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1.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1002-1009, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the interaction between Tubulin beta 4B class IVb (TUBB4B) and Agtpbp1/cytosolic carboxypeptidase- like1 (CCP1) in mouse primary spermatocytes (GC-2 cells) and the role of TUBB4B in regulating the development of GC-2 cells.@*METHODS@#Lentiviral vectors were used to infect GC-2 cells to construct TUBB4B knockdown and negative control (NC-KD) cells. The stable cell lines with TUBB4B overexpression (Tubb4b-OE) and the negative control (NC-OE) cells were screened using purinomycin. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to verify successful cell modeling and explore the relationship between TUBB4B and CCP1 expressions in GC-2 cells. The effects of TUBB4B silencing and overexpression on the proliferation and cell cycle of GC-2 cells were evaluated using CCK8 assay and flow cytometry. The signaling pathway proteins showing significant changes in response to TUBB4B silencing or overexpression were identified using Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay and then labeled for verification at the cellular level.@*RESULTS@#Both TUBB4B silencing and overexpression in GC-2 cells caused consistent changes in the mRNA and protein expressions of CCP1 (P < 0.05). Similarly, TUBB4B expression also showed consistent changes at the mRNA and protein after CCP1 knockdown and restoration (P < 0.05). TUBB4B knockdown and overexpression had no significant effect on proliferation rate or cell cycle of GC-2 cells, but caused significant changes in the key proteins of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway (p65 and p-p65) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (ErK1/2 and p-Erk1/2) (P < 0.05); CCP1 knockdown induced significant changes in PolyE expression in GC-2 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TUBB4B and CCP1 interact via a mutual positive regulation mechanism in GC-2 cells. CCP-1 can deglutamize TUBB4B, and the latter is involved in the regulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in primary spermatocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spermatocytes , Tubulin/genetics
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 137-145, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of Kunxian Capsule (KX) extract and explore the underlying molecular mechanism using zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The KX extract was prepared with 5.0 g in 100 mL of 40% methanol followed by ultrasonication and freeze drying. Freeze dried KX extract of 10.00 mg was used as test stock solution. Triptolide and icariin, the key bioactive compounds of KX were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The transgenic zebrafish Tg(flk1:GFP) embryos were dechorionated at 20-h post fertilization (hpf) and treated with PTK 787, and 3.5, 7, 14 and 21 µg/mL of KX extract, respectively. After 24-h post exposure (hpe), mortality and malformation (%), intersegmental vessels (ISV) formation, and mRNA expression level of angiogenic pathway genes including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) were determined. Further, the embryos at 72 hpf were treated with KX extract to observe the development of sub-intestinal vein (SIV) after 24 hpe.@*RESULTS@#The chromatographic analysis of test stock solution of KX extract showed that triptolide and icariin was found as 0.089 mg/g and 48.74 mg/g, respectively, which met the requirements of the national drug standards. In zebrafish larvae experiment, KX extract significantly inhibited the ISV (P<0.01) and SIV formation (P<0.05). Besides, the mRNA expression analysis showed that KX extract could significantly suppress the expressions of PI3K and AKT, thereby inhibiting the mRNA levels of ERKs and MAPK. Moreover, the downstream signaling cascade affected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFR and VEGFR-2). FGF-2, a strong angiogenic factor, was also down-regulated by KX treatment in zebrafish larvae.@*CONCLUSION@#KX extract exhibited anti-angiogenic effects in zebrafish embryos by regulating PI3K/AKT-MAPK-VEGF pathway and showed promising potential for RA treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Zebrafish
3.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 155-160, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970461

ABSTRACT

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is a serine/threoninekinase involved in the signal transduction cascade of Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-ERK.It participates in the cell growth,proliferation and even invasion by regulating gene transcription and expression.The occurrence of a variety of diseases such as lung cancer,liver cancer,ovarian cancer,cervical cancer,endometriosis,and preeclampsia,as well the metastasis and disease progression,is closely associated with the regulation of cell invasion by ERK1/2 signaling pathway.Therefore,exploring the regulation of ERK1/2 signaling on cell invasion and its role in pathogenesis of diseases may help to develop more effective treatment schemes.This article introduces recent progress in the regulation of ERK1/2 signaling on cell invasion and the role of such regulation in diseases,with a view to give new insights into the clinical treatment of ERK 1/2-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Signal Transduction , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation
4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 149-157, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927859

