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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180480, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013305


Abstract We report a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompetent patient in Amazonas, Brazil. This dematiaceous fungus has been mainly associated with life-threatening infections affecting the central nervous systems of immunosuppressed patients. We present the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects, and in vitro susceptibility test results for different antifungal drugs. A brief review of the cases reported in the literature over the past 20 years has also been discussed. According to the literature review, the present case is the first report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to C. bantiana in an immunocompetent patient in Latin America.

Humans , Male , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Phaeohyphomycosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Immunocompromised Host , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Phaeohyphomycosis/immunology , Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/classification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(2): 28-33, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907572


En esta nota micológica, se comentan los aspectos taxonómicos, ecológicos y fisiológicos de la especie fúngica Stenocephalopsis subalutacea, la cual fue aislada desde el aire del museo de historia natural de Valparaíso, Chile. Se confirma su identificación mediante observación de las características morfológicas.

In this mycological note, we discuss taxonomical, ecological and physiological aspects of Stenocephalopsis subalutacea fungus. This species was isolated from the air of the Natural History Museum of Valparaíso, Chile. We confirms its identification through morphology characteristic observation.

Air Microbiology , Museums , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Mitosporic Fungi/physiology , Chile
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 69-73, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703163


Introduction: This study aimed to identify airborne fungi in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil, to determine the prevalent genera and to correlate these genera with the area and season. Methods: In total, 1,510 colony-forming units (CFUs) of airborne fungi were isolated from the north, south, east and west sides and from the center of the city from January to December 2007. The samples were collected on Petri dishes that were exposed to the fungi by the gravitational method. Results: Twenty genera of fungi were isolated; the most common were Aspergillus (33.5%), Penicillium (18.8%), Cladosporium (14.2%), Curvularia (10.6%) and Fusarium (7.6%). The CFUs of the fungi were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Fungal biological diversity was present all year, without any large seasonal variations but with slight increases in May, August and September. Conclusions: The fungal genera identified in this study were correlated with natural systems and could be useful when evaluating the impact of environmental changes on the region. .

Air Microbiology , Biodiversity , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Seasons
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(3): 377-380, jun. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676227


BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections are caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or filamentous fungi. They are correlated to the etiologic agent, the level of integrity of the host immune response, the site of the lesion and also the injured tissue. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to isolate and to identify onychomycosis agents in institutionalized elderly (60 years old +). METHODS: The identification of the fungi relied upon the combined results of mycological examination, culture isolation and micro cultures observation under light microscopy from nail and interdigital scales, which were collected from 35 elderly with a clinical suspicion of onychomycosis and a control group (9 elderly with healthy interdigital space and nails). Both groups were institutionalized in two nursing homes in Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil. RESULTS: The nail scrapings showed 51.40% positivity. Of these, dermatophytes were found in 44.40% isolates, 27.78% identified as Trichophyton rubrum and 5.56% each as Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. The second more conspicuous group showed 38.89% yeasts: 16.67% Candida guilliermondii, 11.11% Candida parapsilosis, 5.56% Candida glabrata, and 5.56% Trichosporon asahii. A third group displayed 16.70% filamentous fungi, like Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp and Neoscytalidium sp (5.56% each). The interdigital scrapings presented a positivity rate of 14.29%. The agents were coincident with the fungi that caused the onychomycosis. In the control group, Candida guilliermondii was found at interdigital space in one person. CONCLUSION: Employing a combination of those identification methods, we found no difference between the etiology of the institutionalized elderly onychomycosis from that reported in the literature for the general population. .

FUNDAMENTOS: As infecções fúngicas superficiais se correlacionam com o agente etiológico, a resposta imune do hospedeiro, o local da lesão e o tecido lesado, sendo causadas por dermatófitos, leveduras ou fungos filamentosos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo é isolar e identificar os agentes das onicomicoses em idosos institucionalizados. MÉTODO: A identificação dos fungos baseou-se nos resultados combinados do exame micológico, isolamento em cultura e da observação de microculturas sob microscopia de luz, do material subungueal e escamas interdigitais, coletado de 35 idosos com suspeita clínica de onicomicose e de um grupo controle (9 idosos com espaço interdigital e unhas saudáveis). Ambos os grupos eram institucionalizados em duas casas de assistência em São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brasil. RESULTADOS: As unhas raspadas apresentaram 51,40% de positividade. Os dermatófitos foram encontrados em 44,40% de isolados, sendo 27,78% identificados como Trichophyton rubrum e 5,56%, cada, como Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes e Microsporum gypseum. O segundo grupo mais frequente (38,89%) foi o de leveduras, identificadas como 16,67% Candida guilliermondii, 11,11% Candida parapsilosis, 5,56% Candida glabrata e 5,56% Trichosporon asahii. Um terceiro grupo exibia 16,70% fungos filamentosos, como Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp e Neoscytalidium (5,56% de cada). Os raspados interdigitais exibiram positividade de 14,29%. Os agentes foram coincidentes com os fungos que causaram a onicomicose. No grupo controle, a Candida guilliermondii foi identificada no espaço interdigital em apenas uma pessoa. CONCLUSÃO: Empregando-se a combinação destes métodos de identificação, não houve diferença entre a etiologia da onicomicose ...

