineralização óssea e acelera a maturação epifisária, em adultos induz a perda óssea pela ativação predominante da ação osteoclástica. Além disso, a síndrome de resistência ao HT é uma condição multifacetada na qual diferentes tecidos apresentam sinais de excesso ou deficiência hormonal, dependendo da predominância da expressão das diversas isoformas do receptor de HT. O impacto da resistência ao HT sobre o esqueleto ainda é motivo de investigação. Apresentamos aqui uma revisão abrangente sobre as ações ósseas dos HT e o impacto no esqueleto dos distúrbios da tireoide, incluindo hipo e hipertireoidismo e síndrome de resistência ao HT.

Animals , Humans , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/metabolism , Minerals/metabolism , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/metabolism , Thyrotoxicosis/metabolism , Calcification, Physiologic/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Databases, Bibliographic , Epiphyses/growth & development , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Osteoporosis/etiology , Phosphorus/metabolism , Thyroid Diseases/metabolism , Thyrotoxicosis/complications , Thyroxine/metabolism , Triiodothyronine/metabolism
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(2): 201-207, Apr-Jun/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-714660


Calcificações vasculares têm sido associadas aos distúrbios minerais e ósseos. As alterações nas concentrações séricas de cálcio e fosfato são fatores importantes implicados no processo da calcificação arterial na doença renal crônica. A patogênese da calcificação vascular é um mecanismo complexo e não completamente claro, podendo corresponder a um processo ativo de transformação celular e ossificação heterotópica. Além da hipercalcemia e hiperfosfatemia, estão envolvidos neste processo alterações no metabolismo de substâncias inibidoras e promotoras de calcificação como a fetuína A, osteopontina, osteoprotegerina e proteína de matriz gla. Para o diagnóstico da lesão arterial calcificada, estão disponíveis diversos métodos, um método de estimativa do risco cardiovascular baseado em radiografias simples de coluna lombar e outro método baseado em radiografias simples da pelve e das mãos. Apresentamos, a seguir, uma revisão abordando a relação entre calcificações vasculares e os distúrbios minerais.

Vascular calcifications has been associated with bone and mineral disorders. The alterations in the serum level of calcium concentrations and phosphate are importants factors implicated in the arterial calcification in chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is a complex mechanism and not completely clear, being able to correspond to an active process of cellular transformation and heterotopic ossification. Beyond the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, they are involved in this process changes in the metabolism of inhibitors and promoters of calcification such as fetuin A, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and matrix gla protein. For the diagnosis of the calcified arterial injury are available several complementary methods, a method of estimate of the cardiovascular risk based on plain radiographs of the lumbar column and another method based on simple x-rays of the pelvis and hands. Below, we will present a review approching the link between vascular calcifications and mineral disorders.

Humans , Bone Diseases/etiology , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Minerals/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Vascular Calcification/etiology
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(1): 31-39, feb. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708812


Introduction: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) have disorders of mineral metabolism that impact their growth, survival and cardiovascular functions. New molecular markers offer a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Objective: To characterize some components of mineral metabolism, with emphasis on FGF23/Klotho and cardiovascular functions (CV) of these patients. Patients and Method: Prospective observational cohort study. Exclusion criteria: serum 25 (OH) vitamin D < 20 ng/ml, peritonitis within the last two months and active nephrotic syndrome. Calcemia, phosphemia, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25 (OH) vitD3, 1.25 (OH) vitD3, FGF23 and Klotho in plasma were measured. FGF23 and Klotho were quantified in healthy children as a control group. Echocardiography was performed calculating the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Descriptive statistics analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient for association among variables and multivariate analysis were conducted. Results: 33 patients, 16 males, aged between 1.2 and 13.4 years were included. Age of onset for PD: 7.3 +/- 5.0 years, time receiving PD: 13.5 +/- 14.5 months. The plasma concentration of 25 (OH) vitD3 was 34.2 +/- 6.3 pg/ml. Calcemia and phosphemia values were 9.8 ± 0.71 and 5.4 +/- 1.0 mg/dl respectively. PTH was 333 +/- 287 pg/ml. FGF23 in plasma was 225.7 +/- 354.3 pg/ml and Klotho 131.6 +/- 72 pg/ml, and in the controls ( n = 16 ), it was 11.9 +/- 7.2 pg/ml and 320 +/- 119 pg/ml, respectively. The residual and total dose of dialysis (KtV) was 1.6 +/- 1.3 and 2.9 +/- 1.6, respectively. FGF23 levels significantly correlated with calcium (p < 0.001, r = 0.85), and inversely with residual KtV, showing no relationship with phosphemia. Klotho level correlated negatively with residual KtV and also, it showed a negative association with chronological age and age at onset of PD. LVMI > 38 g/m² was confirmed in 20/28 patients...

