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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1271-1280, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134436

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Viperidae venoms are composed of a mixture of constituents with enzymatic and non-enzymatic actions, which act on ultrastructural components of cells and tissues. Here, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and the number of mitochondrial cristae from adrenal glands cortex treated with snake venoms were tested after 3, 6 and 24 hours of venom injections. The mitochondria quantitative changes showed a statistically significant decrease, in the number of mitochondria past 3, 6 and 24 h. There was an increase in the mitochondrial area after 6 h, where Crotalus vegrandis venom did not present significant differences with Crotalus pifanorum or Bothrops venezuelensis venoms. After 24 h, there was an escalation of mitochondrial area in all tested venoms. The number of mitochondrial cristae after 3 h did not present important differences with the control treatment. After 6 h, the number of mitochondrial cristae initiated to decrease under the activities of the 3 venoms action, until 24 h of observation. In the qualitative observations it was possible to witness an intense damage of the mitochondria, with loss and swelling of membranes, disappearance of cristae and the appearance of myelin figures, which started at 3 h after the Crotalus and Bothrops venoms injections. These damages probably were due to cytotoxic effects of phospholipases, metalloproteases and/or other proteolytic activities present in Viperidae snake venoms, being more evident in Crotalus venoms. As far as we know, these results define a novel finding that suggest that Viperidae snake venoms are extremely toxic to mammalian mitochondria.


RESUMEN: Los venenos de Viperidae tienen acciones enzimáticas y no enzimáticas, que actúan sobre la estructura celular. Aquí se probaron, a las 3, 6 y 24 horas de la inyección del veneno, el número de mitocondrias, el área mitocondrial y el número de crestas mitocondriales de la corteza de las glándulas adrenales. Los cambios cuantitativos de las mitocondrias mostraron una disminución en el número de mitocondrias a las 3, 6 y 24 h. Hubo un aumento en el área mitocondrial a las 6 h, donde el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus vegrandis no presentó diferencias significativas con los venenos de Crotalus pifanorum o Bothrops venezuelensis. Después de 24 h, hubo un aumento del área mitocondrial en todos los venenos. El número de crestas mitocondriales a las 3 h no presentó alteraciones o diferencias importantes con el tratamiento de control. Después de 6 h, el número de crestas mitocondriales comenzó a disminuir bajo la acción de los 3 venenos, hasta las 24 h de observación. En las observaciones cualitativas se observó un daño intenso de las mitocondrias, con pérdida y edema de las membranas, desaparición de las cristae y aparición de figuras mielínicas, que comenzó a las 3 h después de las inyecciones de veneno de Crotalus y Bothrops. Estos daños se debieron factiblemente a los efectos citotóxicos de componentes proteolíticos de los venenos. Creemos que estos resultados definen un nuevo y original hallazgo, que sugiere que los venenos de serpiente Viperidae son extremadamente tóxicos para las mitocondrias de mamíferos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Viper Venoms/toxicity , Viperidae/physiology , Adrenal Glands/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Adrenal Glands/ultrastructure , Crotalus , Bothrops , Mitochondria/ultrastructure
2.
Biol. Res ; 52: 7, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains dismal; hence, it is critical to identify effective anti-NSCLC agents with limited side effects. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of flavonoid compound vitexin in human NSCLC cells and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that vitexin reduced the viability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner with nearly no toxicity against normal human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells. Vitexin also dose-dependently increased A549 cell apoptosis, accompanied by the decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, the in vivo anticancer activity of vitexin was further determined in nude mice bearing A549 cells. In addition, vitexin induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Vitexin also significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR, and the pro-apoptotic effect of vitexin on A549 cells was partly blocked by SC79, an Akt activator. CONCLUSIONS: Accordingly, we believed that vitexin could be used as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of NSCLC in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/drug effects , Apigenin/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , A549 Cells , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Mitochondria/drug effects