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Institutionalization , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Sex Factors
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1436-1443, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665830


The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi) and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE) food-storage refrigerators (n=48) at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiological quality of air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3%) produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m³ and 54.6 CFU/m³, respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%), Aspergillus (12.0%), Mucor (9%), Cladosporium (8%), Botyrtis (7%), and Acremonium (6%). By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks.

Humans , Frozen Foods/analysis , Bacterial Infections , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses , Air Microbiology , Air Samples , Food Microbiology , Food Samples , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1444-1451, Oct.-Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665831


The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5-7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively.

Aflatoxins/analysis , Aflatoxins/isolation & purification , Food Analysis , Flour/analysis , Flora/analysis , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , In Vitro Techniques , Environment , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Food Microbiology , Food Samples , Triticum
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1490-1498, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665836


The lipase produced by a newly isolate Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain has potential catalysis ability for esterification reactions. In order to improve its synthetic activity, this work aimed at optimizing 'synthetic lipase' production by submerged fermentation of a conventional media based on peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil using experimental design technique. According to the results obtained in the first experimental design (2(4-1)), yeast extract and NaCl concentrations were tested to further optimization by response surface methodology. The maximum 'synthetic lipase' activity obtained was 26.9 U/mL in the optimized media (5.0, 6.8, 7.0 and 1.0% (wt/v) of peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil, respectively), representing a 6.36-fold increase compared to the initial medium. The time course of 'synthetic lipase' production in the optimized condition was evaluated in terms of synthetic activity, protease activity, biomass and total carbon and the maximum synthetic activity was observed during the stationary phase of growth.

Base Sequence , Blastomyces/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Mitosporic Fungi/genetics , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Lipase/analysis , Lipase/isolation & purification , Enzyme Activation , Industrial Microbiology , Methodology as a Subject
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 1042-1050, July-Sept. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656673


Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l) at 42ºC, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with the 2 liters in two successive batches at 5 h interval into the fermentor. The sterile air was supplied only for 10h at the rate of 0.5 vvm.

Plant Structures/enzymology , Fermentation , Flowers/enzymology , Plant Leaves/enzymology , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Mitosporic Fungi/enzymology , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/analysis , Incubators , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 1062-1071, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656675


Twenty-seven thermophilic and thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from soil, decaying organic matter and sugarcane piles based on their ability to grow at 45ºC on medium containing corn straw and cardboard as carbon sources. These fungi were identified in the genera Aspergillus, Thermomyces, Myceliophthora, Thermomucor and Candida. The majority of the isolated strains produced xylanase and cellulases under solid state fermentation (SSF). The highest cellulase and xylanase productions were obtained by the cultivation of the strains identified as Aspergillus fumigatus M.7.1 and Myceliophthora thermophila M.7.7. The enzymes from these strains exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 60 and 70ºC. The endo-glucanase from A. fumigatus was stable from 40ºC to 65ºC and both endo-glucanase and xylanase from M. thermophila were stable in this temperature range when in absence of substrate. The enzymes were stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0.

Carbon/analysis , Cellulases/analysis , Fermentation , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Mitosporic Fungi/enzymology , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Soil Conditions , Xylans/analysis , Enzyme Activation , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(1): 247-252, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622810


The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus) are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18%) was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates). Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Chrysosporium/isolation & purification , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Onygenales/isolation & purification , Rodent Diseases , Rodentia , Sustainable Agriculture , Aquatic Fungi , Methodology as a Subject , Wetlands , Wetlands
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(1): 49-56, Jan.-Mar. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571374


Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

Aflatoxins/analysis , Aflatoxins/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Mitosporic Fungi/enzymology , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Penaeidae/enzymology , Penaeidae/pathogenicity , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Diagnosis , Food Samples , Methods , Methods , Virulence
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(1): 346-353, Jan.-Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571409


Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of bean anthracnose, is one of the most common pathogens leading to expressive damage to plants beyond presenting noticeable variability. The knowledge on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) is of particular interest in asexual fungi as they subdivide the population in groups that can exchange genetic information via heterokaryosis and the parasexual cycle. Among the techniques used in studies about vegetative compatibility groups, the obtainment of nit mutants is apparent. This paper is aimed at obtaining heterokaryons between different isolates of C. lindemuthianum, grouping them in VCGs and evaluating their genetic variability by using the nit mutants system. Nit mutants were obtained from 20 single spore isolates. The mutants were phenotypically classified and paired for complementation and formation of heterokaryons so as to group them in VCGs. Seventeen mutants from the different phenotypic-rates were recovered: nit1, nit2, nit3 and nitM. At the same time, 10 mutants were selected for pairing and division of the anastomosis groups. Nine heterokaryons were obtained and the isolates were divided into 9 vegetative compatibility groups. In the combinations for the formation of anastomosis, 31 compatible combinations and 24 incompatible combinations were observed. It was concluded that the methodology used to select nit mutants in C. lindemuthianum made it possible to determine the vegetative compatibility groups and that such a technique was adequate to prove genetic variability.

Colletotrichum/isolation & purification , Mitosporic Fungi/genetics , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , Mycelium/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Methods , Plants , Methods , Virulence
Bol. micol ; 24: 21-25, dic. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-585739


Marine fungi ascribed to the ascomycetes and the hyphomycetes are infrequently reported for the Southern Ocean. For this reason, the main objective of the present work was to detect the presence of these fungi seawater of Potter Cove, King George (25 de Mayo) Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. For this purpose marine fungi were grown on wood test panels, placed into plastic nets in the tidal zone, exposed to the Antarctic seawater for different periods of time, which ranged between 2 and 12 months.As a result of this survey, we were able to recover and identify two marine fungi, Papulospora halima (which represents the first report for this environment) and a new morphological variety of Halosphaeria tubulifera.

Los ascomicetes e hifomicetes marinos están escasamente documentados para el océano Atlántico Sur. Por este motivo, el principal objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la presencia de dichos hongos en las agua marinas de la Potter Cove, en la isla Rey Jorge/25 de Mayo (islas Shetland del Sur, Antártida). Para este propósito, los hongos marinos se desarrollaron en paneles de madera dentro de una red plástica en la zona tidal, expuestos al agua de mar antártica por diferentes períodos de tiempo que oscilaron entre 2 a 12 meses. Como resultado de este estudio, fuimos capaces de recuperar e identificar 2 hongos marinos, Papulospora halima (que representa el primer reporte para este ambiente) y una nueva variedad morfológica de Halosphaeria tubulifera.

Aquatic Fungi , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/growth & development , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Mitosporic Fungi/growth & development
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(4): 471-473, July-Aug. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-527195


Este trabalho teve como objetivo isolar e identificar os fungos queratinofílicos do solo e correlacioná-los com os agentes de dermatomicose. De acordo com nossos resultados, o predomínio de Trichophyton tonsurans como agente de dermatomicose em crianças na cidade do Recife, PE deve-se provavelmente ao maior contato destas com o solo.

This study had the aim of isolating and identifying keratinophilic fungi from soil and correlating them with dermatomycosis agents. According to our results, the predominance of Trichophyton tonsurans as a dermatomycosis agent among children in the city of Recife, PE, is probably due to children's greater contact with soil.

Child , Humans , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Public Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Soil Microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Prevalence
An. bras. dermatol ; 84(3): 249-255, jul. 2009. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521749


FUNDAMENTOS - A alta frequência das micoses cutâneas justifica a necessidade de avaliar a possível contribuição da determinação do perfil de susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos in vitro. OBJETIVO - Avaliar se existe variabilidade nos isolados fúngicos quanto à susceptibilidade in vitro de fungos filamentosos, previamente isolados de micoses cutâneas, frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol, cetoconazol, itraconazol e terbinafina. MÉTODOS - Os fungos foram isolados e identificados por meio da metodologia clássica e o teste de susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos foi realizado segundo o método de microdiluição em caldo, de acordo com protocolo preconizado pelo Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), documento M38-A. RESULTADOS - Das 80 amostras de fungos filamentosos identificadas, o gênero Trichophyton representou 81 por cento. As quatro drogas analisadas apresentaram grande variação nos gêneros Trichophyton e Microsporum. O gênero Fusarium foi resistente a todas as drogas testadas. A terbinafina foi o antimicótico mais eficaz contra a maioria dos isolados fúngicos. CONCLUSÃO - Houve uma grande variabilidade nos perfis de resposta aos antifúngicos testados. O estabelecimento de um método-teste de referência permitirá ao clínico maior objetividade na escolha de uma terapia adequada.