Introducción: Los niños portadores de Enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en diálisis peritoneal (DP) presentan alteraciones del metabolismo mineral que afectan su crecimiento, estado cardiovascular y sobrevida. Nuevos marcadores moleculares representan una mejor comprensión de la fisiopatología de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Caracterizar componentes del metabolismo mineral, con énfasis en FGF23/Klotho, y estado cardiovascular (CV) en este grupo de pacientes. Pacientes y Método: Estudio prospectivo observacional. Criterios de exclusión: niveles de 25 (OH) vitamina D < 20 ng/ml, peritonitis hasta 2 meses previos y síndrome nefrótico activo. Se midió calcemia, fosfemia, paratohormona (PTH), 25 (OH) vitD3, 1,25 (OH) vitD3, FGF23 y Klotho en plasma. Se cuantificó FGF23 y Klotho en niños sanos como grupo control. Se efectuó ecocardiografía, calculándose el índice de masa ventricular izquierda (IMVI). Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo, coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para asociación entre variables y análisis multivariado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 33 pacientes, 16 varones, edad 1,2 a 13,4 años. Edad de inicio de DP: 7,3 +/- 5,0 años, tiempo en DP: 13,5 +/- 14,5 meses. El nivel plasmático de 25 (OH) vitD3 fue 34,2 +/- 6,3 pg/ml. Los valores de calcemia y fosfemia fueron 9,8 +/- 0,71 y 5,4 +/- 1,0 mg/dl respectivamente. La PTH fue de 333 +/- 287 pg/ml. El FGF23 en plasma fue de 225,7 +/- 354,3 pg/ml y Klotho 131,6 +/- 72 pg/ml, y en los controles (n = 16) fue de 11,9 +/- 7,2 pg/ ml y 320 +/- 119 pg/ml, respectivamente. La dosis de diálisis (KtV) residual y total fue de 1,6 +/- 1,3 y 2,9 +/- 1.6, respectivamente. El nivel de FGF23 se correlacionó significativamente con la calcemia (p < 0,001, r = 0,85), e inversamente con el KtV residual, sin mostrar relación con la fosfemia. El nivel de Klotho...

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Chronic Disease , Calcium/blood , Kidney Diseases/blood , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Phosphorus/blood , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Biomarkers , Minerals/metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone , Prospective Studies
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 63 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-750112