ABSTRACT

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR),an important ionic glutamate receptor and a ligand and voltage-gated ion channel characterized by complex composition and functions and wide distribution,plays a key role in the pathological and physiological process of diseases or stress states.NMDAR can mediate apoptosis through different pathways such as mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum damage,production of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite,and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and calpain.This paper reviews the structure,distribution,and biological characteristics of NMDAR and the mechanisms of NMDAR-mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 22-22, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929150

ABSTRACT

Odontogenic tumors are rare lesions with unknown etiopathogenesis. Most of them are benign, but local aggressiveness, infiltrative potential, and high recurrence rate characterize some entities. The MAP-kinase pathway activation can represent a primary critical event in odontogenic tumorigenesis. Especially, the BRAF V600E mutation has been involved in 80-90% of ameloblastic lesions, offering a biological rationale for developing new targeted therapies. The study aims to evaluate the BRAF V600E mutation in odontogenic lesions, comparing three different detection methods and focusing on the Sequenom MassARRAY System. 81 surgical samples of odontogenic lesions were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis, Sanger Sequencing, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry (Sequenom). The BRAF V600E mutation was revealed only in ameloblastoma samples. Moreover, the presence of BRAF V600E was significantly associated with the mandibular site (ρ = 0.627; P value <0.001) and the unicystic histotype (ρ = 0.299, P value <0.001). However, any significant difference of 10-years disease-free survival time was not revealed. Finally, Sequenom showed to be a 100% sensitive and 98.1% specific, suggesting its high-performance diagnostic accuracy. These results suggest the MAP-kinase pathway could contribute to ameloblastic tumorigenesis. Moreover, they could indicate the anatomical specificity of the driving mutations of mandibular ameloblastomas, providing a biological rational for developing new targeted therapies. Finally, the high diagnostic accuracy of Sequenom was confirmed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ameloblastoma/pathology , Carcinogenesis , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mutation , Odontogenic Tumors/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/metabolism , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 343-349, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the mRNA differential expressions and the sequential change pattern in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mice.@*METHODS@#The AMI mice relevant dataset GSE4648 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). In the dataset, 6 left ventricular myocardial tissue samples were selected at 0.25, 1, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after operation in AMI group and sham control group, and 6 left ventricular myocardial tissue samples were selected in blank control group, a total of 78 samples were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed by R/Bioconductor package limma, functional pathway enrichment analysis was performed by clusterProfiler, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING database and Cytoscape software, the key genes were identified by Degree topological algorithm, cluster sequential changes on DEGs were analyzed by Mfuzz.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1 320 DEGs were associated with the development of AMI. Functional enrichment results included cellular catabolic process, regulation of inflammatory response, development of muscle system and vasculature system, cell adhesion and signaling pathways mainly enriched in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The key genes of AMI included MYL7, TSC22D2, HSPA1A, BTG2, NR4A1, RYR2 were up-regulated or down-regulated at 0.25-48 h after the occurrence of AMI.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The functional signaling pathway of DEGs and the sequential expression of key genes in AMI may provide a reference for the forensic identification of AMI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/metabolism , Transcriptome
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 681-685, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the association of polymorphisms of receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene, monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) and variability of heart rate among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).@*METHODS@#120 patients with CHD and 120 healthy individuals were respectively selected as the observation group and the control group. Allelic and genotypic differences of -429T>C, 1704G>T, 82G>S, MHR ratio and heart rate variability between the two groups and patients with different severity were analyzed. The correlation between their genotypes and MHR ratio and heart rate variability was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The 82G>S polymorphism of the RAGE gene and the allelic difference between the two groups and patients with different severity were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Compared with the control group and patients with mild to moderate phenotype, monocyte, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, MHR, low frequency in the observation group and patients with severe symptoms were significantly higher, while their high density lipoprotein, standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation average of NN intervals (SDANN), root mean square successive differences, percentage of differences exceeding 50ms between adjacent normal number of intervals (PMN50), high frequency (HF) were significantly lower. The gene frequencies of G-Gly-T, T-Gly-T, G-Ser-T and G-Gly-C were correlated with SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD, PMN50, HF and MHR, but negatively correlated with low frequency.@*CONCLUSION@#Polymorphisms of the RAGE gene in patients with coronary heart disease are associated with the MHR ratio and heart rate variability, which can be used as markers for the diagnosis and efficacy evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Neoplasm , Coronary Disease/genetics , Gene Frequency , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Heart Rate , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Polymorphism, Genetic
8.
Biol. Res ; 54: 23-23, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505793

