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ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e371, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513116


Fundamento: A avaliação da área valvar mitral por meio da reconstrução multiplano na ecocardiografia tridimensional é restrita a softwares específicos e à experiência dos ecocardiografistas. Eles precisam selecionar manualmente o frame do vídeo que contenha a área de abertura máxima da valva mitral, dimensão fundamental para a identificação de estenose mitral. Objetivo: Automatizar o processo de determinação da área de abertura máxima da valva mitral, por meio da aplicação de Processamento Digital de Imagens (PDI) em exames de ecocardiograma, desenvolvendo um algoritmo aberto com leitura de vídeo no formato avi. Método: Este estudo piloto observacional transversal foi realizado com vinte e cinco exames diferentes de ecocardiograma, sendo quinze com abertura normal e dez com estenose mitral reumática. Todos os exames foram realizados e disponibilizados por dois especialistas, com autorização do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, que utilizaram dois modelos de aparelhos ecocardiográficos: Vivid E95 (GE Healthcare) e Epiq 7 (Philips), com sondas multiplanares transesofágicas. Todos os vídeos em formato avi foram submetidos ao PDI através da técnica de segmentação de imagens. Resultados: As medidas obtidas manualmente por ecocardiografistas experientes e os valores calculados pelo sistema desenvolvido foram comparados utilizando o diagrama de Bland-Altman. Observou-se maior concordância entre valores no intervalo de 0,4 a 2,7 cm². Conclusão: Foi possível determinar automaticamente a área de máxima abertura das valvas mitrais, tanto para os casos advindos da GE quanto da Philips, utilizando apenas um vídeo como dado de entrada. O algoritmo demonstrou economizar tempo nas medições quando comparado com a mensuração habitual. (AU)

Background: The evaluation of mitral valve area through multiplanar reconstruction in 3-dimensional echocardiography is restricted to specific software and to the experience of echocardiographers. They need to manually select the video frame that contains the maximum mitral valve opening area, as this dimension is fundamental to identification of mitral stenosis. Objective: To automate the process of determining the maximum mitral valve opening area, through the application of digital image processing (DIP) in echocardiography tests, developing an open algorithm with video reading in avi format. Method: This cross-sectional observational pilot study was conducted with 25 different echocardiography exams, 15 with normal aperture and 10 with rheumatic mitral stenosis. With the authorization of the Research Ethics Committee, all exams were performed and made available by 2 specialists who used 2 models of echocardiographic devices: Vivid E95 (GE Healthcare) and Epiq 7 (Philips), with multiplanar transesophageal probes. All videos in avi format were submitted to DIP using the image segmentation technique. Results: The measurements obtained manually by experienced echocardiographers and the values calculated by the developed system were compared using a Bland-Altman diagram. There was greater agreement between values in the range from 0.4 to 2.7 cm². Conclusion: It was possible to automatically determine the maximum mitral valve opening area, for cases from both GE and Philips, using only 1 video as input data. The algorithm has been demonstrated to save time on measurements when compared to the usual method. (AU)

Humans , Heart Valve Diseases/mortality , Mitral Valve/physiopathology , Mitral Valve/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Stenosis/etiology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Doxorubicin/radiation effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Isoproterenol/radiation effects , Mitral Valve/surgery
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 742-749, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984712


Objective: To explore the long-term clinical efficacy of transcatheter repair of mitral paravalvular leak (PVL) post surgical mitral valve replacement. Methods: This study is a retrospective study. Patients who completed transcatheter repair of paravalvular leak after surgical mitral valve replacement at Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from March 2010 to December 2018 were included. Technical success was defined as the occluder being stably implanted in the paravalvular leak site without affecting the function of the mitral valve and surrounding tissues; and there were no intervention-related complications, such as new hemolysis or aggravated hemolysis, and echocardiography confirmed mitral paravalvular regurgitation reduced by more than 1 grade. Patients were followed up at 30 days, 1, and 3 years after the intervention. The main endpoints were all-cause death and re-surgery due to interventional failure or serious complications. The occurrence of occluder-mediated hemolysis and chronic renal insufficiency was recorded, and patients were monitored with echocardiography during follow up. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, aged (54.3±22.9) years old, and 38 patients were males. All patients had decreased cardiac function and/or hemolysis before intervention. Procedural success was achieved in 54 patients (72.0%). Incidence of device-mediated hemolysis was 18.7% (14/75). During the follow-up period, all-cause death occurred in 7 patients (9.3%), and 3 were cardiac deaths.The 3-year event-free survival rate was 81.3% (61/75). The need for cardiac surgery was 9.3% (7/75): 3 cases due to severe device-mediated hemolysis, 2 cases due to prosthetic valve failure and 2 cases due to moderate to severe residual regurgitation. The echocardiography follow-up results showed that the position of the occluder was stable, there was no impact on the artificial valve function and surrounding structures, and the residual regurgitation was stable without progressive increase in event-free patients. Compared with pre-intervention, the left ventricular end systolic diameter ((33.9±7.4)mm vs. (38.3±8.9) mm, P=0.036), end diastolic diameter ((53.7±8.3) mm vs. (58.4±9.1) mm, P=0.045) and left atrial diameter (59.3 (44.5, 90.7) mm vs. 64.3 (44.8, 96.6) mm, P=0.049) were significantly reduced, pulmonary artery systolic pressure was also significantly decreased ((36.5±15.8) mmHg vs. (46.3±14.9) mmHg, P=0.022, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa). There was no significant difference between 3 years and 1 year after transcatheter repair of mitral paravalvular leak post surgical mitral valve replacement (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Transcatheter repair of mitral paravalvular leak post surgical mitral valve replacement is an effective treatment option in selective patients.

Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Mitral Valve/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Retrospective Studies , Hemolysis , China , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Cardiac Catheterization , Prosthesis Failure
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 196-200, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970180


Septal reduction therapies, which include septal myectomy and alcohol septal ablation and so on, are the current treatment strategies for patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and drug-refractory symptoms. With the deepening of theoretical understanding and the rapid development of interventional therapies, some researchers have tried to perform transcatheter mitral valve edge-to-edge repair to treat high-risk patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, including obstructive and non-obstructive. The reported results are relatively satisfactory, but many urgent problems need to be solved, such as the lack of data on animal experiments and large cohort studies, and the unknown medium- and long-term outcomes. However, transcatheter mitral valve edge-to-edge repair brings new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. On one hand, it can be used as a monotherapy, on the other hand, it can be combined with novel molecular targeted drug therapy or emerging minimally invasive surgical procedures targeting hypertrophic ventricular septum, which deserves our further attention and exploratory research.

Humans , Treatment Outcome , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/surgery , Mitral Valve/surgery , Ventricular Septum/surgery , Hypertrophy
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 181-186, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970178


After more than 60 years of development, with the deepening of the pathophysiological understanding of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the extent and resection thickness of myectomy have increased significantly. Myectomy combined with the correction of anomalies of the mitral valve apparatus has become the standard treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Only a few centers worldwide can routinely perform it due to the difficulty. Because of the advances of new drugs and interventional therapy, the development of surgical treatment faces many challenges. At the same time, generations of cardiovascular surgeons are constantly trying to promote septal myectomy, including developing devices and the surgical field, as well as improving surgical planning by advanced technology. At present, the superior long-term efficacy of septal myectomy has been confirmed. It is necessary to work together to promote the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, so as to guard people's health.

Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/surgery , Heart Septum/surgery , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(2): 116-118, ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407758


Abstract: An 84 year old woman presented with recurrent severe heart failure. She had a heavily calcified mitral valve annulus. Radiological images before and after a mechanical valve was implanted in a supra annular position are shown.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Heart Valve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/transplantation
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 61-66, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397635


Congenital mitral valve disease is a rare form of mitral regurgitation. The etiological diagnosis is often challenging. The transthoracic echocardiogram is presented as a good initial approach method. The case of a 29-year-old patient referred for the diagnosis of severe congenital mitral regurgitation in parachute is presented. This report aims to illustrate the clinical and echocardiographic presentation of congenital mitral regurgitation.

Humans , Female , Adult , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Prevalence , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/diagnostic imaging
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(4): erer_15, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426045


A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica é a cardiopatia genética mais frequente na população geral e é caracterizada por uma hipertrofia ventricular esquerda assimétrica. Entretanto, as alterações fenotípicas desta cardiomiopatia vão muito além da hipertrofia ventricular, e incluem alterações do aparato valvar mitral, dos músculos papilares e do ventrículo direito. Devido à dificuldade no diagnóstico diferencial entre as múltiplas causas de hipertrofia, a ressonância magnética cardíaca vem cumprindo um papel fundamental na avaliação diagnóstica e prognóstica desta cardiomiopatia. A cineressonância magnética na definição da localização e extensão da hipertrofia, o realce tardio, na detecção das áreas de fibrose miocárdica e técnicas mais recentes como o Mapa de T1 que avalia a fibrose intersticial e o volume extracelular; e finalmente o Tissue Tracking na análise da deformação miocárdica.(AU)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the most common genetic cardiopathy in the general population, is characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the phenotypic changes in this cardiomyopathy extend beyond ventricular hypertrophy and include changes in the mitral valve apparatus, papillary muscles, and right ventricle. Due to the difficult differential diagnosis among multiple causes of hypertrophy, cardiac magnetic resonance has played a fundamental role in its diagnostic and prognostic evaluation; magnetic cine-resonance in defining the location and extent of hypertrophy; late enhancement, in the detection of areas of myocardial fibrosis; more recent techniques such as T1 mapping that assesses interstitial fibrosis and extracellular volume; and finally tissue tracking in the analysis of myocardial deformation. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/congenital , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Biological Variation, Population/genetics , Mitral Valve/abnormalities
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc279, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411874


A endocardite de valva nativa é uma doença incomum, complexa, e de alta morbimortalidade. Requer tratamento clínico prolongado, com várias complicações possíveis, e o seu tratamento cirúrgico é complexo e tecnicamente difícil. O ecocardiograma transtorácico e transesofágico são fundamentais na avaliação da doença, inclusive seus achados são parte dos critérios diagnósticos de endocardite. Adicionalmente, o ecocardiograma tridimensional (3D) contribui com detalhamento anatômico na avaliação das estruturas cardíacas acometidas pela doença. Mostramos um caso em que é ilustrado o papel da ecocardiografia no diagnóstico e avaliação de complicações da endocardite, comparando as imagens do ecocardiograma 3D pré-operatórias, com os achados durante o ato cirúrgico. (AU)

Native valve bacterial endocarditis is an uncommon, complex, and highly morbid disease that requires prolonged clinical treatment and challenging surgical interventions. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are paramount assessment tools whose findings are included in the diagnostic criteria. Three-dimensional echocardiography shows further realistic imaging details. Here we present a case demonstrating the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of endocarditis and the identification of its complications to show how advanced imaging techniques may have a remarkable resemblance with in vivo surgical findings. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endocarditis/complications , Endocarditis/therapy , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve/pathology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Echocardiography/methods , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Incidental Findings , Cefepime/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc245, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369683


Introdução: A excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide e a do anel mitral são parâmetros utilizados para se avaliar a função contrátil do ventrículo direito e do ventrículo esquerdo, respectivamente. Pouco se conhece sobre sua relação com a função diastólica ventricular esquerda. Objetivo: Avaliar se os valores de excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide e do anel mitral se correlacionam com parâmetros utilizados na avaliação da função diastólica ventricular esquerda. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal. Foram selecionados 219 indivíduos, sendo 116 mulheres, com função sistólica preservada de ambos os ventrículos. As análises foram feitas separadamente para os sexos masculino e feminino, por meio dos coeficientes de correlação de Pearson e de Sperman. Foram obtidos: excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide, excursão sistólica do anel mitral, volumes atriais e medidas relacionadas à avaliação da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo ao ecocardiograma transtorácico. Resultados: No sexo feminino, a excursão sistólica do anel mitral se correlacionou positivamente com o e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,22; p=0,016) e a excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide se correlacionou positivamente com a relação E/A (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,23, p=0,037), com o e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,28; p=0,012), com o e' septal (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,28; p=0,012) e negativamente com a relação E/e' (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,27; p=0,018) e onda A (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,29; p= 0,009). No sexo masculino, apenas a excursão sistólica do anel mitral se correlacionou positivamente com a onda E (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de 0,21; p=0,037), e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,34; p <0,001) e e' septal (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,26; p=0,008). Não houve correlação entre excursão sistólica do anel mitral e do anel tricúspide e volumes atriais. A presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e diabetes melito influenciou nos valores de excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide e do anel mitral correlacionados a ondas E e A, relação E/A, ondas e' septal e lateral e relação E/e'. Conclusão: No presente estudo, os valores da excursão sistólica do anel mitral e do anel tricúspide apresentaram correlação significativa com algumas variáveis da função diastólica ventricular esquerda com maior evidência no sexo feminino.(AU)

Introduction: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and mitral annular systolic excursion are parameters used to assess the systolic function of the right ventricle and left ventricle, respectively. Little is known about its relationship with left ventricular diastolic function. Objective: To assess whether the values of mitral annular systolic excursion and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion correlate with parameters used in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. Method: Observational cross-sectional study. Two hundred nine individuals were selected, 116 women, with both ventricles normal systolic function. The analyzes were performed for men and women, through Pearson correlation coefficient and Sperman correlation coefficient. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, mitral annular systolic excursion, atrial volumes and left ventricular diastolic function parameters on transthoracic echocardiogram were obtained. Results: In women, mitral annular systolic excursion was positively correlated with lateral e '(Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.22; p=0.016) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was positively correlated with E / A ratio (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.23; p=0.037), lateral e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.28; p=0.012), and septal e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.28; p=0.012), and negatively with the E/e' ratio (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.27; p=0.018), and A wave (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.29; p=0.009). In men, only mitral annular systolic excursion correlated positively with E wave (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.21; p=0.037), lateral e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.34; p <0.001) and the septal e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.26; p=0.008). There was no correlation between mitral annular systolic excursion E and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and atrial volumes. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus influenced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and mitral annular systolic excursion values correlated to E and A waves, E/A ratio, septal and lateral e' waves, and E/e' ratio. Conclusion: In the present study, mitral annular systolic excursion and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values showed a significant correlation with some parameters of left ventricular diastolic function, with stronger evidence on female sex.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Tricuspid Valve/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Mitral Valve/anatomy & histology , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertension/complications
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 578-580, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941005


Infective endocarditis in pregnancy is extremely rare in clinical practice. Guidelines addressing prophylaxis and management of infective endocarditis do not extensively deal with concomitant pregnancy, and case reports on infective endocarditis are scarce. Due to increased blood volume and hemodynamic changes in late pregnancy, endocardial neoplasms are easy to fall off and cause systemic or pulmonary embolism, respiratory, cardiac arrest and sudden death may occur in pregnant women, the fetus can suffer from intrauterine distress and stillbirth at any time, leading to adverse outcomes for pregnant women and fetuses. The disease is dangerous and difficult to treat, which seriously threatens the lives of mothers and babies. Early diagnosis and reasonable treatment can effectively improve the prognosis of patients. The most important method for the treatment of infective endocarditis requires early, adequate, long-term and combined antibiotic therapy. Moreover, surgical controversies regarding indication and timing of treatment exist, especially in pregnancy. In terms of the timing of termination of pregnancy, the timing of cardiac surgery, and the method of surgery, individualized programs must be adopted. A pregnant woman with 30+5 weeks of gestation is reported. She was admitted to hospital due to intermittent chest tightness, suffocation and fever, with grade Ⅲ cardiac insufficiency. Imaging revealed large mitral valve vegetation, 22.0 mm×4.1 mm and 22.0 mm×5.1 mm, respectively, and severe valve regurgitation. Mitral valve perforation was more likely, blood culture suggested Staphylococcus epidermidis infection, after antibiotic conservative treatment, the effect was poor. After the joint consultation including cardiology, neonatology, interventional vascular surgery, anesthesiology, and obstetrics, the combined operation of obstetrics and cardiac surgery was performed in time. The heart was blocked for 60 minutes, the bleeding was 1 200 mL, the newborn was mildly asphyxiated after birth, and the birth weight was 1 890 g. Nine days after the operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital, and the newborn was discharged with the weight of 2 020 g. Critical cases like this require a thorough weighing of risks and benefits followed by swift action to protect the mother and her unborn child. An optimal outcome in a challenging case like this greatly depends on effective interdisciplinary communication, informed consent of the patient, and concerted action among the specialists involved.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy , Heart Valve Diseases/drug therapy , Mitral Valve/surgery , Staphylococcal Infections
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 172-178, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935123


Objective: To explore the trend of disease burden of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) in the Chinese population from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the 2019 Global Burden of Disease database (GBD 2019), the number of patients, the number of new cases, the number of deaths, the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as well as the prevalence, incidence and death rate, DALY rate and their age-standardized rates were used to analyze the trend of the burden of DMVD in the Chinese population from 1990 to 2019. Results: In 2019, the number of patients, the number of new cases, and the number of deaths with DMVD in China were 461.2, 27.0 and 0.129 ten thousand, respectively, which increased by 209.0%, 199.1% and 13.2% when compared with 1990. In 2019, the age-standardized prevalence, incidence and death rate were 228.1/100 000, 12.7/100 000 and 0.075/100 000, respectively. Compared with 1990, the change of the age-standardized prevalence, incidence and death rate were 32.6%, 42.8% and -54.1%, respectively. In addition, the 2019 data also showed that the age-standardized prevalence and incidence were higher in females than in males (the age-standardized prevalence was 190.1 (181.5-198.9)/100 000 for males and 262.0 (250.3-273.9)/100 000 for females); the age-standardized incidence was 10.5 (10.0-11.0)/100 000 for males and 14.9 (14.3-15.6)/100 000 for females. The age group with the largest number of DMVD patients was 65 to 69 years old, and the highest incidence was 60 to 64 years old. From 1990 to 2019, DALY caused by DMVD showed an upward trend in China, from 46 439 person-years in 1990 to 69 402 person-years in 2019, with an increase of 49.4%. While the age-standardized DALY rate continued to decline, from 5.5/100 000 in 1990 to 3.8/100 000 in 2019, with a drop of 30.8%. The DALY and the age-standardized DALY rate of females were always higher than that of males in different years. Conclusion: From 1990 to 2019, DALY and the age-standardized prevalence and incidence of DMVD in China shows an increasing trend, and the disease burden caused by DMVD is severe in China.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , China/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Disabled Persons , Incidence , Mitral Valve , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 834-835, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351663


Abstract We describe one case of iatrogenic rupture of the left ventricle after mitral valve replacement and myectomy of the outflow tract. The cause and site of the rupture could not be identified, neither from the internal nor from the external examination. After unsuccessful use of hemostatic patches in the surface of the ruptured area, wrapping of the ventricles with a surgical gauze pad controlled the hemorrhage, hence saving the patient's life.

Humans , Heart Ventricles/surgery , Mitral Valve/surgery
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 752-759, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351675


Abstract Introduction: Reoperations in cardiac surgery represent a clinical challenge, particularly because of the higher rate of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve reoperation owing to bioprosthesis dysfunction, transcatheter treatment with a prosthesis implantation over the prosthesis has emerged as an alternative, especially for patients with a previous approach. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodynamic behavior of transcatheter prosthesis implantation in conventional mitral bioprostheses through hydrodynamic tests and produced a recommendation for the size of transcatheter valve most adequate for valve-in-valve procedure. Methods: Mitral bioprostheses were attached to a flow duplicator and different combinations of transcatheter prostheses were implanted inside. The equipment simulates the hydrodynamic behavior of the valves submitted in vitro and determines transvalvular pressures and flow parameters. Results: All tests could be performed. Better hydrodynamic performance occurred for transcatheter prostheses 1 mm smaller than bioprostheses, except for the 27-mm bioprostheses. Effective valve areas (cm²) and transvalvular gradients (mmHg) were, respectively: Bioprosthesis × Inovare: 27 × 28 mm: 1.65 and 5.95/29 × 28 mm and 31 × 30 mm: 2.15 and 3.6. Conclusion: The mitral valve-in-valve implantation proved to be feasible in vitro. The use of 27-mm bioprostheses should be judicious, with preference for a 26-mm transcatheter valve. In the 29 and 31-mm bioprostheses, the implantation was very satisfactory, with good effective valve areas and transvalvular gradients, with preference for smaller transcatheter valves.

Humans , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Prosthesis Design , Brazil , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Treatment Outcome , Hydrodynamics , Mitral Valve/surgery
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 703-706, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351649


Abstract Multivalve redo procedures carry a high surgical risk. We describe an alternative surgical treatment for patients presenting with severely degenerated aortic and mitral valve prostheses who have to undergo open surgery due to endocarditis. Open transcatheter multivalve implantation is a feasible bailout strategy in high-risk patients to save cross-clamp and procedural times to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Humans , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Endocarditis/surgery , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Aortic Valve/surgery , Cardiac Catheterization , Treatment Outcome , Mitral Valve/surgery
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 691-699, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351651


Abstract Introduction: Iatrogenic acute aortic dissection (IAAD) type A is a rare but potentially fatal complication of cardiac surgery. Methods: The purpose of this article is to review the literature since the first reports of IAAD in 1978, examining its clinical characteristics and describing operative details and surgical outcomes. Moreover, we reviewed the recent literature to identify current trends and risk factors for IAAD in minimally invasive cardiac surgery procedures, often related to femoral artery cannulation for retrograde perfusion. Results: We found that IAAD ranges from 0.04 to 0.29% of cardiac patients in overall trials and ranged from 0.12 to 0.16% between 1978-1990, before the minimally invasive surgical era. And we concluded that since the first cases to the recent reports, the incidence of IAAD has not significantly changed. As minimally invasive procedures are on the rise, some authors think that the incidence of IAAD could increase in the future; we think that using all the precaution - such a strict monitoring of perfusion pressure throughout the intervention, avoiding extremely high jet pressures using vasodilators, repositioning of arterial cannula, or splitting perfusion in both femoral arteries -, this complication can be extremely reduced. Finally, we describe a very singular case occurring during mitral valve replacement followed by spontaneous dissection of left anterior descending artery one month later. Conclusion: The present article adds to the literature a more detailed clinical picture of this entity, including patients' characteristics, the mechanism, timing, and localization of the tear, and mortality details.

Humans , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Aortic Dissection/etiology , Aortic Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Iatrogenic Disease , Mitral Valve
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 437-443, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339189


Resumo Fundamento A doença valvar mitral reumatismal (DVMR) é a apresentação mais comum das doenças cardíacas reumáticas (DCR). Os processos de inflamação e fibrose também têm papéis significativos em sua patogênese. Estudos recentes demonstram que os tióis e o tiol-dissulfeto são marcadores de stress oxidativo inéditos e promissores. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar diferenças entre os níveis de tiol sérico e de tiol-dissulfeto em pacientes com DVMR e no grupo de controle. Métodos Noventa e dois pacientes com DVMR foram cadastrados no estudo. Cinquenta e quatro sujeitos saudáveis, e com correspondência de sexo e idade em relação ao grupo de estudo, também foram incluídos no estudo como um grupo de controle. Foram investigados os níveis de tiol nos pacientes com DVMR e o grupo de controle. Os p-valores menores que 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Os pacientes com DVMR apresentaram pressão sistólica da artéria pulmonar (PSAP) e níveis de diâmetro do átrio esquerdo (AE) mais altos que os do grupo de controle. Os níveis de tiol nativo (407±83 μmol/L vs. 297±65 μmol/L, p<0,001) e tiol total (442±82 μmol/L vs. 329±65 μmol/L, p<0,001) são mais altos no grupo de controle. Níveis de dissulfeto (16,7±4,9 μmol/L vs. 14,8±3,7 μmol/L, p=0,011) são mais altos no grupo de pacientes com DVMR. Foi identificada uma correlação positiva entre as razões dissulfeto/tiol nativo e dissulfeto/tiol total com PSAP, diâmetro de AE, e gravidade da EMi. A razão dissulfeto/tiol total é significativamente mais alta em pacientes com EMi grave que em pacientes com EMi leve a moderada. Conclusões Até onde se sabe, este é o único estudo que avaliou a homeostase tiol/dissulfeto como um preditor inédito, que está relacionado de forma mais próxima à DVMR e à gravidade da EMi.

Abstract Background Rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) is the most common presentation of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Inflammation and fibrosis processes also play significant roles in its pathogenesis. Recent studies showed that thiols and thiol-disulfide are promising novel oxidative stress markers. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate differences in the serum thiol and thiol-disulfide levels in patients with RMVD and the control group. Methods Ninety-two patients with RMVD were enrolled in the study. Fifty-four healthy subjects, age, and gender-matched with the study group, were also included in the study as a control group. This study investigated thiol levels in patients with RMVD and the control group. P-values lower than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The patients with RMVD presented higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and left atrial (LA) diameter levels than the control group. Native thiol (407±83 μmol/L vs. 297±65 μmol/L, p<0.001) and total thiol (442±82 μmol/L vs. 329±65 μmol/L, p<0.001) levels were higher in the control group. Disulfide (16.7±4.9 μmol/L vs. 14.8±3.7 μmol/L, p=0.011) levels were higher in the group of patients with RMVD. A positive correlation was found between disulfide/native and disulfide/total thiols ratio with SPAP, LA diameter, and MS severity. Disulfide/total thiols ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe MS than with mild to moderate MS patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study of its kind that has evaluated thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a novel predictor, which was more closely related to RMVD and the severity of MS.

Humans , Rheumatic Heart Disease , Disulfides , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Biomarkers , Case-Control Studies , Oxidative Stress , Healthy Volunteers , Homeostasis , Mitral Valve