Introdução: Doador de rim em vida é uma importante fonte de órgão para os pacientes portadores de doença renal crônica (DRC). Os doadores experimentam uma redução abrupta da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) e adaptações ao metabolismo mineral demandam estudos nesta população. Nós avaliamos prospectivamente esta adaptação em doadores de rim em vida. Métodos: Entre janeiro de 2010 a agosto de 2011, no hospital das Clínicas de São Paulo e na Universidade de Miami, realizamos a avaliação prospectiva do metabolismo mineral e da função renal por 1 ano em 74 doadores de rim em vida. Medimos a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG), fósforo (Pi), cálcio (Ca), paratohormônio (PTH), fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) e a fração de excreção do fósforo (FePO4) no pré-operatório e nos dias 1, 2, 14, 180 e 360 do pós-operatório. Resultados: Observamos uma redução, aproximadamente, de 40% da TFG nos dois primeiros dias após a cirurgia. No décimo quarto dia após a nefrectomia, observamos o início da recuperação da TFG, chegando ao máximo da recuperação com 1 ano, quando se atingiu 68,6% da função renal se comparado com o dia anterior a doação (75,3 ml/min/1,73m2, p < 0,001). O cálcio sérico apresentou seu nadir no dia 1 (7,99 mg/dL; p < 0,01) e o Pi sérico atingiu seu nadir no dia 2 (2,61 mg/dL; p < 0,01). Já no dia 14, os valores de Ca e Pi retornaram aos valores basais tendo o fósforo evoluído novamente com valores inferiores ao basal no último dia de seguimento (3,36mg/dL; p < 0,001). FGF23 e PTH apresentaram elevação no D1 (111,0144,6 percentil 25-75: 16-63 RU/ml 64,9 30,3pg/mL; p < 0,01). Os valores de FGF23 se mantiveram elevados até o final do estudo enquanto que o PTH retornou aos valores de base no segundo dia e, a partir de então, manteve sem diferença do valores basais até o último dia de estudo. FePO4 elevou de 11,45,2% para 15,28,1% entre o pré-operatório e D365 (p < 0,01). Conclusão: A nefrectomia para doação de rim em 74 pacientes saudáveis elevou os valores...

Introduction: Living kidney donors (LKDs) experience an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Mineral metabolism adaptations in early CKD are still debated and not well studied in LKDs. We prospectively studied acute and long term mineral metabolism adaptation of LKDs. Materials and Methods: We measured renal function and mineral metabolites longitudinally for 1 year (days (D) 1, 2, 14, 180, & 365 post-operatively) in 74 healthy individuals who underwent kidney live donation. Results: eGFR (MDRD) decreased to 59% of its baseline on day 2 and started to increase at day 3, to its maximum at day 360 (75.3±15.6 ml/min/1.73m2, p < 0.01) wile FGF23 increased from 60.6 (25th-75th percentile 19-81 RU/mL) at baseline to 111.0±144.6 (p < 0.01) on day 1 and keep higher than baseline throwout the study. PTH rose maximally on day 1 (64.9 ± 30.3pg/ml) and returned to its base line on D2 and did not change after that. Total serum Calcium levels decreased from 9,40±0,48 mg/dL to a nadir of 7.99±0,51 mg/dL on day 1 (p < 0.001). Serum Phosphate levels reached their nadir on day 2 (2.61±0,52 mg/dL; p < 0.01). At D14 total calcium and phosphate levels had returned to baseline, but phosphate levels returned down on D360 (3.36±0,52 mg/dL; p < 0.001). Phosphate excretion fraction (FePO4) increased from base line (11.4±5.2%) up to 15.2±8.1% until D360 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Abrupt reduction in eGFR induces physiological increases in FGF23 and PTH, and decreases in serum Ca and Pi in the first week. The changes in FGF23 and Pi urinary fractional excretion of Pi remain modestly yet significantly different from baseline throughout the first year after nephrectomy. Wile Ca, PTH and Pi serum levels are not significantly different from the baseline...

Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Minerals/metabolism , Nephrectomy , Parathyroid Hormone , Tissue Donors
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 537-547
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154210


Phytic acid, the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds is degraded by the phytases to yield inositol and free phosphate, contributing thereby to the improved bioavailability of phytate phosphorus and essential minerals in plant foods and simultaneous reduction in phosphorus pollution of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. As a possible strategy for altering seed phytate levels, the approach involving reduction of phytate content by ectopically expressing endogenous phytase gene during seed development of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Pusa-20) was attempted in the present study. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the maximum expression of phytase gene transcripts in germinating cotyledons (~10 days after germinations), compared to other vegetative tissues. A full-length phytase cDNA was amplified from the germinating seedlings by splicing by overlap extension (SOE)-PCR and its sequence analysis revealed an open-reading-frame of 1644 bp, including an N terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acids. Predicted amino acid sequence (547-aa) of molecular mass 62 kDa on alignment with related purple acid phosphatases in other plants shared five conserved domains and seven invariant amino acids involved in coordination of the metals in the binuclear center of purple acid phosphatases. Owing to a large number of E. coli low-usage codons in soybean phytase gene, the modified gene was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+) and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Bioassay of the crude expression product in E. coli revealed a functional phytase gene, showing a great potential for developing low phytate transgenic soybean through its seed-specific overexpression in the early stages of seed development.

6-Phytase/biosynthesis , 6-Phytase/chemistry , 6-Phytase/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Codon/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetic Engineering/methods , Minerals/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Organ Specificity , Phosphorus/metabolism , Phylogeny , Seedlings/genetics , Sequence Homology , Soybeans/enzymology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/metabolism
Saudi Medical Journal. 2013; 34 (5): 497-502
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127414


To evaluate the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25- [OH] D] on bone mineral metabolism and inflammation parameters in hemodialysis patients. The study was carried out at Hitit University Corum Education and Research Hospital, Corum, Turkey between July and September 2012. All of the 36 patients that underwent treatment in our hemodialysis unit were included in this study. Four patients were excluded from the study due to other complications. Of the remaining 32 patients, 28 patients [mean age; 52 +/- 18 years; 15 males and 13 females] with a 25-[OH] vitamin D level of <30 ng/mL were included in the study. Four of the 32 remaining patients were excluded as their 25-[OH] vitamin D levels was >30 ng/ml. Patients with a 25-[OH] D level of <30 ng/mL were treated with 20,000 IU oral cholecalciferol once a week for 12 weeks. The level of vitamin D, mineral metabolism markers, and C-reactive protein [CRP] were evaluated. After the treatment, the 25-[OH] D levels increased to >30 ng/mL in all patients [12.5 +/- 7.1 ng/mL versus 59.9 +/- 15.5 ng/mL; p<0.001]. While there was a significant, but not life-threatening, increase in calcium levels [7.9 [7.26 to 8.32] mg/dL versus 8.48 [7.55 to 9.25] mg/dL, p<0.001], a statistically significant decrease was observed in CRP levels [9.34 +/- 4.4mg/L versus 4.4 +/- 1.6mg/L; p<0.001]. Alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone levels did not change. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in HD patients. Short-term weekly cholecalciferol treatment is safe and effective in this patient group, and cholecalciferol treatment had a positive effect on inflammatory markers

Humans , Female , Male , Cholecalciferol , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Bone and Bones , Minerals/metabolism , Biomarkers , Inflammation , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 49(3): 185-192, 2012. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687619


A suspensão de ratos pela cauda é modelo utilizado para investigar o comportamento ósseo em animais impossibilitados de se locomoverem. O osso é um tecido adaptativo que se desenvolve em sua estrutura e função, entre outros fatores, em resposta a forças mecânicas aplicadas a ele e demandas metabólicas que venha sofrer. A ausência de forças mecânicas e de deformação óssea faz com que ocorra uma diminuição na deposição de cálcio por ausência de estímulos nos osteoblastose osteócitos, favorecendo a ação dos osteoclastos, tornando o osso enfraquecido e quebradiço. Portanto, a ação mecânica é necessária para estimular a resposta óssea local e, assim, proporcionar seu crescimento e remodelamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, através da densitometria radiográfica, se a suspensão pela cauda por 15 e 36 dias altera a densidade mineral óssea das vértebras cervical (C3), torácica (T6) e lombares (L1 e L3) de ratos Wistar. Trinta Rattus norvegicus albinus, adultos, machos, linhagem Wistar, massa corpórea média de ± 350g, foram divididos em 3 grupos: controle (n=10) - não suspenso; S15 (n=10) - suspenso por 15 dias e S36 (n=10) - suspenso por 36 dias. Para análise densitométrica, as vértebras foram radiografadas, escaneadas, digitalizadas e analisadas pelo programa computacional ImageJ®. Houve aumento estatisticamente significante da densidade mineral óssea no grupo S15, provavelmente pela inquietação dos animais à suspensão, com diminuição no grupo S36, fato este hipoteticamente ligado à acomodação dos mesmos, concluindo que a suspensão pela cauda alterou a densidade mineral óssea num primeiro momento com diminuição com o passar do tempo.

The suspension of rats by the tail model is used to investigate the behavior of bone in animals unable to move around. Bone is an adaptative tissue that develops in structure and function, among other factors, in response to mechanical forces applied to it and metabolic demands that it will suffer. The absence of mechanical forces and deformation of bone that occurs causes a decrease in calcium deposition in the absence of stimuli on osteoblasts and osteocytes, favoring the action of osteoclasts, making bones weak and brittle. Therefore, the mechanical action is necessary to stimulate local bone response and thus provide growth and remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluable by radiographic densitometry, the tail suspension for 15 and 36 days alter the bone mineral density of cervical vertebrae (C3), thoracic (T6) and lumbar (L1 and L3) of Wistar rats. Thirty Rattus norvegicus albinus, adult, male, Wistar strain, average body mass ± 350g, were divided into 3 groups: control (n = 10) - not suspended; S15 (n = 10) - suspended for 15 days and S36 (n = 10) - suspended for 36 days. For densitometric analysis vertebrae were radiographed, scanned, digitized and analyzed by the computer program ImageJ®. There was a statistically significant increase in bone mineral density in group S15, probably by the restlessness of the animals to the suspension, with a decrease in group S36, and this hypothetically is linked to the accommodation of the rats, concluding that the tail suspension altered bone mineral density in first time with a decrease over time.

Male , Rats , Bone Density/physiology , Minerals/metabolism , Pelvic Bones/anatomy & histology , Spine/anatomy & histology , Osteoblasts
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(1): 31-36, jan.-fev. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578303


FUNDAMENTOS: prurido é o sintoma mais freqüente nos pacientes nefropatas em hemodiálise. Parâmetros laboratoriais anormais têm sido encontrados, com dados conflitantes. OBJETIVO: relacionar a prevalência de prurido com alterações no metabolismo mineral de pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle. Avaliados 105 pacientes, sendo os pacientes com prurido os casos, preencheram o questionário do protocolo de pesquisa e a escala análoga visual, os dados laboratoriais foram coletados dos prontuários eletrônicos. RESULTADOS: a média de idade foi de 51,9 anos, 59 por cento dos pacientes eram homens e 43 por cento dos pacientes tinham prurido. Xerodermia ocorreu em 45 por cento dos pacientes. Níveis elevados de Ca foram demonstrados em 55 por cento dos pacientes e 47 por cento tinham prurido. Quanto ao fósforo 60 por cento tinham valores elevados e 43 por cento tinham prurido. A relação Ca/P foi normal em todos. O paratormônio mostrou-se elevado em 95 por cento dos pacientes, todos referindo prurido. CONCLUSÃO: houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de pacientes com prurido e xerodermia. Os níveis séricos de Cálcio, Fósforo, relação Ca/P, PTHi e o tamanho do dialisador não apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com o prurido. Logo, encontramos relação importante entre xerodermia e prurido, sem relação com os parâmetros laboratoriais avaliados.

BACKGROUND: Uremic pruritus is the most frequent symptom in long-term hemodialysis patients. Abnormal laboratory parameters have been found with conflicting data. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the prevalence of pruritus with alterations in mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This was a case-control study. A hundred and five patients on maintenance hemodialysis were evaluated: a group of patients with pruritus and a control group. They answered a research protocol questionnaire; laboratory data were collected from medical records and the patients with pruritus filled out a visual analogue scale (VAS) to measure pruritus level. RESULTS: The mean age was 51.9 years; 59 percent of the patients were men and 43 percent of the patients had pruritus. Xeroderma occurred in 45 percent of the patients. High levels of calcium were demonstrated in 55 percent of the patients and 47 percent had pruritus. 60 percent of the patients had high phosphorus levels and 43 percent had pruritus. The Ca/P ratio was normal for all the patients. Parathyroid hormone was high in 95 percent of the patients, all of them referring pruritus. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant association between the group of patients with pruritus and xeroderma. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels, Ca/P ratio, PTHi and size of the dialyzer did not show a statistically significant association with pruritus. Therefore, we found an important relationship between xeroderma and pruritus, with no relation with the assessed laboratory parameters.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minerals/metabolism , Pruritus/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Calcium/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Prevalence , Phosphorus/metabolism , Pruritus/metabolism , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , Urea/metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 55(1): 70-74, 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-511073


OBJETIVO: Descrever a frequência de prescrição de quelantes de fósforo (QF) e calcitriol em pacientes sob hemodiálise (HD) crônica em Salvador, Brasil, e avaliar se o tratamento está de acordo com recomendações do Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). MÉTODOS: Corte transversal de dados da linha de base do Estudo Prospectivo do Prognóstico de Pacientes Tratados Cronicamente por Hemodiálise (PROHEMO). Foi realizada descrição da frequência de prescrição de QF e calcitriol conforme as concentrações de indicadores laboratoriais do metabolismo mineral, comparando com recomendações do K/DOQI. RESULTADOS: Sevelamer isoladamente (i.e., não combinado com outro QF) foi prescrito para 45,4 por cento dos pacientes, carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3) isoladamente para 26,5 por cento, sevelamer combinado com CaCO3 para 2,1 por cento e acetato de cálcio para 5,2 por cento. Prescrição de QF foi observada para 53 por cento dos pacientes com fósforo <3,5 mg/dL e 40 por cento com fósforo <3,0 mg/dL. Em desacordo com K/DOQI, prescrição de calcitriol foi detectada para 19 por cento dos pacientes com PTH<150 pg/mL e ausência da prescrição para aproximadamente 35,4 por cento com PTH>300 pg/dL combinado com fósforo menor ou igual a 5,5 mg/dL, cálcio menor ou igual a 9,5 mg/dL e produto cálcio e fósforo (CaxP)<55 mg2/dL2. Neste último grupo, 38 por cento tiveram prescrição de sevelamer sem outro QF. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostram um elevado percentual de prescrição de sevelamer em pacientes em HD de manutenção em uma cidade brasileira, apesar do alto custo deste medicamento e ausência de contraindicação para QF à base de cálcio. Os resultados em pacientes com PTH<150 pg/mL e com PTH>300 pg/mL combinado com determinadas concentrações de cálcio, fósforo e CaxP indicam também a necessidade de avaliar as práticas de uso de QF e calcitriol.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of prescription of phosphate binders (PB) and calcitriol for patients on chronic hemodialysis in Salvador, Brazil, and to assess whether treatment is in agreement with recommendations of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). METHODS: Cross section of baseline data of the PROHEMO study. The frequency of prescription of PB and calcitriol according to laboratory indicators of mineral metabolism was compared with K/DOQI recommendations. RESULTS: Sevelamer alone (i.e., not combined with other PB) was prescribed for 45.4 percent of patients, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) alone for 26.5 percent, sevelamer combined with CaCO3 for 2.1 percent and calcium acetate for 5.2 percent. Prescription of PB was noted in 53 percent of the patients with phosphorus <3.5 mg/dL and 40 percent with phosphorus <3.0 mg/dL. In disagreement with K/DOQI, prescription of calcitriol was found in 19 percent of patients with PTH<150 pg/mL and prescription was absent for approximately 35.4 percent with PTH>300 pg/dL combined with phosphorus equal or less than 5.5 mg/dL, calcium equal or less than 9.5 mg/dL and calcium x phosphorus product (CaxP)<55 mg2/dL2. For this latter group 38 percent had a prescription of sevelamer without other phosphate binders. CONCLUSION: Results show a large percentage of prescriptions of sevelamer among patients on maintenance hemodialysis in a Brazilian city, despite the high cost of the medication and absence of contraindications for PB with calcium salts. Results in patients with PTH<150 pg/mL and with PTH>300 pg/mL combined with certain concentrations of calcium, phosphate and CaxP also indicate the need to evaluate practices for use of phosphate binders and calcitriol.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Calcitriol , Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Phosphates , Renal Dialysis , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Minerals/metabolism , Young Adult
Braz. j. biol ; 68(1): 61-67, Feb. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482184