BACKGROUND - The high frequency of cutaneous mycosis justify the need to evaluate the possible contribution of in vitro profile of susceptibility to antifungal agents. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate whether there is variability in in vitro susceptibility by filamentous fungi, previously isolated from cutaneous mycosis, to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. METHODS - Fungi were isolated and identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility test was performed using the method of broth microdilution, according to a protocol recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), through M38-A document. RESULTS - Amongst the 80 filamentous fungi identified, Trichophyton genus represented 81 percent. The four examined drugs showed great variation for Trichophyton spp and Microsporum spp. Fusarium spp was resistant to all tested drugs. Terbinafine was the most effective drug against the majority of the isolated fungi. CONCLUSION - There was great variability in response profiles to the tested antifungals. The definition of a reference test method will offer higher objectivity for physicians to choose the appropriate therapy.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(3): 352-359, May-June 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519354


Several species of the family Culicidae are important vectors of diseases in humans and other animals. Immature stages are filter-feeders of organic particulate matter and microorganisms. Studies on microbial diversity can contribute to the discovery of new substances that can be used in the pharmaceutical industry for food or for biological control. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the fungi associated with Culicidae larvae found in different habitats (natural and artificial), such as fruit shells, rock holes, lakes, aquatic plants, palm bracts and ceramic pots, in several municipalities of Brazilian Amazonia, especially in the states of Amazonas and Rondônia. A total of 38 fungal lineages were isolated from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), Trichoprosopon digitatum (Rondani), Anopheles argyritarsis argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, Anopheles darlingi Root, Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribálzaga), Mansonia titillans (Walker) and Uranotaenia sp. The following fungi occurred associated with the larvae of Culicidae: Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus sydowii, Fusarium sacchari var. sacchari, Fusarium merismoides var. merismoides, Gliocladium viride, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium sclerotiorum, Penicillium melinii and Penicillium oxalicum. Macro- and microscopic characteristics of the lineages are presented, as well as information on their geographical distribution.

Algumas espécies da família Culicidae são importantes vetores de doenças em humanos e em outros animais. Estágios imaturos são filtradores não seletivos de partículas orgânicas e microrganismos. Estudos da diversidade microbiológica podem contribuir para a descoberta de novas substâncias que podem ser usadas em indústrias farmacêuticas, para alimentação ou para controle biológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar os fungos associados a larvas de Culicidae encontradas em diferentes tipos de criadouros (natural e artificial), como casca de frutos, buracos em pedras, lagoas, plantas aquáticas, bráctea de palmeira e potes de cerâmica, em vários municípios da Amazônia Brasileira, principalmente no Amazonas e em Rondônia. O total de 38 isolados foram obtidos a partir de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), Trichoprosopon digitatun (Rondani), Anopheles argyritarsis argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, Anopheles darlingi Root, Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribálzaga), Mansonia titillans (Walker) e Uranotaenia sp. Os fungos que ocorreram nas larvas de Culicidae foram: Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus sydowii, Fusarium sacchari var. sacchari, Fusarium merismoides var. merismoides, Gliocladium viride, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium sclerotiorum, Penicillium melinii, Penicillium oxalicum. Características macro-microscópicas dos isolados foram apresentadas, assim como informações sobre a distribuição geográfica.

Animals , Culicidae/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Larva/microbiology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 75(3): 367-370, maio-jun. 2009. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521094


Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear canal with only a few studies about its real frequence in Brazil. AIM: to evaluate otomycosis frequence and characteristics in patients with clinical suspicion of external otitis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study with transversal cohort (2000-2006). MATERIALS AND METHODS:103 patients were assigned to mycological diagnosis (direct microscopic examination and culture). RESULTS: Otomycosis was diagnosed in 19.4 percent of the patients. Patient age varied from 2 to 66 years (an average of 23.5 years of age), and 60 percent of otomycosis cases were seen in women between 2 to 20 years of age. Chronic otitis, previous antibiotic therapy and the lack of cerumen were predisposing factors; itching, otalgia, otorrhea and hypoacusis were the symptoms reported by the patients. The most frequently isolated species were C. albicans (30 percent), C. parapsilosis (20 percent), A. niger (20 percent), A. flavus (10 percent), A. fumigatus (5 percent), C. tropicalis (5 percent), Trichosporon asahii (5 percent) and Scedosporium apiospermum (5 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Otomycosis is endemic in João Pessoa-PB. Clinical exam and mycological studies are important for diagnostic purposes because otomycosis symptoms are not specific.