ABSTRACT

The Ras family of small Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) represents one of the main components of intracellular signal transduction required for normal cardiac growth, but is also critically involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The present review provides an update on the role of the H-, K- and N-Ras genes and their related pathways in cardiac diseases. We focus on cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, where Ras has been studied the most. We also review other cardiac diseases, like genetic disorders related to Ras. The scope of the review extends from fundamental concepts to therapeutic applications. Although the three Ras genes have a nearly identical primary structure, there are important functional differences between them: H-Ras mainly regulates cardiomyocyte size, whereas K-Ras regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation. N-Ras is the least studied in cardiac cells and is less associated to cardiac defects. Clinically, oncogenic H-Ras causes Costello syndrome and facio-cutaneous-skeletal syndromes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. On the other hand, oncogenic K-Ras and alterations of other genes of the Ras-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway, like Raf, cause Noonan syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndromes characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and septal defects. We further review the modulation by Ras of key signaling pathways in the cardiomyocyte, including: (i) the classical Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway, which leads to a more physiological form of cardiac hypertrophy; as well as other pathways associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy, like (ii) The SAPK (stress activated protein kinase) pathways p38 and JNK; and (iii) The alternative pathway Raf-Calcineurin-Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT). Genetic alterations of Ras isoforms or of genes in the Ras-MAPK pathway result in Ras-opathies, conditions frequently associated with cardiac hypertrophy or septal defects among other cardiac diseases. Several studies underline the potential role of H- and K-Ras as a hinge between physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy, and as potential therapeutic targets in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Highlights - The Ras (Rat Sarcoma) gene family is a group of small G proteins - Ras is regulated by growth factors and neurohormones affecting cardiomyocyte growth and hypertrophy - Ras directly affects cardiomyocyte physiological and pathological hypertrophy - Genetic alterations of Ras and its pathways result in various cardiac phenotypes? - Ras and its pathway are differentially regulated in acquired heart disease - Ras modulation is a promising therapeutic target in various cardiac conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Defects, Congenital , Noonan Syndrome , Signal Transduction , Cardiomegaly , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 458-460, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038300

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Melanoma is widely known as the most lethal skin cancer. Specific tumor-related mortality can be significantly reduced if diagnosis and treatment are properly performed during initial phases of the disease. The current search for biomarkers in early-stage melanomas is a high-priority challenge for physicians and researchers. We aimed to assess the immunoexpression of BRAFV600E and KIT in a case series consisting of 44 early-stage melanomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were systematically evaluated using a semi-quantitative method based on scores of percentage and intensity for immunostained tumor cells. We observed significant concordance between BRAFV600E and KIT immunoexpression in thin invasive melanomas. Our findings corroborate previous evidence showing abnormal expression of proteins associated with MAPK intracellular signaling pathway in early-stage melanomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/analysis , Melanoma/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 118-123, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776063

ABSTRACT

Mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)are Ser/Thr kinases consisting of extracellular regulated protein kinases(ERK)1/2,c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2/3,p38 isoforms(α,β,γ,and δ),and ERK5,which mediate a range of cellular activities including proliferation,differentiation,apoptosis,immunity,and inflammation. Pain sensitization is a remodeling mechanism of central and peripheral nociceptor. A growing number of evidences have indicated that MAPKs are extensively activated in the spinal dorsal cord and dorsal root ganglions in the animal models of diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP)and play an important role in the central and peripheral sensitization of DNP. In addition,some drugs can alleviate DNP by suppressing MAPKs activation of central and peripheral nervous system. This article summarizes the research progress of MAPKs in central and peripheral sensitization of DNP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetic Neuropathies , Ganglia, Spinal , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Neuralgia , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
11.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 166-171, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771615

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To evaluate the clinico-radiological outcome of complex tibial plateau fractures treated with Ilizarov external fixation with or without minimal internal fixation.@*METHODS@#This retrospective review was conducted on all the cases of Schatzker types V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated by Ilizarov external fixation between July 2006 and December 2015 with the minimum follow-up duration of one year. There were 30 patients: 24 males and 6 females, mean age 43.33 years, and mean follow-up 3.6 years. Three of them were open fractures; 15 cases were Schatzkertype V fractures and the other 15 type VI. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 11 type C1, 12 C2 and 7 type C3 fractures. Outcome assessment was made with American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and Rasmussen's Radiological Score (RRS) at final follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Out of the 30 cases, mini-open reduction was performed in 7, bone graft in 4, minimal internal fixation in 10 and knee temporary immobilisation in 11 patients. Mean duration of external fixation was 11.8 weeks. All fractures united. Pin tract infections in 7 and common peroneal neuropathy in 2 patients were self-limiting. Two patients had axial misalignment of less than 10°. At final follow-up, the mean knee range of motion was 114.7, mean AKSS 81.5 and mean RRS 16.7. On statistical analysis, Schatzker type of fractures, use of minimal internal fixation and knee-spanning did not influence the final outcome.@*CONCLUSION@#Ilizarov external fixator with or without minimal internal fixation provides acceptable outcome for complex tibial plateau fractures. Care must be taken to look for minor loss of alignment, especially in Type VI Schatzker fractures after removal of the fixator. However small sample size precludes firm conclusions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Neoplasm , Follow-Up Studies , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Methods , Fractures, Bone , Therapeutics , Ilizarov Technique , Knee , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Retrospective Studies , Tibia , Wounds and Injuries , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 517-525, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical stress on cartilage repair in inflammatory environment.@*METHODS@#The chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were isolated from the knee joint cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The CPCs were cultured and expanded in a 3-D scaffold constructed with alginate. Intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) was applied in a inflammatory environment induced by IL-1β, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of MAPK signaling pathway proteins. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method, and the expression of related genes like matrix metallo-proteinases 13 (MMP-13) and a disintegrins and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif 5 (ADAMTS-5) was detected by real-time RT-PCR. The anterior cruciate ligament of the rats was cut to construct the knee joint OA model, and the appropriate mechanical stress was constructed with external fixation to distract the knee joint in order to observe the repair of the cartilage and to explore its mechanism.@*RESULTS@#Adding 0.01 ng/ml IL-1β in cell culture inhibited the proliferation of CPCs. After IHP application, the expression of MAPK pathway protein was decreased, the mRNA expression of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 was reduced. The inhibition of IL-1β on CPCs was counteracted by IHP. Four weeks after the anterior cruciate ligament resected, the articular cartilage degeneration was observed in rats. The Mankin score in the OA treatment (joint distraction) group was lower, and the cartilage repair was better than that of the control group (<0.01). Animal experiments found that the suitable mechanical stress reduced the expression of P-p38, MMP-13 and COLL-X, inhibited cartilage cells apoptosis and promoted the repair of OA cartilage.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mechanical stress can promote the proliferation of CPCs, reduce the expression of matrix degrading enzymes, and promote the repair of OA cartilage by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Pathology , General Surgery , Cartilage, Articular , Pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chondrocytes , Cell Biology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Profiling , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Genetics , Osteoarthritis , Pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Genetics , Stress, Mechanical
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 42-52, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), retinoic acid (RA), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MEK signaling play critical roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. We investigated the effect of RA and the role of these signaling molecules on the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) induced by TGF-β1. METHODS: A549 epithelial cells and CCD-11Lu fibroblasts were incubated and stimulated with or without all-trans RA (ATRA) and TGF-β1 and with MAPK or MEK inhibitors. The levels of p-Smad2/3 were analyzed by western blotting. For animal models, we studied three experimental mouse groups: control, bleomycin, and bleomycin+ATRA group. Changes in histopathology, lung injury score, and levels of TGF-β1 and Smad3 were evaluated at 1 and 3 weeks. RESULTS: When A549 cells were pre-stimulated with TGF-β1 prior to RA treatment, RA completely inhibited the p-Smad2/3. However, when A549 cells were pre-treated with RA prior to TGF-β1 stimulation, RA did not completely suppress the p-Smad2/3. When A549 cells were pre-treated with MAPK inhibitor, TGF-β1 failed to phosphorylate Smad2/3. In fibroblasts, p38 MAPK inhibitor suppressed TGF-β1-induced p-Smad2. In a bleomycin-induced lung injury mouse model, RA decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 at 1 and 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: RA had inhibitory effects on the phosphorylation of Smad induced by TGF-β1 in vitro, and RA also decreased the expression of TGF-β1 at 1 and 3 weeks in vivo. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a MAPK inhibitor showed a preventative effect on TGF-β1/Smad phosphorylation in epithelial cells. As a result, a combination of RA and MAPK inhibitors may suppress the TGF-β1-induced lung injury and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Bleomycin , Blotting, Western , Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , In Vitro Techniques , Lung Injury , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Models, Animal , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Smad Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factors , Tretinoin
14.
Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association ; : 217-228, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766388

ABSTRACT

There have been no published studies concerning the anti-inflammatory effects of corn silk on colon cancer cells. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin on inflammation and its mechanism of action in colon cancer cells. SW 480 human colon cancer cells were treated with 1 µg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation, and next they were treated with different concentrations of corn silk extract (0, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL). The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were determined. The mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were determined. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and the latter consists of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). The concentration of NO and the mRNA expression of iNOS were significantly and dose-dependently decreased in the corn silk-treated groups (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in the LPS-treated group (P<0.05), but these expressions were significantly and dose-dependently decreased in the corn silk treated groups (P<0.05). The protein expressions of NF-κB (in a dose-dependent fashion), ERK (at 10 and 15 µg/mL), JNK (at 15 µg/mL) and p38 (at 10 and 15 µg/mL) were significantly decreased with corn silk treatments (P<0.05). In conclusion, corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin seems to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in SW480 colon cancer cells via the NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , Saccharin , Silk , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Zea mays
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 264-274, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776886

ABSTRACT

Atractylenolide III (ATL-III), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has revealed a number of pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer activity, and neuroprotective effect. This study aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of ATL-III on corticosterone injured rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results demonstrate that ATL-III increases cell viability and reduces the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The results suggest that ATL-III protects PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced injury by inhibiting the intracellular Ca overloading, inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulating the MAPK/NF-ΚB inflammatory pathways. These findings provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which ATL-III protected the PC12 cells against corticosterone-induced injury for the first time. Our results provide the evidence that ATL-III may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Calcium , Metabolism , Cell Survival , Corticosterone , Toxicity , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Lactones , Pharmacology , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , PC12 Cells , Phosphorylation , Sesquiterpenes , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 312-323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762231

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporin A (CsA) does not only exert a toxic effect on kidney parenchymal cells, but also protects them against necrotic cell death by inhibiting opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, whether CsA plays a role in hydrogen peroxide-induced kidney proximal tubular cell death is currently unclear. In the present study, treatment with CsA further increased apoptosis and necrosis in HK-2 human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells during exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, hydrogen peroxide-induced p53 activation and BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) expression were higher in CsA-treated cells than those in non-treated cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and activation of protein kinase B were not significantly altered by treatment with CsA. In oxidant-antioxidant system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by hydrogen peroxide was further enhanced by treatment with CsA. However, expression levels of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and catalase were not altered by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or CsA. Treatment with CsA further enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, although it did not alter endoplasmic reticulum stress based on expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94. Taken together, these data suggest that CsA can aggravate hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through p53 activation, BID expression, and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Catalase , Cell Death , Cyclosporine , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Epithelial Cells , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Kidney , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Necrosis , Permeability , Phosphotransferases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
17.
Biol. Res ; 52: 41, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disrupting substance. We investigated the adverse effect of DBP on testis of male rat and reveal its potential mechanism of MAPK signaling pathway involved this effect in vivo and in vitro. Gonadal hormone, sperm quality, morphological change and the activation status of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 was determined in vivo. Primary Sertoli cell was established and cultivated with JNK, ERK1/2 inhibitors, then determine the cell viability, apoptosis and the expression of p-JNK, p-ERK1/2. Data in this study were presented as mean ± SD and determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's test. Difference was considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In vivo experiment, DBP impaired the normal structure of testicular tissue, reduced testosterone levels in blood serum, decreased sperm count and increased sperm abnormality, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK in rat testicular tissue increased in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies, DBP could decrease the viability of Sertoli cells and increase p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK. Cell apoptosis in SP600125 + DBP group was significantly lower than in DBP group (P < 0.05). p-JNK was not significantly decreased in SP600125 + DBP group, while p-ERK1/2 was significantly decreased in U0126 + DBP group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that DBP can lead to testicular damage and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways, the JNK signaling pathway may be primarily associated with its effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/injuries , Testis/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Dibutyl Phthalate/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 108 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008521

ABSTRACT

Os inibidores de BRAF (iBRAFs) e de MEK (iMEK), inauguraram uma nova classe de medicamentos, a terapia direcionada, no combate ao melanoma metastático. Entretanto, os pacientes adquirem resistência ao tratamento em poucos meses. Além disso, a imunoterapia vem ganhando espaço no tratamento do câncer, incluindo o melanoma, porém, com alguns aspectos inexplorados. Dentro deste tema, a enzima IDO vem despertando um grande interesse pela participação nos mecanismos de imunotolerância, imunoescape e progressão tumoral. A IDO é responsável pelo consumo e depleção do triptofano, produzindo a quinurenina. Ela está presente em diversos tipos celulares, incluindo células do sistema imune e células tumorais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a expressão de IDO durante a progressão da doença - desde do nevo até o melanoma metastático e também avaliar a regulação de IDO induzido por IFN-γ após tratamento com iBRAF em linhagens parentais e resistentes ao iBRAF, buscando-se os mecanismos moleculares. Por fim, objetivou-se entender os efeitos do 1-metil-triptofano (1-MT), um inibidor de IDO, tanto na sua capacidade de inibir a atividade de IDO quanto na sua influência na capacidade clonogênica. O estudo de bioinformática sobre o repositório público GSE12391 mostrou que o nível de expressão gênica de IDO foi superior nos estágios mais avançado da doença. Além disso, todas amostras de melanoma primário de pacientes apresentaram a imunomarcação de IDO, enquanto que nenhuma amostra de nevo apresentou tal marcação. Adicionalmente, a ocorrência de IDO se deu nos infiltrados linfoides, em células mononucleares do sistema imune. Duas análises de bioinformática de expressão gênica demonstraram que a IDO estava expressa positivamente na fase de resistência ao iBRAF. Ademais, os resultados de expressão proteica mostraram que a inibição de via MAPK (tanto por iBRAF quanto por iMEK) conseguiu modular a expressão de IDO, sendo que a maioria das linhagens apresentou uma diminuição de IDO. A atividade de IDO, medida através da produção de quinurenina, por HPLC se mostrou em consonância com os resultados de expressão proteica, exceto pela linhagem WM164 que não apresentou atividade enzimática, embora a proteína estivesse presente. Por fim, o 1-MT conseguiu inibir de maneira eficiente a enzima IDO, bloqueando a produção de quinurenina. Além de que, o 1-MT reduziu a capacidade clonogênica de maneira dose-dependente. Portanto, conclui-se que a expressão de IDO é crescente conforme a progressão do melanoma, que a inibição da via MAPK regulou a expressão de IDO e que o 1-MT reduz a capacidade clonogênica, além da sua função primária de inibir IDO


BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi and MEKi) has launched a new class of medication, the target therapy, to combat metastatic melanoma. Nevertheless, patients acquired resistance to the treatment in few months. Additionally, immunotherapy has been gaining space in cancer treatment, including melanoma, but some aspects need to be explored. Inside this theme, IDO enzyme has called the attention due to its participation in the mechanisms of immune tolerance, scape and tumor progression. IDO is responsible for tryptophan consume e depletion, producing kynurenine. It is present in different cells, including cells from immune system and tumor cells. This work purposed evaluate IDO expression during disease progression - since nevus until metastatic melanoma and also, evaluate IFN-γ-induced IDO regulation after BRAFi treatment in parental and resistant melanoma cell lines, seeking the molecular mechanisms. Lastly, it was evaluated the effects of 1-methyltryptopahn (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, by its ability to inhibit IDO and also by its influency on the clonogenic capability. Bioinformatic study performed on GSE12391 showed that gene expression level of IDO was superior in the most advanced stages of the disease. Additionally, all sample of patient's primary melanoma presented IDO immunostaining, whereas, no nevus samples presented such staining. Besides, IDO occurrence was in the lymphoid infiltrates, in mononuclear cells from immune system. Two bioinformatic analysis of gene expression demonstrated that IDO was differentially overexpressed during BRAFi resistance stage. Moreover, protein expression results presented that MAPK pathway inhibition (both by BRAFi and by MEKy) was able to modulate IDO expression, and most of the cell lines presented an IDO downregulation. IDO activity, measured through kynurenine production, by HPLC was consonant with protein expression results, except by WM164 cell line, which did not present enzymatic activity, albeit the protein was present. By the end, 1-MT could inhibit efficiently IDO enzyme, blocking kynurenine production. Furthermore, 1-MT reduced clonogenic capability in a dosedependent manner. Therefore, it was concluded that IDO expression increases along with melanoma progression, MAPK pathway inhibition regulated IDO expression and 1-MT reduced clonogenic capability, besides its primary function of IDO inhibitor


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/analysis , Melanoma/prevention & control , Computational Biology/instrumentation , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis
19.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 270-276, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008977

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the antagonistic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in rats with lung injury induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: blank control group (C1), water drip control group (C2), PM2.5 exposed group (P), low-dose NAC treated and PM2.5 exposed group (L), middle-dose NAC treated and PM2.5 exposed group (M), and high-dose NAC treated and PM2.5 exposed group (H). PM2.5 suspension (7.5 mg/kg) was administered tracheally once a week for four times. NAC of 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was delivered intragastrically to L, M and H group respectively by gavage (10 ml/kg) for six days before PM2.5 exposure. The histopathological changes and human mucin 5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) content in lung tissue of rats were evaluated. We investigated IL-6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), MUC5AC in lung tissue homogenate by ELISA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in serum and BALF by spectrophotometry, and the expression of p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 proteins by Western blot. All the measurements were analyzed and compared statistically. Results Lung tissue of rats exposed to PM2.5 showed histological destruction and increased mucus secretion of bronchial epithelial cells. Rats receiving NAC treatment showed less histological destruction and mucus secretion. Of P, L, M and H group, MUC5AC in lung tissue, IL-6 in serum and BALF were higher than controls (C1 and C2) (all P<0.05), with the highest levels found in the P group and a decreasing trend with increase of NAC dose. The activity of GSH-PX in serum and BALF of PM2.5 exposed rats (P, L, M and H) was lower than that of controls (all P<0.05), with higher activities found in NAC treated rats (L, M, and H), and an increasing trend with increase of NAC dose. The expressions of p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 proteins in PM2.5 exposed lung tissue (P, L, M and H) was higher than controls (all P<0.05), with decreased levels and dose dependent downregulation found in NAC treated rats. Conclusion NAC can antagonize major MAPK pathway activation, lung oxidative stress and inflammatory injury induced by PM2.5 in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung Injury/pathology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
20.
West Indian med. j ; 67(2): 98-104, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045825

