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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928241

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the neuroanatomical substrates underlying the effects of minocycline in alleviating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Methods Forty C57BL/6 male mice were randomly and equally divided into eight groups. Over three conse-cutive days, saline was administered to four groups of mice and minocycline to the other four groups. Immediately after the administration of saline or minocycline on the third day, two groups of mice were additionally injected with saline and the other two groups were injected with LPS. Six or 24 hours after the last injection, mice were sacrificed and the brains were removed. Immunohistochemical staining across the whole brain was performed to detect microglia activation via Iba1 and neuronal activation via c-Fos. Morphology of microglia and the number of c-Fo-positive neurons were analyzed by Image-Pro Premier 3D. One-way ANOVA and Fisher's least-significant differences were employed for statistical analyses. Results Minocycline alleviated LPS-induced neuroinflammation as evidenced by reduced activation of microglia in multiple brain regions, including the shell part of the nucleus accumbens (Acbs), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), locus coeruleus (LC), and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Minocycline significantly increased the number of c-Fo-positive neurons in NTS and area postrema (AP) after LPS treatment. Furthermore, in NTS-associated brain areas, including LC, lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB), periaqueductal gray (PAG), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), amygdala, PVN, and bed nucleus of the stria terminali (BNST), minocycline also significantly increased the number of c-Fo-positive neurons after LPS administration. Conclusion Minocycline alleviates LPS-induced neuroinflammation in multiple brain regions, possibly due to increased activation of neurons in the NTS-associated network.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Minocycline/pharmacology , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Solitary Nucleus
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(4): 214-218, 20220600. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1381604

ABSTRACT

La papilomatosis confluente y reticulada de Gougerot-Cartaud es una dermatosis poco frecuente, de etiología incierta. Afecta a adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, con leve predilección por el sexo masculino. Se presenta como pápulas parduzcas que confluyen formando placas centrales con patrón reticulado en la periferia, asintomáticas o levemente pruriginosas. La localización característica es tronco anterior y posterior, a nivel de la línea media. Los antibióticos orales, principalmente la minociclina, constituyen el tratamiento de elección. Debe diferenciarse de otras entidades, entre ellas pitiriasis versicolor, acantosis nigricans y dermatosis terra firma-forme. Se presenta una paciente de 17 años con papilomatosis confluente y reticulada de GougerotCarteaud que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con minociclina vía oral y tretinoína 0,025% tópica.


Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot-Cartaud is a rare dermatosis, of still uncertain etiology. It affects adolescents and young adults, with a slight predilection for males. It presents as asymptomatic or slightly pruritic brownish papules that converge to form central plaques with a reticulated pattern on the periphery. The characteristic location is midline anterior and posterior trunk. Oral antibiotics, mainly minocycline, are the treatment of choice. It must be differentiated from other entities, including pityriasis versicolor, acanthosis nigricans, and terra firme-forme dermatosis. We present a 17-year-old patient with confluent Gougerot-Carteaud papillomatosis who responded satisfactorily to treatment with oral minocycline and topical tretinoin 0.025%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Papilloma/therapy , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Minocycline/therapeutic use
3.
Dermatol. argent ; 27(1): 28-30, ene.-mar. 2021. il
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361644

ABSTRACT

El apremilast es un fármaco inhibidor de la fosfodiesterasa-4 que modula, a nivel intracelular, la expresión de citoquinas involucradas en la patogenia inflamatoria de la psoriasis. Su uso está indicado en la psoriasis en placas moderada y severa, con buenos resultados clínicos. Los principales efectos adversos son gastrointestinales y, en menos del 2% de los pacientes, dermatológicos, con exantema y foliculitis. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 42 años que, luego de tomar el apremilast, desarrolló lesiones faciales que correspondieron clínica e histopatológicamente a una reacción acneiforme, con evolución favorable y resolución total del cuadro posterior a la suspensión del medicamento.