This study presents a kinetic model of oxygen consumption during aerobic decomposition of detritus from seven species of aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia auriculata, Oxycaryum cubense and Utricularia breviscapa. The aquatic macrophytes were collected from Óleo Lagoon situated in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain (SP, Brazil). Mineralization experiments were performed using the closed bottles method. Incubations made with lake water and macrophytes detritus (500 mL and 200 mg.L-1 (DM), respectively) were maintained during 45 to 80 days at 20 °C under aerobic conditions and darkness. Carbon content of leachates from aquatic macrophytes detritus and dissolved oxygen concentrations were analyzed. From the results we concluded that: i) the decomposition constants differ among macrophytes; these differences being dependent primarily on molecular and elemental composition of detritus and ii) in the short term, most of the oxygen demand seems to depend upon the demineralization of the dissolved carbon fraction.

Nesse estudo foi utilizado um modelo cinético para a descrição dos consumos de oxigênio durante a mineralização aeróbia de detritos de sete espécies de macrófitas aquáticas: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia auriculata, Oxycaryum cubense e Utricularia breviscapa. As macrófitas aquáticas foram coletadas na Lagoa do Óleo, situada na planície de inundação do rio Mogi-Guaçu (SP, Brasil). Os experimentos foram realizados empregando-se incubações similares as de DBO. As incubações foram preparadas com água da lagoa e detritos das macrófitas aquáticas (500 mL e 200 mg.L-1 (PS), respectivamente) e foram mantidas durante 45 a 80 dias a 20 °C, sob condições aeróbias e no escuro. Foram determinados os conteúdos de carbono dos lixiviados dos detritos e os consumos de oxigênio dissolvido durante a mineralização. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que: i) os coeficientes de mineralização das macrófitas aquáticas diferiram entre si, essas diferenças dependeram principalmente das composições moleculares e elementares dos detritos; e ii) a curto prazo, grande parte da demanda de oxigênio parece depender da mineralização das de carbono dissolvido provenientes da lixiviação.

Magnoliopsida/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Minerals/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption , Fresh Water , Models, Biological , Time Factors
Arab Journal of Laboratory Medicine [The]. 2007; 33 (2): 161-171
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-128807


To investigate the effect of dietary boron [B] supplementation as sodium tetraborate on immune response, steroid hormones, and minerals metabolism in female albino rats. Eight groups each of eight female albino rats were divided as following-Group I [control group]; rats were feed on a standard basal diet. Group II; rats fed on basal diet+5 mg B/100 g diet. Group III; rats fed on basal diet+10 mg B/100 g diet. Group IV; rats fed on basal diet+15 mg B/l00 g diet. Group V; rats fed on basal diet+20 mg B/100 g diet. Group VI; rats fed on basal diet+25 mg B/100 g diet. Group VII; rats fed on basal diet+30 mg B/l00 g diet. Group VIII; rats fed on basal diet + 35 mg B/100 g diet for six weeks. The cell-mediated immune response was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml of phytohemagglutinin [PHA] [150 micro g/0.1 ml] in the flank region on both the right and left sides. Inflammatory response was measured as a change in skin thickness prior to and at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after PHA injection. In addition, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinizing hormone [LH], progesterone, l7 beta-estradiol [E[2]], calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, total cholesterol, triacylglycerofs, and alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity were measured. The immune response was increased by dietary boron supplementation at 6h alter injection compared to zero time. At 12h after injection the immune response had the lowest values in all rat groups fed diets containing different doses of dietary boron [5-35 mg B/100 g diet]. Serum levels of FSH and LH were not affected by boron supplementation While, serum concentration of 17 beta-estradiol increased significantly by increasing boron supplementation. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol and tnacylglycerols were reduced in rats fed diets supplemented with 20-35 .mg B/100 g diet. In addition, serum levels of ALP activity was reduced in all treated groups compared to control group. Serum levels of calcium were increased' in rat groups fed diets containing B/100 g diet, and then reduced as the supplementation of dietary boron increased [30 and 35 mg B/100 g diet]. A significant reduction was observed in serum inorganic phosphorus concentration in rats fed diets supplemented with boron at tested doses of 10-35 mg B/100 g diet. Dietary boron supplementation has regulatory effects on immune response increased estrogen levels, and maintenance of bone integrity, which may have a preventive effect on the development of osteoporosis

Female , Animals, Laboratory , Dietary Supplements , Minerals/metabolism , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Estradiol/blood , Progesterone/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Rats
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Aug; 42(8): 844-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57064


Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) at 4-10 microM concentrations were found to inhibit the rates of collagen-induced in vitro mineralization and ion exchange reactions. The sequential removal of the terminal phosphate groups caused a step-wise decrease in their inhibitory potency. The results suggest that NTPs inhibit the rates of ion uptake and exchange reactions at concentrations much lower than their intracellular physiological concentrations. Thus NTPs may be involved in the control of biological mineralization and the tissues which mineralize under physiological conditions develop a system to locally convert NTPs to NDPs and NMPs.

Collagen/pharmacology , Ion Transport/drug effects , Kinetics , Minerals/metabolism , Nucleotides/pharmacology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 169-173, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26462


Pneumoconiosis was diagnosed by open lung biopsy in two dental technicians who had interstitial lung disease. Mineralogical analysis was performed to investigate the origin of the dust that had been inhaled. A marked accumulation of silicon and phosphorus was found in both cases. The hard metals chromium and cobalt were also found. Dental technician's pneumoconiosis is a complex pneumoconiosis in which such dust and hard metals may play a role.

Adult , Dental Technicians , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Male , Minerals/metabolism , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumoconiosis/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 34(3): 315-323, Mar. 2001. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-281611


Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common diseases in the Western world. The disease manifests itself with intensive pain, sporadic infections, and, sometimes, renal failure. The symptoms are due to the appearance of urinary stones (calculi) which are formed mainly by calcium salts. These calcium salts precipitate in the renal papillae and/or within the collecting ducts. Inherited forms of nephrolithiasis related to chromosome X (X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis or XLN) have been recently described. Hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and male predominance are the major characteristics of these diseases. The gene responsible for the XLN forms of kidney stones was cloned and characterized as a chloride channel called ClC-5. The ClC-5 chloride channel belongs to a superfamily of voltage-gated chloride channels, whose physiological roles are not completely understood. The objective of the present review is to identify recent advances in the molecular pathology of nephrolithiasis, with emphasis on XLN. We also try to establish a link between a chloride channel like ClC-5, hypercalciuria, failure in urine acidification and protein endocytosis, which could explain the symptoms exhibited by XLN patients

Humans , Male , Female , Animals , Chloride Channels/physiology , Kidney Calculi/genetics , Kidney/metabolism , Nephrocalcinosis/genetics , Calcium/urine , Endocytosis , Genetic Linkage , Kidney/physiopathology , Minerals/metabolism , Mutation , Sex Factors , Syndrome , X Chromosome