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the application methods of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway inhibitors SP600125 and SB203580 in long-term in vivo experiments. Methods: A total of 55 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into blank control group, model control group, SP low dose group, SP high dose group, SP blank group, SB low dose group, SB high dose group, SB blank group, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group, DMSO blank group, and positive control group. Since the first day of the experiment, each group was administered the corresponding treatment for four weeks continuously. Then, the myocardial c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the total protein of p38, protein phosphorylation and its gene expression levels were detected. Results: After intravenous treatment with adriamycin, the myocardial phosphorylate-JNK (p-JNK) and phosphorylate-p38 (p-p38) levels in all groups were increased to varying degrees, of which the model control group increased the most significantly (p < 0.05). Compared with the model control group, the myocardial p-JNK and p-p38 increased more slowly in the SP low dose group, SP high dose group, SB low dose group, SB high dose group and positive control group (p < 0.05), of which the increase in the SP high dose group and the SB high dose group was the slowest (p < 0.05). After four weeks, the total protein and messenger ribonucleic acid of the myocardial JNK and p38 in all groups had no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The continuous intravenous injection of SP600125 and SB203580 for four weeks significantly reduced the protein phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38, which provides a practical avenue for the long-term study in vivo.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Explorar los métodos de aplicación de los inhibidores SP600125 y SB203580 de la vía de señalización de la proteína quinasa activada por mitógeno en experimentos in vivo a largo plazo. Métodos: Un total de 55 conejos sanos de Nueva Zelandia fueron divididos aleatoriamente en los grupos siguientes: grupo de control en blanco, grupo de control modelo, grupo de dosis baja SP, grupo de dosis alta SP, grupo en blanco SP, grupo de dosis baja SB, grupo de dosis alta SB, grupo en blanco SB, grupo de control dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), grupo en blanco DMSO, y grupo de control positivo. Desde el primer día del experimento, a cada grupo se le administró el tratamiento correspondiente por cuatro semanas continuas. Entonces, se detectaron la quinasa c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) miocárdica y la proteína p38 total, así como la fosforilación proteica y sus niveles de expresión génica. Resultados: Después del tratamiento intravenoso con adriamicina, los niveles de fosfo-JNK (p-JNK) y fosfo-p38 (p-p38) del miocardio aumentaron en todos los grupos en diversos grados, siendo el aumento del grupo de control modelo el más significativo (p < 0.05). En comparación con el grupo de control modelo, p-JNK y p-p38 miocárdicos aumentaron más lentamente en el grupo de dosis baja SP, el grupo de dosis alta SP, el grupo de dosis baja SB, el grupo de dosis alta SB, y el grupo de control positivo (p < 0.05). De estos, el aumento en el grupo de dosis alta SP y el grupo de dosis alta SB fue el más lento (p < 0.05). Después de cuatro semanas, la proteína total y el ácido ribonucleico mensajero de JNK y p38 miocárdicos en todos los grupos, no tuvieron diferencias significativas (p > 0.05). Conclusión: La inyección intravenosa continua de SP600125 y SB203580 durante cuatro semanas redujo significativamente los niveles de fosforilación proteica de JNK y p38, lo que proporciona una vía práctica para el estudio a largo plazo in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Rabbits , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Time Factors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Random Allocation , Gene Expression
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