Apremilast is a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor that modulates the intracellular expression of cytokines, which are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Apremilast is indicated in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, and it has shown good clinical results. The main adverse effects occur at a gastrointestinal level, and in less than 2% at the dermatologic level with exanthema and folliculitis. We present a 42-year-old patient that developed facial lesions after taking apremilast. The facial lesions were clinically and histopathologically correspond to an acneiform eruption. The patient evolved favorably and fully recovered after suspending apremilast.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives , Acneiform Eruptions , Diarrhea , Minocycline/administration & dosage
4.
Dermatol. argent ; 27(1): 31-33, ene.-mar. 2021. il
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361658

ABSTRACT

La hipomelanosis macular progresiva (HMP) es una dermatosis caracterizada por máculas hipopigmentadas, que se observa con mayor frecuencia en las mujeres y en los fototipos III y IV. Se ha asociado a Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) de tipo III como factor etiológico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 30 años, con máculas hipopigmentadas redondeadas en el tronco y la raíz de los miembros inferiores, de 10 años de evolución. El estudio histológico informó disminución del número de melanocitos y de pigmento melánico en la capa basal e infiltrado inflamatorio mononuclear perivascular superficial. Se indicó minociclina 100 mg/día por vía oral durante 8 meses, tras lo cual se observó la resolución total de las lesiones.


Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a dermatosis characterized by hypopigmented macules, most frequently found in females and in phototypes III and IV. Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) type III has been associated as an etiological factor. We present the case of a thirty-year-old female patient with a 10-year history of nummular hypopigmented macules located on the top of the lower limbs and on the trunk. The histological study reported a decrease in the number of melanocytes and melanotic pigment in the basal layer and the presence of superficial perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. After an 8-month regimen of oral minocycline 100 mg/day, there was a complete resolution of the lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Melanosis/drug therapy , Minocycline/pharmacology , Skin Diseases , Melanosis/diagnosis , Minocycline/administration & dosage
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3031-3041, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921404

ABSTRACT

Tigecycline is a novel glycylcycline antibacterial drug, which shows both antibiotic function and anti-tumor activity. This review summarizes the single and combined use of tigecycline for tumor treatment and the underpinning mechanisms. As an inhibitor for mitochondrial DNA translation, tigecycline affects the proliferation, migration, and invasion of tumor cells mainly through inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the effect of tigecycline monotherapy is controversial, the efficacy of combined use of tigecycline is satisfactory. Therefore, it is important to explore the molecular mechanisms underpinning the anti-tumor activity of tigecycline, with the aim to use it as a cheap and effective new anti-tumor drug.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Minocycline/pharmacology , Mitochondria , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tigecycline/pharmacology
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0015, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The authors present a case of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei , a rare skin disease of unknown etiology, which may cause unaesthetic scarring due to its difficult treatment. The histopathological examination of epithelioid granulomas with caseating necrosis, together with the clinical features, are important for diagnosis and early treatment with better results. Despite difficult and unsatisfactory treatment, there are ongoing studies on therapy to improve aesthetic and social impairment. This case report describes an initial misdiagnosis delaying appropriate treatment, and highlights the value of physical examination and clinical judgment for another pathological examination, whenever necessary, aiming at better treatment outcomes in daily practice.


RESUMO Os autores apresentam um caso de lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei , uma dermatose rara, de etiologia desconhecida, que pode deixar cicatrizes não estéticas, pela dificuldade de tratamento. O exame histopatológico de granulomas compostos por células epitelioides, com necrose caseosa, e as características clínicas, são importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento precoce, com melhores resultados. Apesar do tratamento difícil e insatisfatório, há estudos em andamento sobre terapias para melhorar o comprometimento estético e social. Este relato de caso descreve um diagnóstico inicial errôneo, que atrasou o tratamento adequado, e destaca o valor do exame físico e raciocínio clínico para solicitar outro exame anatomopatológico, quando necessário, de forma a obter melhores desfechos com o tratamento, na prática diária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Eyelid Diseases/pathology , Eyelid Diseases/drug therapy , Facial Dermatoses/pathology , Facial Dermatoses/drug therapy , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Cicatrix , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Rosacea/pathology , Rosacea/drug therapy , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Granuloma/pathology , Granuloma/drug therapy , Lupus Vulgaris/pathology , Lupus Vulgaris/drug therapy , Minocycline/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055366

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to determine if personality disorder (PD) predicted functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Data (n=71) from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 12-week trial assessing the efficacy of 200 mg/day adjunctive minocycline for MDD were examined. PD was measured using the Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale. Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and Range of Impaired Functioning (RIFT). Analysis of covariance was used to examine the impact of PD (dichotomized factor [≥ 3] or continuous measure) on the outcome measures-treatment group correlation. Results: PD was identified in 69% of the sample. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline scores for each of the outcome measures, there was no significant difference between participants with and without PD on week 12 scores for any of the outcome measures (all p > 0.14). Conclusion: In this secondary analysis of a primary efficacy study, PD was a common comorbidity among those with MDD, but was not a significant predictor of functional outcomes. This study adds to the limited literature on PD in randomized controlled trials for MDD. Clinical trial registration: ACTRN12612000283875.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Personality Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Minocycline/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Personal Satisfaction , Personality Tests , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life , Comorbidity , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Self Report , Middle Aged
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880607

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic medication is the primary treatment for schizophrenia, which is effective on ameliorating positive symptoms and can reduce the risk of recurrence, but it has limited efficacy for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction seriously affects the life quality and social function for the patients with schizophrenia. Currently, there is plenty evidence that antipsychotic drugs combined with adjuvant therapy drugs can effectively improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. These drugs include anti-oxidants, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neuro-inflammatory drugs (anti-inflammatory drugs, minocycline), which show potential clinical effects.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Minocycline/therapeutic use , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
11.
Evid. odontol. clín ; 4(2): 21-30, jul.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995395

ABSTRACT

La investigación está orientada a buscar medidas más directas para tratar el problema de la proliferación bacteriana, durante el tratamiento de bolsa, favoreciendo una rápida curación en un medio libre de bacterias. Objetivos: Determinar el Chip que tenga mejor efecto en la proliferación bacteriana de la microflora de bolsas periodontales. Material y métodos: Los grupos fueron constituidos 2 grupos experimentales de chip de tetraciclina y de minociclina y un grupo control con disco de tetraciclina y un blanco, las bacterias fueron obtenidas de 16 pacientes, estas se suspendieron en Caldo peptopnado dejándose en la incubadora por 24 horas y después se sembraron en las placas Petri conteniendo Agar sangre.. La información obtenida se recopiló en Fichas de observación microbiológica a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. El estudio realizado fue de tipo experimental, prospectiva, longitudinal y el nivel de investigación fue experimental. Se utilizó el software SPSS versión 21. El análisis que se realizó se dio por la variable independiente bifactorial(chip de tetraciclina y chip de minociclina)y por la variable dependiente univariado, así mismo por la naturaleza de la investigación va a ser un análisis cuantitativo. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos muestran un efecto inhibiendo la proliferación bacteriana de la microflora de bolsas periodontales, que se manifestaron por la presencia de halos de inhibición en las diferentes con una media de 11,94 a las 72 horas correspondiente al chip de tetraciclina y un promedio de 6.25 milímetros a las 72 horas del chip de minociclina, obteniéndose un valor de p = 0.000, es decir p <0.005. Conclusiones: El chip de minociclina presenta una acción menor que el de la tetraciclina, negando la hipótesis planteada, es decir existe diferencia estadística entre ambos. (AU)


