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1.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 29-33, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Agkistrodon acutus, a traditional Chinese medicine, clinically used in the treatment of rheumatism, tumor, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the unique medicinal value and the difficulty of artificial breeding of Agkistrodon acutus, the supply of Agkistrodon acutus on the market exceeds the demand, and a large number of its adulterants are found on the market. In this study, the cytb gene sequences of Agkistrodon acutus and 9 snakes were compared and analyzed, specific primers were designed, and specific PCR methods were established to detect Agkistrodon acutus medicinal samples on the market. RESULTS: This method was successfully applied to distinguish the snake from other adulterated species, and tested 18 Agkistrodon acutus samples randomly purchased from six cities. Twelve samples were counterfeit and six were genuine. The standard reference material of Agkistrodon acutus was cloned by molecular cloning and sequencing, and the gene sequence difference with other species was significant. It shows that the region could be used as the fingerprint region of the target species. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can be used as a species-specific marker and can be highly distinguished from other adulterated snake species, which is helpful to effectively avoid the problem of false sale of Agkistrodon acutus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Agkistrodon/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Snakes , Species Specificity , DNA/analysis , Cloning, Molecular , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878975

ABSTRACT

Liver is the main place of drug metabolism. Mitochondria of hepatocytes are important targets of drug-induced liver injury. Mitochondrial autophagy could maintain the healthy operation of mitochondria in cells and the stable proliferation of cells. Therefore, the use of mitochondrial autophagy to remove damaged mitochondria is an important strategy of anti-drug-induced liver injury. Active ingredients that could enhance mitochondrial autophagy are contained in many traditional Chinese medicines, which could regulate the mitochondrial autophagy to alleviate relevant diseases. However, there are only a few reports on how to accurately and efficiently identify and evaluate such components targeting mitochondria from traditional Chinese medicine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectro-metry(LC-MS) combined with serum pharmacology in vivo can be used to accurately and efficiently find active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine acting on mitochondrial targets. This paper reviewed the research ideas and methods of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients for increasing the hepatotoxicity of mitochondrial autophagy, in order to provide new ideas and methods for the study of active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine targeting mitochondria.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mitochondria
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1168-1177, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878622

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrion is a multifunctional organelle in cells and responsible for energy production, cell apoptosis and various life processes. Dysfunctional mitochondria are associated with hundreds of diseases. Increasing evidences have shown that extracellular mitochondria can be endocytosed by cells, directly into cells, and then play roles in cells. Mitochondria are the organelles that are extremely sensitive to oxygen content and pH of microenvironment that induces the adverse effect based on the cellular environment: mitochondria will increase cell survival and viability when they arrive in cells of physiological environment, but mitochondria will cause cell death when they enter the hypoxic and acidic tumor tissues, because they can produce a large amounts of oxygen free radicals. The pharmacological feature of environmental responsiveness of mitochondria could make them as a potential biological drug to kill cancer cells and restore the function of damaged tissues. Currently, mitochondria are used in the treatment of central nervous system diseases (Parkinson's disease, depression, schizophrenia, etc.), peripheral system diseases (ischemic myocardial injury, fatty liver, emphysema, etc.) and tumor. In this review, we summarize the research progress, medical application and challenges of mitochondrial therapy.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Mitochondria
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.@*Methods@#Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca @*Results@#An increase of cytoplasmic Ca @*Conclusion@#The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cerebral Arteries , Homeostasis , Male , Mitochondria/physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 17-25, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878231

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine the effect of acute cerebral ischemia on the protein expression level of silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 3 (Sirt3) in the neurons and clarify the pathological role of Sirt3 in acute cerebral ischemia. The mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were used as acute cerebral ischemia models in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Sirt3 overexpression was induced in rat hippocampal neurons by lentivirus transfection. Western blot was utilized to measure the changes in Sirt3 protein expression level. CCK8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect mitochondrial function. Transmission electron microscope was used to detect mitochondrial autophagy. The results showed that, compared with the normoxia group, hippocampal neurons from OGD1 h/reoxygenation 2 h (R2 h) and OGD1 h/R12 h groups exhibited down-regulated Sirt3 protein expression levels. Compared with contralateral normal brain tissue, the ipsilateral penumbra region from MCAO1 h/reperfusion 24 h (R24 h) and MCAO1 h/R72 h groups exhibited down-regulated Sirt3 protein expression levels, while there was no significant difference between the Sirt3 protein levels on both sides of sham group. OGD1 h/R12 h treatment damaged mitochondrial function, activated mitochondrial autophagy and reduced cell viability in hippocampal neurons, whereas Sirt3 over-expression attenuated the above damage effects of OGD1 h/R12 h treatment. These results suggest that acute cerebral ischemia results in a decrease in Sirt3 protein level. Sirt3 overexpression can alleviate acute cerebral ischemia-induced neural injuries by improving the mitochondrial function. The current study sheds light on a novel strategy against neural injuries caused by acute cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Down-Regulation , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Mice , Mitochondria , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Sirtuin 3/metabolism , Sirtuins
6.
Clinics ; 76: e2096, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES To determine the role of the RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 signaling pathway in the opening of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) in offspring rats with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. METHODS Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed in this study. Pregnancy was deemed successful when a sperm was found in the uterus. After one week of pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into the following groups: overall hypothyroidism group (OH group), subclinical hypothyroidism group (SCH group), and normal control group (CON group). The establishment of the hypothyroidism model was confirmed when the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were higher than normal value and TT4 level was within the normal range. The renal mitochondria of offspring rats were extracted on the 14th postnatal day (P14) and 35th postnatal day (P35). RESULTS At P14, no significant differences in the degree of mPTP opening and expression of phosphoric acid carrier vector (PiC) were detected between the rats in the OH group and the SCH group. However, the expression level of silent mating-type information regulation 3 homolog (SIRT3) was markedly reduced. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression increased in the rats from the OH group, relative to that in those from the SCH group. At P35, the degree of mPTP opening and the expression levels of PiC and RBP4 in the OH group were higher than those in the SCH group. However, SIRT3 expression in the OH group was lower than that observed in the SCH group. CONCLUSION RBP4 plays an important role in early renal mitochondrial damage and renal impairment in rats suffering from hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 pathway is thus involved in the opening of the renal mPTP in offspring rats with hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Mitochondria , Permeability , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of detecting maternal hereditary mitochondrial tRNA@*METHODS@#We performed sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from 2070 cases of maternal hereditary mitochondrial disease in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, and identified 3 patients with m.15927G>A mutation.Buccal swabs and blood samples were obtained from the 3 patients (mutation group) and 3 normal volunteers (control group).After extracting whole genomic DNA from all the samples, the DNA concentration and purity were analyzed.The PCR products were subjected to dot blot hybridization, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequencing analysis to verify the feasibility of detecting m.15927G>A mutation using buccal swabs.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in DNA concentration extracted from buccal swabs and blood samples in either the mutation group or the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buccal swabs collection accurate is an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of m.15927G>A mutation.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria , Mutation , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis, DNA
8.
Acta amaz ; 50(4): 327-334, out. - dez. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146375

ABSTRACT

la literatura científica no encontramos información muy detallada sobre especies de murciélago esquivas como las de la família Molossidae. Esta carencia condiciona y obstaculiza los esfuerzos de conservación tanto a escala local como global. El desarrollo reciente de nuevas tecnologías diseñadas específicamente para muestrear quirópteros, como los detectores de ultrasonidos pasivos o los reclamos acústicos mediante el uso de llamadas de alta frecuencia, ha incrementado nuestro conocimiento sobre su ecología y distribución. Además, ha permitido a los investigadores obtener nuevos datos que eran prácticamente imposibles de conseguir en el pasado. Llevamos a cabo una evaluación rápida de diversidad quiropterológica en la Guayana Francesa, utilizando reclamos cústicos con el objetivo de capturar especies insectívoras de vuelo alto. En este estudio, aportamos la segunda y tercera captura de Promops centralis (Chiroptera, Molossidae) para Guayana Francesa después de 28 años desde sus primeras y únicas capturas hasta ahora. Uno de los indivíduos capturados fue una hembra poslactante, el primer registro de reproducción de la especie. Aportamos (i) datos morfométricos, bioacústicos (incluyendo las llamadas de alarma típicas de la especie) y fotografías de detalles para facilitarsu identificación; y (ii) las secuencias de COI y CytB de los dos individuos (las primeras secuencias mitocondriales para la Guayana Francesa). (AU)


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Amazonian Ecosystem , Mitochondria
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1271-1280, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134436

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Viperidae venoms are composed of a mixture of constituents with enzymatic and non-enzymatic actions, which act on ultrastructural components of cells and tissues. Here, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and the number of mitochondrial cristae from adrenal glands cortex treated with snake venoms were tested after 3, 6 and 24 hours of venom injections. The mitochondria quantitative changes showed a statistically significant decrease, in the number of mitochondria past 3, 6 and 24 h. There was an increase in the mitochondrial area after 6 h, where Crotalus vegrandis venom did not present significant differences with Crotalus pifanorum or Bothrops venezuelensis venoms. After 24 h, there was an escalation of mitochondrial area in all tested venoms. The number of mitochondrial cristae after 3 h did not present important differences with the control treatment. After 6 h, the number of mitochondrial cristae initiated to decrease under the activities of the 3 venoms action, until 24 h of observation. In the qualitative observations it was possible to witness an intense damage of the mitochondria, with loss and swelling of membranes, disappearance of cristae and the appearance of myelin figures, which started at 3 h after the Crotalus and Bothrops venoms injections. These damages probably were due to cytotoxic effects of phospholipases, metalloproteases and/or other proteolytic activities present in Viperidae snake venoms, being more evident in Crotalus venoms. As far as we know, these results define a novel finding that suggest that Viperidae snake venoms are extremely toxic to mammalian mitochondria.


RESUMEN: Los venenos de Viperidae tienen acciones enzimáticas y no enzimáticas, que actúan sobre la estructura celular. Aquí se probaron, a las 3, 6 y 24 horas de la inyección del veneno, el número de mitocondrias, el área mitocondrial y el número de crestas mitocondriales de la corteza de las glándulas adrenales. Los cambios cuantitativos de las mitocondrias mostraron una disminución en el número de mitocondrias a las 3, 6 y 24 h. Hubo un aumento en el área mitocondrial a las 6 h, donde el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus vegrandis no presentó diferencias significativas con los venenos de Crotalus pifanorum o Bothrops venezuelensis. Después de 24 h, hubo un aumento del área mitocondrial en todos los venenos. El número de crestas mitocondriales a las 3 h no presentó alteraciones o diferencias importantes con el tratamiento de control. Después de 6 h, el número de crestas mitocondriales comenzó a disminuir bajo la acción de los 3 venenos, hasta las 24 h de observación. En las observaciones cualitativas se observó un daño intenso de las mitocondrias, con pérdida y edema de las membranas, desaparición de las cristae y aparición de figuras mielínicas, que comenzó a las 3 h después de las inyecciones de veneno de Crotalus y Bothrops. Estos daños se debieron factiblemente a los efectos citotóxicos de componentes proteolíticos de los venenos. Creemos que estos resultados definen un nuevo y original hallazgo, que sugiere que los venenos de serpiente Viperidae son extremadamente tóxicos para las mitocondrias de mamíferos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Viper Venoms/toxicity , Viperidae/physiology , Adrenal Glands/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Adrenal Glands/ultrastructure , Crotalus , Bothrops , Mitochondria/ultrastructure
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 269-276, May 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Malfunctioning or damaged mitochondria result in altered energy metabolism, redox equilibrium, and cellular dynamics and is a central point in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify mitochondrial genetic susceptibility markers for neurodegenerative diseases. Potential markers include the respiratory chain enzymes Riboflavin kinase (RFK), Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase (FAD), Succinate dehydrogenase B subunit (SDHB), and Cytochrome C1 (CYC1). These enzymes are associated with neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Objective: To test if variants in genes RFK, FAD, SDHB and CYC1 deviate from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in different human mitochondrial haplogroups. Methods: Sequence variants in genes RFK, FAD, SDHB and CYC1 of 2,504 non-affected individuals of the 1,000 genomes project were used for mitochondrial haplogroup assessment and HWE calculations in different mitochondrial haplogroups. Results: We show that RFK variants deviate from HWE in haplogroups G, H, L, V and W, variants of FAD in haplogroups B, J, L, U, and C, variants of SDHB in relation to the C, W, and A and CYC1 variants in B, L, U, D, and T. HWE deviation indicates action of selective pressures and genetic drift. Conclusions: HWE deviation of particular variants in relation to global populational HWE, could be, at least in part, associated with the differential susceptibility of specific populations and ethnicities to neurodegenerative diseases. Our data might contribute to the epidemiology and diagnostic/prognostic methods for neurodegenerative diseases.


RESUMO Introdução: Mitocôndrias defeituosas ou danificadas resultam em alterações do metabolismo energético, equilíbrio redox e dinâmica celular e são, portanto, identificadas como o ponto central da patogênese em muitos distúrbios neurológicos, como a doença de Alzheimer, a doença de Parkinson, a doença de Huntington e a Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica. Portanto, é de fundamental importância identificar marcadores de susceptibilidade genética mitocondrial para doenças neurodegenerativas. Entre os potenciais marcadores relevantes estão as enzimas da cadeia respiratória riboflavina quinase (RFK), flavina adenina dinucleotídeo sintetase (FAD), succinato desidrogenase subunidade B (SDHB) e citocromo C1 (CYC1). Estas enzimas estão associadas à neuroproteção e à neurodegeneração. Objetivo: Testar se variantes nas sequências dos genes RFK, FAD, SDHB e CYC1 desviam do Equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (HWE) em diferentes haplogrupos mitocondriais humanos. Métodos: Neste trabalho utilizamos os variantes nos genes RFK, FAD, SDHB e CYC1 de sequências de 2.504 indivíduos não afetados do projeto de 1.000 genomas para o cálculo dos valores de HWE em diferentes haplogrupos mitocondriais. Resultados: As variantes de RFK desviam de HWE nos haplogrupos G, H, L, V e W, variantes de FAD nos haplogrupos B, J, L, U e C, variantes de SDHB em relação às variantes C, W e A e CYC1 em B, L, U, D e T. O desvio de HWE indica a ação de pressões seletivas e desvio genético. Conclusões: O desvio do HWE de variantes particulares em relação ao HWE populacional global poderia estar, pelo menos em parte, associado à suscetibilidade diferencial de populações e etnias específicas a doenças neurodegenerativas. Nossos dados podem contribuir para a epidemiologia e métodos diagnósticos/prognósticos para doenças neurodegenerativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Energy Metabolism , Neuroprotection , Mitochondria/chemistry
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 26-29, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090663

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria (m) are responsible for the energy availability of cells, and their analysis is indicated for example, in studies related to metabolism and oxidative stress. The direct measurement of mitochondria (morphometry) is biased because of the section obliquity and position relative to the mitochondria length (non-equatorial cut). Therefore, stereology is an appropriate technique to evaluate mitochondria. However, before beginning the study, it is necessary to consider the premises to obtain random and uniform samples to be analyzed stereology. Mitochondria must have the chance to appear in all the possibilities of cut and orientation in the micrographs. The number of micrographs to be analyzed will depend on the distribution and occupation of mitochondria in the cell. After this is resolved, a proposal is the estimation of the following stereological data: volume density (Vv), surface density (Sv), and mean cross-sectional area (A). Overlapping a known test area at each micrograph, the density by area of mitochondria is estimated (NAT). Vv [m] can easily be estimated by point-counting (Vv = Pp/PT; Pp are the points hitting the structure, PT are the number of points of the test system). Sv is estimated overlaying a test-line (LT) on the micrographs and counting the intersections of the lines (I) with the outer membrane (om), inner membrane (im), and crests (c), thus, Sv [om], Sv [im], Sv [c] (Sv = 2I / LT). A [m] is obtained as the ratio: A = Vv / 2NAT.


Las mitocondrias (m) son responsables de la disponibilidad de energía de las células, y su análisis está indicado, por ejemplo, en estudios relacionados con el metabolismo y el estrés oxidativo. La medición directa de las mitocondrias (morfometría) está sesgada debido a la oblicuidad de la sección y la posición relativa a la longitud de las mitocondrias (corte no ecuatorial). Por lo tanto, la estereología es una técnica apropiada para evaluar las mitocondrias. Sin embargo, antes de comenzar el estudio, es necesario considerar las premisas para obtener muestras aleatorias y uniformes para analizar estereológicamente. Es esencial que las mitocondrias tengan la posibilidad de aparecer en todas las posibilidades de corte y orientación en las micrografías. El número de micrografías que se analizarán dependerá de la distribución y ocupación de las mitocondrias en la célula. Una vez resuelto esto, una propuesta es la estimación de los siguientes datos estereológicos: densidad de volumen (Vv), densidad de superficie (Sv) y área de sección transversal media (A). Superponiendo un área de prueba conocida en cada micrografía, se estima la densidad por área de mitocondrias (NAT). Vv [m] se puede estimar fácilmente contando puntos (Vv = Pp / PT; Pp son los puntos que llegan a la estructura, PT son el número de puntos del sistema de prueba). Sv se estima superponiendo una línea de prueba (LT) en las micrografías y contando las intersecciones de las líneas (I) con la membrana externa (om), la membrana interna (im) y las crestas (c), por lo tanto, Sv [om], Sv [im], Sv [c] (Sv = 2I / LT). A [m] se obtiene como la relación: A = Vv / 2NAT.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondria/ultrastructure , Cell Biology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878786

ABSTRACT

Orthogonal experiments were used to optimize the process parameters of curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles; the particle size, electric potential and morphology under the electron microscope were systematically detected for the curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles; and the stability and in vitro release of the curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles were investigated. With DID fluorescent dye as the fluorescent probe, flow cytometry was used to study the uptake of nanomicelles by breast cancer cells, and laser confocal microscopy was used to study the mitochondrial targeting and lysosomal escape functions of nanomicelles. Under the same dosage conditions, the effect of curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles on promoting the apoptosis of breast cancer cells was evaluated. The optimal particle size of curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelle was(17.3±0.3) nm, and the Zeta potential was(14.6±2.6) mV in orthogonal test. Under such conditions, the micelle appeared as regular spheres under the transmission electron microscope. Fluorescence test results showed that TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles can promote drug uptake by tumor cells, escape from lysosomal phagocytosis, and target the mitochondria. The cell survival rate and Hoechst staining positive test results showed that curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles had a good effect on promoting apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL micelles can significantly reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential of breast cancer cells, increase the release of cytochrome C, significantly increase the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduce the expression of anti-apoptotic Bax protein. These test results were significantly better than those of curcumin PEG-PCL nanomicelles and curcumin, with statistically significant differences. The results revealed that curcumin TPP-PEG-PCL nanomicelles can well target breast cancer cell mitochondria and escape from the lysosomal capture, thereby enhancing the drug's role in promoting tumor cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Lysosomes , Micelles , Mitochondria , Phosphatidylethanolamines , Polyethylene Glycols
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2732-2740, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878525

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme to catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine and to oxidize dihydroorotate to orotate. By selectively inhibiting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby inhibiting pyrimidine synthesis, the enzyme has been developed for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, bacterial or viral infections, parasitic diseases and so on. The development of inhibitory drugs requires a detailed understanding of the structural characteristics and catalytic cycle mechanism of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Therefore, this paper reviews these two aspects, and indicates perspectives of these inhibitors in clinical application.


Subject(s)
Catalysis , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/metabolism
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 631-642, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878208

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercises with different durations and intensities on mitochondrial autophagy and FUNDC1 in rat skeletal muscles. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2- and 4-week control groups (Con), moderate-intensity exercise groups (M-ex groups, treadmill exercise, 16 m/min, 1 h/d, 6 d/week), and high-intensity exercise groups (Hi-ex groups, treadmill exercise, 35 m/min, 20 min/d, 6 d/week). The bilateral soleus muscles were separated after the intervention, and paraffin sections were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. ELISA method was used to detect the content of citrate synthase (CS). The co-localizations of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)/cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX-IV), FUNDC1/COX-IV and LC3/FUNDC1 were observed by immunofluorescent staining in frozen sections. The skeletal muscle mitochondria were extracted, and the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including AMPKα, p-AMPKα, Unc-51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), FUNDC1, LC3 and p62, were detected by Western blot. The results showed that exercise increased mitochondrial function, i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), COX-I protein expression levels and CS content. There was no difference of mitochondrial function parameters between 2-week M-ex and 2-week Hi-ex groups, while mitochondrial function of 4-weeks Hi-ex group was significantly lower than that of 4-week M-ex group. Under the same exercise intensity, mitochondrial autophagy activation in skeletal muscle of 4-week exercise was higher than that in 2-week exercise group; Under the same duration of exercise, mitochondrial autophagy activation of Hi-ex group was higher than that in M-ex group. Both 2- and 4-week exercise intervention increased LC3/COX-IV, COX-IV/FUNDC1, and FUNDC1/LC3 co-localizations. Exercise increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, down-regulated p62 protein expression level, up-regulated FUNDC1, ULK1 protein expression levels and AMPKα phosphorylation, and the changes of these proteins in 4-week Hi-ex group were significantly greater than those in 4-week M-ex group. These results suggest exercise induces mitochondrial autophagy in skeletal muscles, and the activity of autophagy is related to the duration and intensity of exercise. The induction mechanism of exercise may involve the mediation of FUNDC1 expression through AMPK-ULK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/physiology , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Proteins/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2599-2609, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877854

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial injury and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are considered to be the key mechanisms of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles that form close physical contact with a specific domain of the ER, known as mitochondrial-associated membranes. The close physical contact between them is mainly restrained by ER-mitochondria tethering complexes, which can play an important role in mitochondrial damage, ER stress, lipid homeostasis, and cell death. Several ER-mitochondria tethering complex components are involved in the process of renal I/R injury. A better understanding of the physical and functional interaction between ER and mitochondria is helpful to further clarify the mechanism of renal I/R injury and provide potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to describe the structure of the tethering complex and elucidate its pivotal role in renal I/R injury by summarizing its role in many important mechanisms, such as mitophagy, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion, apoptosis and necrosis, ER stress, mitochondrial substance transport, and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Mitophagy , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786082

ABSTRACT

Ceramides are minor components of the hepatic lipidome that have major effects on liver function. These products of lipid and protein metabolism accumulate when the energy needs of the hepatocyte have been met and its storage capacity is full, such that free fatty acids start to couple to the sphingoid backbone rather than the glycerol moiety that is the scaffold for glycerolipids (e.g., triglycerides) or the carnitine moiety that shunts them into mitochondria. As ceramides accrue, they initiate actions that protect cells from acute increases in detergent-like fatty acids; for example, they alter cellular substrate preference from glucose to lipids and they enhance triglyceride storage. When prolonged, these ceramide actions cause insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, 2 of the underlying drivers of cardiometabolic diseases. Herein the author discusses the mechanisms linking ceramides to the development of insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis and resultant cardiometabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Carnitine , Ceramides , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Fatty Liver , Glucose , Glycerol , Hepatocytes , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Triglycerides
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828365

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of ligustilide, the main active ingredient in Ligusticum wallichii, on mitochondria fission after PC12 cell injury induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R). In the experiment, an OGD/R model was established in vitro, and PC12 cells were pre-treated with ligustilide for 3 h, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 method. The effect of different concentrations of ligustilide on the morphology of PC12 cells after OGD/R injury was observed under an inverted microscope. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the mitochondrial fission of PC12 cells after OGD/R injury. DCFH-DA immunofluorescence staining method was used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) changes. Changes in mitochondria membrane potential(MMP) were detected by flow cytometry. Hochest 33258 was used to observe the apoptosis of PC12 cells. Western blot was used to detect changes in cytochrome C(Cyt C) content in mitochondria and cytoplasm, and mitochondrial fission-related proteins Drp 1 and Fis 1. All results showed that compared with the model group, ligustilide significantly increased the survival rate of PC12 cells and the number of cells. Further experiments showed that ligustilide inhibited the release of ROS and decline of mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells after OGD/R injury. Moreover, ligustilide reduced the release of Cyt C and promoted the expressions of Drp1 and Fis1 in mitochondrial fission proteins. Verification experiments showed that mitochondrial fission inhibitor mdivi-1 decreased cell survival rate and inhibited fission. The results indicated that ligustilide exerted neuro-protective effects by promoting mitochondrial fission and reducing cell damage. It preliminary proves that the mechanism of ligustilide on ischemic brain injury may be related to the promotion of mitochondrial fission and the maintenance of cell homeostasis.


Subject(s)
4-Butyrolactone , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Survival , Glucose , Mitochondria , Oxygen , PC12 Cells , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reperfusion Injury
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827976

ABSTRACT

As the final destination of various cardiovascular abnormalities, heart failure is one of the diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. Due to its complicated pathogenesis, people urgently need to find new targets and effective treatment. Imbalance in myocardial energy metabolism, an important molecular biological basis for heart failure, affects the contractile and diastolic functions of the heart. As the main source of energy synthesis in cardiomyocytes and an important participant in various signaling pathways, mitochondria plays an indispensable role in the process of cell survival and death and has been considered as a critical target for the treatment of heart failure. Traditional Chinese medicine has a great effect on the treatment of heart failure through multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-channels. In recent years, more and more researches regard mitochondria as the target of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of heart failure, and have achieved significant results in improving mitochondrial function, increasing energy metabolism and energy supplement for cardiomyocytes, and resisting against oxidative stress. In this article, researches on the regulation of mitochondria in the treatment of heart failure by traditional Chinese medicine are reviewed from four aspects: mitochondrial biogenesis; mitochondrial electron transport chain and reactive oxygen species(ROS) production; metabolic substrates and metabolic enzymes; and calcium ion transport in the mitochondria. It provides a basis for further research and clinical application in the future.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mitochondria , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 205-219, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827067

ABSTRACT

The mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplex (mitoSC) is a complex super-assembly formed by free complexes on the mitochondrial inner membrane respiratory chain through the interaction between their subunits, mainly including mitoSCI+III+IV, mitoSCI+III, mitoSCIII+IV, high molecular weight mitoSC (HMW mitoSC) and mitochondrial metacomplex (mitoMC). mitoSC has been shown to improve the efficiency of electron transport in the respiratory chain and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species. The species and content of mitoSC change in different tissues in aging and many mitochondria-related diseases. By summarizing the structure and function of mitoSC in different tissues of human and mammals, and the changes of mitoSC under conditions of aging, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and genetic defects, this review focuses on the effects of exercise on mitoSC and its related regulation mechanisms in order to offer an insight for exercise interventions in mitochondria-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electron Transport , Exercise , Humans , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Diseases , Mitochondrial Membranes
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 249-254, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827062

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of edaravone (Eda) on the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model. A cell model of PD was established by treating PC12 cells with 500 μmol/L 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Thiazole blue colorimetry (MTT) was used to detect the effect of different concentrations of Eda on the survival rate of PC12 cells exposed to MPP. The mitochondrial morphology was determined by laser confocal microscope. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related proteins, including OPA1, MFN2, DRP1 and Fis1. The results showed that pretreatment with different concentrations of Eda antagonized MPP-induced PC12 cell damage in a dose-dependent manner. The PC12 cells treated with MPP showed mitochondrial fragmentation, up-regulated DRP1 and Fis1 protein expression levels, and down-regulated MFN2 and OPA1 protein expression levels. Eda could reverse the above changes in the MPP-treated PC12 cells, but did not affect Fis1 protein expression. These results suggest that Eda has a protective effect on the mitochondrial fusion disruption induced by MPP in PC12 cells. The mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of OPA1/MFN2 and down-regulation of DRP1.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , Animals , Dynamins , Edaravone , Pharmacology , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Mitochondrial Proteins , PC12 Cells , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Up-Regulation
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