3.
Biol. Res ; 52: 45, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol was reported to trigger the apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes In adjuvant arthritis rats but the subcellular mechanism remains unclear. Since ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress were involved in the effects of resveratrol with imbalance of calcium bio-transmission, store operated calcium entry (SOCE), a novel intracellular calcium regulatory pathway, may also participate in this process. RESULTS: In the present study, Resveratrol was found to suppress ORAI1 expression of a dose dependent manner while have no evident effects on STIM1 expressive level. Besides, resveratrol had no effects on ATP or TG induced calcium depletion but present partly dose-dependent suppression of SOCE. On the one hand, microinjection of ORAI1 overexpressed vector in sick toe partly counteracted the therapeutic effects of resveratrol on adjuvant arthritis and serum inflammatory cytokine including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. On the other hand, ORAI1 SiRNA injection provided slight relief to adjuvant arthritis in rats. In addition, ORAI1 overexpression partly diminished the alleviation of hemogram abnormality induced by adjuvant arthritis after resveratrol treatment while ORAI1 knockdown presented mild resveratrol-like effect on hemogram in rats model. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that resveratrol reduced store-operated Ca2+ entry and enhanced the apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in adjuvant arthritis rats model via targeting ORAI1-STIM1 complex, providing a theoretical basis for ORAI1 targeted therapy in future treatment with resveratrol on rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/physiopathology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Synoviocytes/drug effects , Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/drug effects , ORAI1 Protein/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Mitochondria/drug effects
4.
Biol. Res ; 52: 36, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences indicated that some local anaesthetic agents played a role in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells; Whether ropivacaine is able to promote apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ropivacaine on the apoptosis of HCC cells. METHODS: In the present study, we treated the HCC cell lines, Bel7402 and HLE with ropivacaine. MTT, DAPI stain, trypan blue exclusion dye assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, computational simulation, laser confocal microscope, Western blotting, and enzyme activity analysis of caspase-3 were applied to detect the growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and to explore the role mechanism of ropivacaine. RESULTS: Ropivacaine was able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of HCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ropivacaine also has a trait to inhibit the migration of HCC cells; ropivacaine damaged the mitochondria of HCC cells. The results also indicated that ropivacaine was able to interact with caspase-3, promote cytoplasmic caspase-3 migration into the nucleus, stimulate cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1, caspase-9 proteins, inhibit the expression of Bcl-2, promote expression of Apaf-1 and mitochondria release cytochrome C, and activate the activity of caspase-3. CONCLUSIONS: Ropivacaine has a novel role in promoting apoptosis of HCC cells; The role mechanism of ropivacaine maybe involve in damaging the function of mitochondria and activating the caspase-3 signalling pathway in HCC cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the local anaesthetic agents in the therapy of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Ropivacaine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Mitochondria/drug effects
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1309-1316, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985704

ABSTRACT

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) intoxication is potentially lethal. After ingestion, AAS is rapidly transformed into salicylic acid that dissociates into an hydrogen ion plus salicylate. Salicylate is the main form of AAS in the body and produces multiple alterations. Initially, the stimulation of the ventilatory center promotes a respiratory alkalosis. Then, the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by salicylate, will generate a progressive metabolic acidosis due to the accumulation of ketoacids, lactic acid and dicarboxylic acids among others. Another alterations include hydro electrolytic disorders, gastrointestinal lesions, neurological involvement, ototoxicity and coagulopathy. The correct handling of acetylsalicylic acid intoxication requires an thorough knowledge of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Treatment consists in life support measures, gastric lavage, activated charcoal and urinary alkalization to promote the excretion of salicylates. In some occasions, it will be necessary to start renal replacement therapy as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspirin/poisoning , Aspirin/metabolism , Fibrinolytic Agents/poisoning , Fibrinolytic Agents/metabolism , Drug Overdose/physiopathology , Drug Overdose/therapy , Acidosis/chemically induced , Water-Electrolyte Balance/drug effects , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Drug Overdose/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypotension/chemically induced , Mitochondria/drug effects
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 524-529, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896986

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Citronellal (Cit) possesses antifungal activity and has possible implications for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Candida albicans. In this study, the effects of Cit on ROS generation and the mechanisms by which Cit exerts anti-Candida effects were examined. METHODS A 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay was used to assess oxidative damage. Cell necrosis was determined by flow cytometry after FITC-Annexin V staining. Mitochondrial function was studied based on mitochondrial potential, metabolic activity (MTT assay), and phenotypic susceptibility on a non-fermentable carbon source. Membrane intactness and DNA damage were estimated by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. RESULTS ROS generation was enhanced in response to Cit, leading to necrosis (2%). Additional hallmarks of cell death in response to Cit, such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization and DNA damage, were also observed. Cit treatment resulted in dysfunctional mitochondria, as evidenced by poor labeling with the mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive probe rhodamine B, reduced metabolic activity (61.5%), and inhibited growth on a non-fermentable carbon source. Furthermore, Cit induced DNA damage based on DAPI staining. These phenotypes were reinforced by RT-PCR showing differences in gene expression (30-60%) between control and Cit-treated cells. Finally, PI uptake in the presence of sodium azide confirmed non-intact membranes and suggested that Cit activity is independent of the energy status of the cell. CONCLUSIONS Cit possesses dual anticandidal mechanisms, including membrane-disruptive and oxidative damage. Taken together, our data demonstrated that cit could be used as a prominent antifungal drug.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Aldehydes/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , DNA Damage , Acyclic Monoterpenes , Mitochondria/drug effects , Necrosis
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 965-972, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886701

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The gill mitochondria-rich cells of the juvenile Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum were analyzed using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 96 h exposure to 0.04 and 0.2 mM nitrite. Although the number of mitochondria-rich cells decreased significantly in the lamellar epithelium, no decrease was found in the interlamellar region of the gill filament. Nitrite exposure caused significant reduction on the apical surface area of individual mitochondria-rich cells (p < 0.05), with a resulting reduction of the fractional area of these cells in both the lamellar and filament epithelium. Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, nuclear envelope and mitochondria were the main changes found in the mitochondria-rich cells. Cristae lysis and matrix vacuolization characterized the mitochondrial changes. The overall ultrastructural changes indicated cellular functional disruption caused by exposure to nitrite. The changes observed in the gill indicate that the cellular structures involved in the process of energy production become severely damaged by exposure to nitrite indicating irreversible damage conducting to cell death.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Environmental Exposure , Characidae , Gills/cytology , Gills/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nitrites/toxicity
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(2): 125-132, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resistance to benznidazole in certain strains of Trypanosoma cruzi may be caused by the increased production of enzymes that act on the oxidative metabolism, such as mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase which catalyses the reduction of peroxides. This work presents cytotoxicity assays performed with ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides in six different strains of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Y, Bolivia, SI1, SI8, QMII, and SIGR3). The last four strains have been recently isolated from triatominae and mammalian host (domestic cat). The expression of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase was analyzed by the Western blotting technique using polyclonal antibody anti mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase obtained from a rabbit immunized with the mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase recombinant protein. All the tested ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides were more cytotoxic than benznidazole. The expression of the 25.5 kDa polypeptide of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase did not increase in strains that were more resistant to the ferrocenyl compounds (SI8 and SIGR3). In addition, a 58 kDa polypeptide was also recognized in all strains. Ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides showed trypanocidal activity and the expression of 25.5 kDa mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase is not necessarily increased in some T. cruzi strains. Most likely, other mechanisms, in addition to the over expression of this antioxidative enzyme, should be involved in the escape of parasites from cytotoxic oxidant agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Rabbits , Peroxidases/metabolism , Ferrous Compounds/pharmacology , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Oxidants/pharmacology , Diamines/pharmacology , Mitochondria/enzymology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Blotting, Western , Mitochondria/drug effects
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). METHODS: The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lithocholic acid (LCA) and siRNA-CRP. RESULTS: The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. CONCLUSION: CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.


Subject(s)
Angiogenic Proteins/genetics , Animals , Bile Ducts/surgery , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatic Veins/abnormalities , Hepatocytes/cytology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lithocholic Acid/pharmacology , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Mitochondria/drug effects , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serum Albumin/genetics
10.
Clinics ; 70(8): 569-576, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of glutamine and insulin on apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and inflammatory cytokines in hyperglycemic umbilical vein endothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown and subjected to glutamine and insulin to examine the effects of these agents on the hyperglycemic state. Mitochondrial function and the production of inflammatory cytokines were assessed using fluorescence analysis and multiple cytotoxicity assays. Apoptosis was analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. RESULTS: Glutamine maintains the integrity of the mitochondria by reducing the cell permeability and cytochrome c levels and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. The cytochrome c level was significantly (p<0.005) reduced when the cells were treated with glutamine. An apoptosis assay revealed significantly reduced apoptosis (p<0.005) in the glutamine-treated cells. Moreover, glutamine alone or in combination with insulin modulated inflammatory cytokine levels. Interleukin-10, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were up-regulated while tumor necrosis factor-α was down-regulated after treatment with glutamine. CONCLUSION: Glutamine, either alone or in combination with insulin, can positively modulate the mitochondrial stress and cell permeability in umbilical vein endothelial cells. Glutamine regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and maintains the balance of the mitochondria in a cytoprotective manner. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Glutamine/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Mitochondria/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Cytochromes c/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mitochondria/metabolism
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 11-17, jan-feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-742966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE). After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms) and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI) with 210 (37%) confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63%) discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI) of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035), the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439), the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764), the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138), an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231), and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003). CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Benzofurans/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Hemodynamics/drug effects , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 50-55, jan-feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742969

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dogs in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ≥100) of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer) density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6) to 19% (14.1 - 25.2), the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6) to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2), and the global seroincidence density rate of infection was 11% (9.1 - 13.2) per dog-trimester. Canicola and Icterohaemorraghiae were the most frequent incident serogroups observed in all follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-ups with mean trimester intervals were incapable of detecting any increase in seroprevalence due to seroincident cases of canine leptospirosis, suggesting that antibody titers may fall within three months. Further studies on incident infections, disease burden or risk factors for incident Leptospira cases should take into account the detectable lifespan of the antibody. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Glycolysis , Lymphoma/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Biological Transport/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacokinetics , Immunoblotting , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , /pharmacology , Lymphoma/genetics , Lymphoma/pathology , Mice, Knockout , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation/drug effects , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , /genetics , /metabolism , Survival Analysis
13.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(1): 193-198, 01/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733154

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to applythe Health Belief Model to explain the adherence to the recommendation not to recap needles by dentists and dental assistants of the public health system in a municipality in the State of São Paulo. A questionnaire validated and adapted for the oral health area was used, which included variables related to the frequency of recapping and health beliefs using Likert-type scales. The relationship between beliefs and adherence to the recommendation not to recap needles was obtained by regression analysis. Of all the professionals in this study (n=79), the majority (83.5%) reported recapping needles at least once in the last month. Through regression analysis, it was observed that the relationship between the beliefs described by the model and the attitude whether or not to follow the recommendation not to recap needles was explained by a lower perception of psychological barriers and a greater perception of stimuli not to recap needles. The conclusion reached is that the acceptance of recommendations to prevent working accidents with biological material was explained by some dimensions of the Health Belief Model, enabling discussion about reformulation of training offered to professionals of the public health system.


Objetivou-se neste estudo aplicar o Modelo de Crenças em Saúde a fim de explicar a adesão à recomendação de não reencapar agulhas por cirurgiões-dentistas e auxiliares de saúde bucal da rede pública de um município paulista. Utilizou-se um questionário validado e adaptado para a área de saúde bucal, que contemplava variáveis relativas à frequência do reencape e crenças em saúde, por meio de escalas tipo Likert. A relação entre as crenças e a adesão à recomendação de não reencapar agulhas foi obtida por meio da análise de regressão. Da amostra de profissionais obtida por adesão ao estudo (n = 79), a maioria (83,5%) relatou ter reencapado agulhas pelo menos alguma vez no último mês. Por meio da análise de regressão, foi observado que a relação entre as crenças descritas pelo modelo e a atitude de aderir ou não à recomendação de não reencapar agulhas foi explicada por uma menor percepção de barreiras psicológicas e por uma maior percepção de estímulos para não reencapar agulhas. Conclui-se que a aceitação das recomendações para prevenir acidentes do trabalho com material biológico foi explicado por algumas dimensões do Modelo de Crenças em Saúde, possibilitando a discussão sobre a reformulação de capacitações oferecidas para profissionais do sistema público de saúde.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Electron Transport Complex I/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Hyperoxia/metabolism , Mitochondria/enzymology , Pulmonary Artery/cytology , Pulmonary Artery/enzymology , Ubiquinone/metabolism , Aerobiosis/drug effects , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Culture Media , Cell Survival/drug effects , Electron Transport Complex I/antagonists & inhibitors , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ferricyanides/pharmacology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Spectrophotometry , Tolonium Chloride/pharmacology , Ubiquinone/analysis , Ubiquinone/pharmacology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225155

ABSTRACT

The parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes severe malaria and is the most dangerous to humans. However, it exhibits resistance to their drugs. Farnesyltransferase has been identified in pathogenic protozoa of the genera Plasmodium and the target of farnesyltransferase includes Ras family. Therefore, the inhibition of farnesyltransferase has been suggested as a new strategy for the treatment of malaria. However, the exact functional mechanism of this agent is still unknown. In addition, the effect of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTIs) on mitochondrial level of malaria parasites is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, the effect of a FTI R115777 on the function of mitochondria of P. falciparum was investigated experimentally. As a result, FTI R115777 was found to suppress the infection rate of malaria parasites under in vitro condition. It also reduces the copy number of mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase III. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and the green fluorescence intensity of MitoTracker were decreased by FTI R115777. Chloroquine and atovaquone were measured by the mtDNA copy number as mitochondrial non-specific or specific inhibitor, respectively. Chloroquine did not affect the copy number of mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase III, while atovaquone induced to change the mtDNA copy number. These results suggest that FTI R115777 has strong influence on the mitochondrial function of P. falciparum. It may have therapeutic potential for malaria by targeting the mitochondria of parasites.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Farnesyltranstransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Mitochondria/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Protozoan Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Quinolones/pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57310

ABSTRACT

Many researchers have reported that oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is increased in several age-related disorders. Damage to mitochondrial constituents and mtDNA can generate additional mitochondrial dysfunction that may result in greater reactive oxygen species production, triggering a circular chain of events. However, the mechanisms underlying this vicious cycle have yet to be fully investigated. In this review, we summarize the relationship of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction with mtDNA mutation in neurodegenerative disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutation , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
16.
Invest. clín ; 55(4): 352-364, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783089

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of melatonin (MEL) in the activities of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase as well as in the levels of H2O2 and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) in paraquat-intoxicated Drosophila melanogaster. Paraquat (40 mM) was administrated for 36 h. Three groups of flies intoxicated with paraquat were used: PQ (exposed during 36h to paraquat), PQ-MEL (exposed during 36h to paraquat and then treated with MEL [0.43 mM] for 12 days) and PQ-Control (maintained in standard corn meal for 12 days). Two additional groups without pre-intoxication with PQ were added: Control (maintained in standard corn meal) and MEL (treated with MEL for 12 days). Immediately after PQ intoxication the concentration of MDA (17.240 ± 0.554 nmoles MDA/mg protein) and H2O2 (3.313 ± 0.086 nmol hydrogen peroxide/mg protein) and the activities of SOD and catalase (419.667 ± 0.731 and 0.216 ± 0.009 Units/mg of protein, respectively) in the PQ group were significantly increased with respect to Control. After 12 days of intoxication with PQ, the PQ-Control flies showed increases in H2O2 (4.336 ± 0.108) and MDA levels (8.620 ± 0.156), and in the activities of SOD and catalase (692.570 ± 0.433 and 0.327 ± 0.003, respectively) as compared to PQ-MEL (p<0.001). Treatment with MEL extended the life span of the groups PQ-MEL and MEL when compared to their corresponding controls. Motor activity decreased significantly in PQ-Control and PQ-MEL flies, suggesting that the damage caused by PQ affected the nervous system of flies. Our findings showed that oxidative damage caused by paraquat was observed even after 12 days and that melatonin mitigates this damage.


Investigamos el efecto de la melatonina (MEL) en la actividad de la superóxido dismutasa citosólica (SOD) y la catalasa, así como en las concentraciones del H2O2 y del malondialdehido mitocondrial (MDA) en la toxicidad inducida por paraquat (PQ) en Drosophila melanogaster. El paraquat (40 mM) fue administrado durante 36h. Tres grupos de moscas se utilizaron después de la intoxicación con paraquat: PQ (expuestas a paraquat durante 36 h), PQ-MEL (expuestas durante 36 horas a PQ y luego tratadas con MEL [0,43 mM] por 12 días) y PQ-Control (mantenidas en medio estándar por 12 días). Se incluyeron dos grupos adicionales sin pre-intoxicación con PQ: Control (mantenido en medio estándar) y MEL (tratado con MEL por 12 días). Inmediatamente después de la intoxicación con PQ, las concentraciones de MDA (17,240 ± 0,554 nmol de MDA/mg de proteína), H2O2 (3,313 ± 0,086 nmol de H2O2/mg de proteína) y las actividades de la SOD y catalasa (419,667 ± 0,731 y 0,216 ± 0,009 unidades/mg de proteína, respectivamente) se incrementaron significativamente con respecto al Control. Doce días después de la intoxicación con PQ, las moscas PQ-Control mostraron un aumento en la concentración de H2O2 (4,336 ± 0,108), de los niveles de MDA (8,620 ± 0,156) y en las actividades de la SOD y la catalasa (692,570 ± 0,433 y 0,327 ± 0,003, respectivamente) en comparación con el grupo PQ-MEL (p<0,001). El tratamiento con MEL extendió el tiempo de vida de los grupos PQ-MEL y MEL en comparación con sus correspondientes controles. La actividad motora disminuyó significativamente en las moscas de los grupos PQ-Control y PQ-MEL, lo que sugiere que el PQ afectó el sistema nervioso de las moscas. Nuestros hallazgos demostraron que el daño oxidativo causado por paraquat en las moscas fue observado aún después de 12 días de intoxicadas y que la melatonina logró mitigar este daño.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Herbicides/antagonists & inhibitors , Melatonin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Paraquat/antagonists & inhibitors , Catalase/analysis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drosophila Proteins/analysis , Drosophila melanogaster/physiology , Herbicides/toxicity , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mitochondria/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Paraquat/toxicity
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(9): 773-779, 09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719311

ABSTRACT

The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Glutamic Acid/toxicity , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , /drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , /isolation & purification , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chromones/pharmacology , Cytochromes c/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Morpholines/pharmacology , /classification , /cytology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , /isolation & purification , /isolation & purification
18.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 36(2): 156-167, 13/05/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710208

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated to participate in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no consensus as to its role. The aim of this paper is to review recent studies and to outline the current understanding of the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Methodology: We reviewed articles that evaluated mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of these disorders. Results: Evidence suggests that alterations in mitochondrial morphology, brain energy metabolism, and mitochondrial enzyme activity may be involved in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders, given their key role in energy metabolism in the cell. Conclusions: Understanding the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of psychiatric disorders may help establish more effective therapeutic strategies for these disorders and thus lead to better outcomes for affected subjects. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Mitochondria/physiology , Mitochondrial Diseases/physiopathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/metabolism , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondrial Diseases/metabolism
19.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-8, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nitrosative and oxidative stress play a key role in obesity and diabetes-related mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective was to investigate the effect of curcumin treatment on state 3 and 4 oxygen consumption, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, ATPase activity and lipid oxidation in mitochondria isolated from liver and kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. RESULTS: Hyperglycaemia increased oxygen consumption and decreased NO synthesis in liver mitochondria isolated from diabetic mice relative to the control mice. In kidney mitochondria, hyperglycaemia increased state 3 oxygen consumption and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels in diabetic mice relative to control mice. Interestingly, treating db/db mice with curcumin improved or restored these parameters to normal levels; also curcumin increased liver mitochondrial ATPase activity in db/db mice relative to untreated db/db mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hyperglycaemia modifies oxygen consumption rate, NO synthesis and increases TBARS levels in mitochondria from the liver and kidneys of diabetic mice, whereas curcumin may have a protective role against these alterations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diet therapy , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/enzymology , Adenosine Triphosphatases/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Cell Respiration/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Selective Breeding , Genotype , Hyperglycemia/diet therapy , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Mitochondria/enzymology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 485-491
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150261

ABSTRACT

Triptolide, a diterpene derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., a Chinese medicinal herb, has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells, but its anticancer effects on human osteosarcoma cells have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether triptolide induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We firstly demonstrated that triptolide inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in U2OS cells. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of procaspase-8, -9, Bcl-2, Bid and mitochondrial cytochrome c were downregulated in triptolide-treated U2OS cells, whereas the levels of Fas, FasL, Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were upregulated. These results suggest that triptolide induces apoptosis in U2OS cells by activating both death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Humans , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Proteolysis/drug effects
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