The research is oriented to seek more direct measures to treat the problem of bacterial proliferation, during bag treatment, favoring a quick cure in a bacteria-free environment. Objectives: Determine the Chip that has the best effect on the bacterial proliferation of periodontal pocket microflora. Material and Methods: The groups were constituted 2 experimental groups of tetracycline chip and minocycline and a control group with tetracycline disc and a white, the bacteria were obtained from 16 patients, these were suspended in broth peptopnado leaving in the incubator for 24 hours and then they planted in the Petri dishes containing blood agar. The information obtained was compiled in microbiological observation sheets at 24, 48 and 72 hours. The study was experimental, prospective, longitudinal and the level of research was experimental. The software SPSS version 21 was used. The analysis was carried out by the independent variable bifactorial (chip of tetracycline and chip of minocycline) and by the univariate dependent variable, likewise by the nature of the research it will be a quantitative analysis. Results: The results obtained show an effect inhibiting the bacterial proliferation of the periodontal pocket microflora, which was manifested by the presence of inhibition halos in the different ones with a mean of 11.94 at 72 hours corresponding to the tetracycline chip and an average of 6.25 millimeters at 72 hours of the minocycline chip, obtaining a value of p = 0.000, that is p <0.005. Conclusions: Finally we conclude that the l chip of minocycline has a lower action than that of tetracycline, denying the hypothesis, that is, there is a statistical difference between the two. (AU)


Subject(s)
Periodontal Pocket , Tetracycline , Minocycline/therapeutic use
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To unravel the underlying mechanism of minocycline in formalin-induced inflammatory pain, and to investigate the effects of minocycline on synaptic transmission in substantia gela-tinosa (SG) neurons of rat spinal dorsal horn.@*METHODS@#Behavioral and immunohistochemistry experiments: 30 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (3-5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to control (n=8 rats), model (n=8 rats), saline treatment model (n=6 rats) and minocycline treatment model (n=8 rats) groups. The control group was subcutaneously injected with normal saline on the right hindpaws. Acute inflammatory pain model was established by injecting 5% (volume fraction) formalin into the right hindpaws. The rats in the latter two groups received intraperitoneal injection of saline and minocycline 1 h before the formalin injection, respectively. The time of licking and lifting was recorded every 5 min within 1 h after the subcutaneous injection of normal saline or formalin for all the groups, which was continuously recorded for 1 h. One hour after the pain behavioral recording, the spinal cord tissue was removed following transcardial perfusion of 4% paraformaldehyde. The expression of c-Fos protein in spinal dorsal horn was observed by immunohistochemistry. Electrophysiological experiment: In vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in spinal cord parasagittal slices obtained from 26 male SD rats (3-5 weeks old). Two to five neurons were randomly selected from each rat for patch-clamp recording. the effects of minocycline, fluorocitrate and doxycycline on spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) or spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of SG neurons were investigated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, both the licking and lifting time and the expression of c-Fos protein in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn of the model group were significantly increased. Intraperitoneal injection of minocycline largely attenuated the second phase of formalin-induced pain responses (t=2.957, P<0.05). Moreover, c-Fos protein expression was also dramatically reduced in both the superficial lamina (I-II) and deep lamina (III-IV) of spinal dorsal horn (tI-II=3.912, tIII-IV=2.630, P<0.05). On the other side, bath application of minocycline significantly increased the sIPSCs frequency to 220%±10% (P<0.05) of the control but did not affect the frequency (100%±1%, t=0.112, P=0.951) and amplitude (98%±1%, t=0.273, P=0.167) of sEPSCs and the amplitude (105%±3%, t=0.568, P=0.058) of sIPSCs. However, fluorocitrate and doxycycline had no effect on the frequency [(99%±1%, t=0.366, P=0.099); (102%±1%, t=0.184, P=0.146), respectively] and amplitude [(98%±1%, t=0.208, P=0.253); (99%±1%, t=0.129, P=0.552), respectively] of sIPSCs.@*CONCLUSION@#Minocycline can inhibit formalin-induced inflammatory pain and the expression of c-Fos protein in spinal dorsal horn. These effects are probably due to its enhancement in inhibitory synaptic transmission of SG neurons but not its effect on microglial activation or antibiotic action.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Formaldehyde , Inflammation/complications , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Male , Minocycline/pharmacology , Pain/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 98-108, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777072

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that spinal microglia regulate pathological pain in males. In this study, we investigated the effects of several microglial and astroglial modulators on inflammatory and neuropathic pain following intrathecal injection in male and female mice. These modulators were the microglial inhibitors minocycline and ZVEID (a caspase-6 inhibitor) and the astroglial inhibitors L-α-aminoadipate (L-AA, an astroglial toxin) and carbenoxolone (a connexin 43 inhibitor), as well as U0126 (an ERK kinase inhibitor) and D-JNKI-1 (a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor). We found that spinal administration of minocycline or ZVEID, or Caspase6 deletion, reduced formalin-induced inflammatory and nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain primarily in male mice. In contrast, intrathecal L-AA reduced neuropathic pain but not inflammatory pain in both sexes. Intrathecal U0126 and D-JNKI-1 reduced neuropathic pain in both sexes. Nerve injury caused spinal upregulation of the astroglial markers GFAP and Connexin 43 in both sexes. Collectively, our data confirmed male-dominant microglial signaling but also revealed sex-independent astroglial signaling in the spinal cord in inflammatory and neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
2-Aminoadipic Acid , Toxicity , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Astrocytes , Pathology , Carbenoxolone , Pharmacology , Caspase 6 , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Pathology , Minocycline , Therapeutic Uses , Neuralgia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Pain Measurement , Phenylurea Compounds , Pharmacology , Sex Characteristics , Spinal Cord , Pathology , Time Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766072

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study investigated the outcomes of a newly-developed, simple, and practical nonsurgical treatment modality suitable for most forms of intrabony defects around failing dental implants using intrasulcular delivery of chlorhexidine solution and minocycline hydrochloride (HCl). METHODS: Forty-five dental implants in 20 patients diagnosed with peri-implantitis were included. At baseline and the study endpoint, the probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and the presence of bleeding on probing (BOP) at 6 sites around each implant were recorded. The radiographic osseous defect morphology at the mesial or distal proximal aspect of each implant was classified as 1) narrow or wide and 2) shallow or deep. For a comparative analysis of bone changes according to the defect morphology, the distance from the implant shoulder to the most coronal bone-to-implant contact point (DIB) at the mesial and distal aspects of each implant was measured at baseline and the endpoint. Patients were scheduled to visit the clinic every 2–4 weeks for intrasulcular irrigation of chlorhexidine and delivery of minocycline HCl. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant decreases in PPD, CAL, and BOP after treatment. At the endpoint, bone levels increased in all defects, regardless of the osseous morphology of the intrabony defect. The mean DIB change in deep defects was significantly greater than that in shallow defects. Although the mean bone gain in narrow defects was greater than in wide defects, the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that significant and sustainable improvements in both clinical and radiographic parameters can be expected when intrabony defects around dental implants are managed through a simple nonsurgical approach involving combined intrasulcular chlorhexidine irrigation and local delivery of minocycline HCl.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bone Regeneration , Chlorhexidine , Dental Implants , Hemorrhage , Humans , Minocycline , Peri-Implantitis , Shoulder
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787341

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intracanal medicaments on the push-out bond strength of the calcium silicate-based materials.Forty extracted single-root human mandibular premolars were sectioned below cementoenamel junction. Standardized root canal dimension was obtained with a parallel post drill. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (no medicament), and experimental groups received medicaments with either CH (calcium hydroxide), DAP (double antibiotic paste; a mixture of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole), or TAP (triple antibiotic paste; a mixture of minocycline, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole). Following removal of medicaments with irrigation, roots were cut into sections with 1-mm-thickness. Thereafter, calcium silicate-based materials are applied to the specimens : (i) ProRoot MTA® and (ii) Biodentine®. A push-out bond strength was measured and each specimen was examined to evaluate failure mode.Intracanal medication using CH significantly increased the bond strength to the root dentin. But there are no significant differences on the bond strength of ProRoot MTA® or Biodentine® among TAP, DAP and control groups. The dislodgement resistance of Biodentine® from root dentin was significantly higher than that of ProRoot MTA® regardless of the type of intracanal medicaments.


Subject(s)
Bicuspid , Calcium , Ciprofloxacin , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin , Humans , Minocycline , Tooth Cervix
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717800

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH) is an increasingly recognized form of drug-induced liver injury that leads to a condition similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. A number of drugs have been associated with DIAIH, minocycline is one of the most well characterized. Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Minocycline-induced autoimmune hepatitis presents with serologic and histologic features similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. However, the natural history and outcomes of these two conditions differ significantly. The majority of patients with minocycline-induced autoimmune hepatitis experience complete resolution of symptoms after withdrawal of the medication. Some patients may require a short course of steroids and rarely use of an immunomodulator to achieve resolution of disease. Recurrence of symptoms is rare and typically only occurs with reintroduction of minocycline. It is important for primary care providers to consider minocycline-induced autoimmune hepatitis when liver injury develops during minocycline therapy.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Humans , Liver , Minocycline , Natural History , Primary Health Care , Recurrence , Steroids , Tetracycline
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716306

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder is a rapidly increasing heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome, remarked by persistent deficit in social communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interest. Lately, maternal immune activation and micgroglial dysfunction in the developing brain have been gaining mounting evidence and leading to studies of various novel agents as potential treatment options. A few immunomodulatory treatment options—luteolin, minocycline, suramin, vitamin D, gut microbiota—are discussed in the current article, regarding the current understanding of their mechanisms and evidence for potential clinical use. More studies are warranted to understand their exact mechanisms of action and to verify efficacy and safety in human subjects.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Brain , Humans , Immunomodulation , Microglia , Minocycline , Suramin , Vitamin D
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716157

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the latest findings and notions regarding ‘triple antibiotic paste’ (TAP) and its applications in dentistry, particularly endodontics. TAP is a combination of 3 antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. Despite the problems and pitfalls research pertaining to this paste has unveiled, it has been vastly used in endodontic treatments. The paste's applications vary, from vital pulp therapy to the recently introduced regeneration and revascularisation protocol. Studies have shown that the paste can eliminate the root canal microorganisms and prepare an appropriate matrix for further treatments. This combination is able to remove diverse groups of obligate and facultative gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, providing an environment for healing. In regeneration protocol cases, this allows the development, disinfection, and possible sterilization of the root canal system, so that new tissue can infiltrate and grow into the radicular area. Moreover, TAP is capable of creating a discipline in which other wanted and needed treatments can be successfully performed. In conclusion, TAP, as an antibacterial intracanal medication, has diverse uses. Nevertheless, despite its positive effects, the paste has shown drawbacks. Further research concerning the combined paste and other intracanal medications to control microbiota is a must.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Apexification , Ciprofloxacin , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentistry , Disinfection , Endodontics , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Metronidazole , Microbiota , Minocycline , Regeneration , Sterilization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The molecular characterization of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has not yet been performed in Korea. This study aimed to find the differences or similarities in the clinical features, molecular epidemiological findings, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of SDSE from two countries (Korea and Japan). METHODS: SDSE isolates were collected from Korea (N=69) from 2012–2016 and Japan (N=71) from 2014–2016. Clinical characteristics, emm genotypes, and sequence types (STs) were compared. Microdilution tests were performed using different antimicrobials, and their resistance determinants were screened. RESULTS: Median ages were 69 years in Korea and 76 years in Japan. The most common underlying diseases were diabetes and malignancy. Blood-derived isolates comprised 36.2% and 50.7% of Korean and Japanese isolates, respectively; mortality was not different between the two groups (5.8% vs 9.9%, P=0.53). Among Korean isolates with 20 different combined ST-emm types, ST127-stG245 (N=16), ST128-stG485 (N=10), and ST138-stG652 (N=8) were prevalent. Among Japanese isolates with 29 different combined types, ST17-stG6792 (N=11), ST29-stG485 (N=7), and ST205-stG6792 (N=6) were prevalent. Resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 34.8%, 17.4%, and 30.4% in Korea and 28.2%, 14.1%, and 21.4% in Japan, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SDSE infections commonly occurred in elderly persons with underlying diseases. There was a significant difference in the distribution of ST-emm types between the two countries. Antimicrobial resistance rates were comparable with different frequencies of resistance determinants in each country.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asians , Clindamycin , Erythromycin , Genotype , Humans , Japan , Korea , Minocycline , Mortality , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Streptococcus
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