Otomicose é uma infecção fúngica do conduto auditivo externo com poucos estudos sobre sua real frequência no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência e características das otomicoses em pacientes com suspeita clínica de otite externa. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo com corte transversal (2000-2006). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: 103 pacientes foram atendidos para diagnóstico micológico (exame microscópico direto e cultivo). RESULTADOS: Otomicoses foram diagnosticadas em 19,4 por cento dos pacientes. A idade desses pacientes variou de 2 a 66 anos (média de 23,5 anos) e 60 por cento das otomicoses foram observadas em mulheres entre 2 a 20 anos de idade. Otite crônica, antibioticoterapia prévia e ausência de cerume foram os fatores predisponentes e prurido otológico, otalgia, otorreia e hipoacusia os sintomas relatados pelos pacientes. As espécies mais frequentemente isoladas foram C. albicans (30 por cento), C. parapsilosis (20 por cento), A. niger (20 por cento), A. flavus (10 por cento), A. fumigatus (5 por cento), C. tropicalis (5 por cento), Trichosporon asahii (5 por cento) e Scedosporium apiospermum (5 por cento). CONCLUSÃO: Otomicose é endêmica em João Pessoa - PB. O acompanhamento clínico e o diagnóstico micológico são importantes uma vez que a sintomatologia de otomicose não é específica.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Otitis Externa/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Otitis Externa/diagnosis , Otitis Externa/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(4): 701-707, Dec. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-504310


Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503 percent) was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases.

A cepa Actinomyces A01 foi isolada do solo de um campo agrícola no subúrbio de Beijing, China. De acordo com as características morfológicas, culturais, fisiológicas e bioquímicas, e análise da sequência 16S rDNA , a cepa A01 foi identificada como Streptomyces lydicus. Nos testes de espectro antimicrobiano, a cepa A01 apresentou atividade inibitória intensa e estável contra vários fungos patogênicos para plantas, como Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilia laxa, etc. Entretanto, não foi encontrada atividade antibacteriana. Em experimentos em estufas, o desenvolvimento do fungo cinza do tomate foi fortemente inibido pelo tratamento com o caldo de fermentação da cepa A01, com eficiência superior à do pyremethanil e polyoxin. Por cromatografia em coluna e HPLC, obteve-se um composto fúngico (pureza 99,503 por cento), cuja análise estrutural por UV, IR, MS e NMR revelou ser natamicina, um antibiótico polienico produzido por S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis e S.gilvosporeus, empregado como conservador biológico natural em alimentos. O presente estudo relata a detecção de uma nova cepa produtora de natamicina e sua aplicação potencial como um agente de controle biológico de doenças fúngicas em plantas.

Actinomyces/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents , Base Sequence , Fermentation , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Methods , Plants , Soil , Methods
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(4): 333-337, Aug. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-496775


Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds, accounting for about 50 percent of onychopathies. A high frequency of onychomycosis caused by Candida species has been reported during the last few years in northeast Brazil, as well as in other regions of the world. A clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis needs to be confirmed through laboratory exams. We evaluated the importance of serial repetition of direct microscopic exams and fungal culture for the diagnosis of onychomycosis in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, in northeast Brazil. We first made a retrospective study of 127 patients with onychomycosis, identifying the fungi that had been isolated from fingernails and toenails. We then made a prospective study of 120 patients, who were submitted to three successive mycological examinations. Ungual residues were scraped off and directly examined with a microscope and fungal cultures were made. In the retrospective study, in which only one sample was analyzed, the incidence of onychomycosis was 25.0 percent. In our prospective study, in which we had data from successive mycological examinations, 37.8 percent had onychomycosis. The most commonly isolated fungi in both studies were yeasts from the genera Candida, especially C albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. We found a high proportion of onychomycosis caused by Candida species. We also concluded that serial repetition of direct microscopic examination and fungal culture, with intervals of 2-5 days improved the diagnosis of onychomycosis. We suggest that this laboratorial strategy is necessary for accurate diagnosis of this type of mycosis, especially when the standard procedures fail to diagnose fungal infection, despite strong clinical suspicion.

Female , Humans , Male , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies