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Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180858


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of unilateral loss of the lower first permanent molar (L6) on the position and development of the lower third molar (L8). Material and Methods: Fifty-four panoramic radiographs of subjects with unilateral loss of L6 were examined. The L8 on the side of the L6 loss was compared with the L8 in the hemiarch without L6 loss (contralateral). The effect of L6 loss on the positioning of L8 was examined in all the samples (n=54), whereas the effect on the development of the third molar was examined in 38 patients with L8 with incomplete root formation. The Signs statistical test was used to evaluate the comparison between loss and contralateral hemiarches. Results: In 20 (37%) of 54 subjects, the L8 was better positioned in the hemiarch with loss of the lower first molar (p<0.001) compared with the control side. In the remaining 34 subjects, no difference was found. When only the L8 considered as impacted on the control side was examined (n=30), the cases with better positioning on the side with L6 loss increased to 66.6% (p<0.001). Conclusion: The loss of lower first molars improves the position of the lower third molar during its active eruption, mainly when the lower third molar is impacted. However, L6 loss does not affect the root development of lower third molars.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontics/instrumentation , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Tooth Loss/etiology , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Molar, Third/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Dentition, Permanent
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e008, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132748


Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) voxel size on the evaluation of debris accumulation after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in curved root canals prepared with rotary nickel-titanium files. Mesial root canals (n = 24) of mandibular molars with curvature between 25° and 35° were prepared using ProDesign Logic 30/.05 (PDL) or HyFlex EDM 25/.08 (HEDM). PUI was performed after root canal preparation of all root canals. The specimens were scanned using high-resolution (5 μm voxel size) micro-CT imaging before and after experimental procedures. The percentage of debris was analyzed in the middle and apical thirds using images with 5, 10 and 20 μm voxel sizes. Data were compared using unpaired and paired Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests (α = 0.05). There were no differences among the debris analyses performed at different voxel sizes (5, 10 and 20 μm) (p > 0.05). The percentage of debris was similar between the root canals prepared by PDL and HEDM before and after PUI (p > 0.05). In both groups, the percentage of debris decreased in the middle third after PUI (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, it can be concluded that the voxel sizes evaluated did not have a significant impact on the analysis of accumulated debris. However, the results showed a tendency for detection of more debris in the analysis performed using a lower voxel size. PUI decreased the debris accumulation in the middle third of curved root canals.

Humans , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e064, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249380


Abstract: Sixty moderately curved canals of mandibular molars classified as Vertucci's type IV canal configuration were selected by micro-CT 1174. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the kinematics used, whether reciprocating or rotary motion (n=30, totaling 60 mesial root canals). The instruments used to perform the glide path procedures had identical features (0.15 mm of tip size, 0.04 mm/mm taper, thermal treatment, and square cross-section), but differed in the direction of the cutting blade. The duration of the procedure and the absolute and percentage frequency of the instruments to reach the full working length were recorded. The torsional test (3630-1; 1992) was performed on both used and unused instruments, to evaluate a possible reduction in the torsional resistance when using the glide path procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test and the chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The type of kinematics used affected the duration of glide path procedures, and the reciprocating motion seemed to induce less torsional stress during glide path procedures.

Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Biomechanical Phenomena , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e060, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249378


Abstract: This study aimed to describe the morphometric relationship of root canal orifices on the pulp floor in the presence/absence of mesiobuccal second canal (MB2) in the maxillary first molars and other aspects of its internal anatomy. Sixty-two maxillary first molars were scanned by micro-CT. The presence of the MB2 canal was verified. The distance between the center points of the MB1, MB2, distobuccal (DB), and palatal (P) canal orifices on the pulp floor were measured (MB1-MB2, MB1-DB, MB2-DB, MB1-P, and DB-P). The MB1-P to DB-P ratio was calculated. The distances between the anatomic apex and the MB1 and MB2 apical foramina were measured. The length of the band-shaped isthmus was also measured. Student's t-test was applied to verify the association between the presence of an MB2 canal, the interorifice distances, and the ratio of the MB1-P to DB-P distance (α = 5%). The MB2 canal was present in 43 roots (69.35%). Statistics showed significant differences when MB2 was present for the largest MB1-P distance (p < 0.05) and higher values for the MB1-P to DB-P ratio (p < 0.05). A band-shaped isthmus was detected in 25.8% of MB roots. The mean distance from the apical foramen to the isthmus floor ranged from 1.74 for MB1 canals to 1.42 for MB2 canals. Canal orifice distances on the pulp floor may predict the presence of MB2 canals. There was a high incidence of isthmus, accessory canals, and apical delta in the critical apical zone in MB roots of maxillary first molars.

Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e022, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153612


Abstract This study aimed to determine the mean distances between apexes of the maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus, between apexes of the mandibular posterior teeth and the mandibular canal, and between the root apexes of all teeth and the adjacent cortical plates. A total of 800 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (400 maxillary and 400 mandibular) were obtained from patients indicated for several treatments. The proximity between apexes and anatomical structures, and the relationship between apexes and adjacent cortical plates were assessed together with the risk of over-instrumentation. Paired-sample comparisons were performed by using the paired t-test. The means were compared by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner tests. a) Most of the apexes classified as A (high-risk proximity) were observed in maxillary first and second molars, in mandibular first and second molars, and in second premolars in relation to near anatomical structures. b) A predominance of class A (86.42%) was noticed in the first premolars, between apexes of maxillary teeth and adjacent cortical plates. c) The distance between apexes of mandibular teeth and buccal cortical plates showed a predominance of medium-risk proximity (B) in all the groups, except the first premolars, with the highest risk (82.22%), and the second molars, with low-risk proximity (C) to distal and mesiobuccal apexes (91.77% and 89.62%). CBCT images are important for endodontic diagnosis and treatment, since many teeth have high risk proximity to near anatomical structures and adjacent cortical plates.

Humans , Maxillary Sinus , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Cortex , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(4): e2119360, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339804


ABSTRACT Introduction: Orthodontists have been using clear aligners to treat malocclusions, and one potential effect of treatment with orthodontic aligners is the intrusion and/or resists extrusion of the posterior teeth. This "bite-block effect" is primarily anecdotal due to the frequent occurrence of posterior open bites in patients after clear aligner therapy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare changes promoted by clear aligners and traditional fixed appliances in cephalometric measurements of the vertical dimension and molar position in adult patients with Class I malocclusion treated with non-extraction. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult patients treated with either clear aligners (n=44) or traditional fixed appliances (n=22) were selected for retrospective analysis. Eight interval measurements and one nominal measurement were evaluated: anterior overbite (OB), mandibular plane angle related to cranial base (SN_MP) and related to Frankfort (FMA), lower molar height (L6H) and upper molar height (U6H), palatal plane to mandibular plane angle (PP_MP), lower facial height (LFH), total facial height (TFH), and posterior open bite (Posterior_OB). A single evaluator traced all cephalographs, and changes in select measures of the vertical dimension were compared within and between groups. Results: OB decreased (1.15 mm) and L6H increased (0.63 mm) in the traditional fixed appliance group. Mandibular plane angles (related to cranial base and to Frankfort) increased (0.43° and 0.53°, respectively) in the clear aligner group, but just FMA showed significant difference between groups (difference of 0.53°). LFH and TFH increased (ranging from 0.52 mm to 0.80 mm) in both groups, with no differences between treatment modality. Presence of visible posterior open bite significantly increased over the course of treatment. OB, FMA and L6H exhibited an interaction between treatment stage (pre- and post-treatment) and modality (clear aligner therapy and traditional fixed appliances), but no interaction among these three variables was found. Conclusions: The evidence does not support the theory that clear aligner therapy produces better vertical dimension control than traditional fixed appliances. Traditional fixed appliance therapy slightly extruded the lower molar, and clear aligner therapy produced a slightly mandibular backward rotation.

RESUMO Introdução: Ortodontistas têm usado os alinhadores transparentes para tratar más oclusões, e um potencial efeito desse tratamento é a intrusão e/ou resistência à extrusão dos dentes posteriores. Esse efeito de "bloco de mordida" é principalmente empírico, devido à ocorrência frequente de mordidas abertas posteriores em pacientes após a terapia com alinhadores transparentes. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as mudanças promovidas pelos alinhadores transparentes e aparelho fixo convencional nas medidas cefalométricas de dimensão vertical e posição do molar em pacientes adultos com má oclusão de Classe I tratados sem exodontias. Métodos: Radiografias cefalométricas laterais pré- e pós-tratamento de pacientes adultos tratados com alinhadores transparentes (n=44) ou com aparelho fixo tradicional (n=22) foram selecionadas para uma análise retrospectiva. Oito medidas de intervalo e uma medida nominal foram avaliadas: trespasse vertical anterior (OB), ângulo do plano mandibular em relação à base do crânio (SN_MP) e em relação ao Plano de Frankfurt (FMA), altura do molar inferior (L6H) e altura do molar superior (U6H), ângulo do plano palatal ao plano mandibular (PP_MP), altura facial inferior (LFH), altura facial total (TFH) e mordida aberta posterior (Posterior_OB). Um único avaliador fez todos os traçados cefalométricos, e as mudanças nas medidas da dimensão vertical foram comparadas intra e intergrupos. Resultados: OB reduziu (1,15 mm) e L6H aumentou (0,63 mm) no grupo de aparelho fixo tradicional. Os ângulos do plano mandibular (em relação à base do crânio e ao plano de Frankfurt) aumentaram (0,43° e 0,53°, respectivamente). No grupo dos alinhadores invisíveis, apenas o FMA apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos (diferença de 0,53º). LFH e TFH aumentaram (variando de 0,52 mm a 0,80 mm) em ambos os grupos, sem diferenças entre as modalidades de tratamento. A presença de uma mordida aberta posterior visível aumentou significativamente durante o curso do tratamento. OB, FMA e L6H exibiram interação entre o estágio do tratamento (pré- e pós-tratamento) e a modalidade (terapia com alinhadores invisíveis ou aparelho fixo tradicional), porém não foi encontrada interação entre essas três variáveis. Conclusões: A evidência não suporta a teoria de que a terapia com alinhadores invisíveis produz melhor controle da dimensão vertical do que o aparelho fixo. O tratamento com aparelhagem fixa extruiu ligeiramente o molar inferior, e o tratamento com alinhadores invisíveis produziu uma ligeira rotação posterior da mandíbula.

Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Vertical Dimension , Cephalometry , Retrospective Studies , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Mandible , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1571-1576, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134480


SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the clinical and radiographic examination (CRE) method compared to the examination with the dental operating microscope (DOM) on the detection of anatomical features of mesiobuccal canals in maxillary first molars. One hundred maxillary first molars were selected to assess the number of canals orifice entrances, accessibility, and ending of their mesiobuccal canals using the CRE method and the examination with the DOM. The diagnostic tests of the CRE exhibited, in general, high levels of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. However, low levels of these outcomes occurred, mainly, on the detection of the number of canals entrance orifices of the mesiobuccal root. The statistically significant differences (p<0.05) occurred for accessibility and ending of canals in 61 of the 62 cases (out of 100) when two of them were present: 2 accessible root canals (48 cases; 77.42 %), and 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible canals (13 cases; 20.97 %); 1 foramen after fusion (18 cases; 29.03 %), 2 foramens (30 cases; 48.39 %), and 1 foramen and 1 blind foramen (13 cases; 20.97 %). This study proves that the clinical and radiographic method (still the most commonly used worldwide) can't be trusted absolutely in situations of complex internal anatomy regarding the mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary first molars.

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad del método de examen clínico y radiográfico (ECR) en comparación al examen con el microscopio quirúrgico dental (MQD) en la detección de características anatómicas de los canales mesiovestibulares en primeros molares maxilares.Se seleccionaron 100 primeros molares maxilares para evaluar el número de entradas de los canales, la accesibilidad y la terminación de sus canales mesiovestibulares utilizando el método ECR y el examen con el MQD.Las pruebas de diagnóstico del ECR exhibieron, en general, altos niveles de precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad. Sin embargo, también hubo niveles bajos de estos resultados, principalmente, en la detección del número de orificios de entrada a los canales de las raíces mesiovestibulares. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) para la accesibilidad y terminación de los canales en 61 de los 62 casos (del total de 100), cuando dos de ellos estaban presentes: 2 canales radiculares accesibles (48 casos, 77,42 %), y 1 accesible y 1 inaccesible (13 casos, 20,97 %). Después de la fusión, un orificio (18 casos, 29,03 %), 2 orificios (30 casos, 48,39 %) y 1 orificio más otro, ciego (13 casos, 20,97 %). Este estudio demuestra que no se puede confiar plenamente en el método clínico y radiográfico (todavía el más utilizado en todo el mundo), cuando existe una anatomía interna compleja de los canales de la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares superiores.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Molar/anatomy & histology , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Dental , Sensitivity and Specificity , Maxilla , Microscopy/methods , Microsurgery
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 466-473, dic. 31, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178940


Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and three intraoral radiographic systems in the detection of in vitro caries lesions. Material and Methods: One hundred teeth (46 molars and 54 premolars) were evaluated, including 176 proximal surfaces and 90 occlusal surfaces, with or without dental caries lesions. Digital images of all teeth were obtained using specific intraoral radiographs, VistaScan DürrDental®phosphor-plate radiography, XIOS XG Sirona® digital sensor radiography, and CBCT I-CATTM. Observers evaluated the images for the detection of caries lesions. The teeth were clinically sectioned and stereomicroscopy served as a validation tool. The relationship of sensitivity and specificity between all systems was determined through the ROC curve using Az values. Results: The values of the area under the curve (Az) selected for the CBCT I-CATTM system were 0.89 (0.84-0.93), for conventional radiography 0.71 (0.66-0.76), digital sensor radiography 0.74 (0.70-0.78) and digital radiography with phosphor-plates 0.73 (0.69-0.77). Statistically significant differences were found between the CBCT I-CATTM system and intraoral radiographic systems (p<0.01). The sensitivity and specificity values for the CBCT I-CATTM were 0.84 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion: CBCT has a high sensitivity and specificity compared to intraoral radiographic systems for the diagnosis of dental caries lesions in vitro.

Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue comparar la precisión diagnóstica de la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico y tres sistemas radiográficos intraorales en la detección de lesiones de caries in vitro. Material y Métodos: Se evaluaron 100 dientes, 46 molares y 54 premolares; 176 superficies proximales y 90 superficies oclusales, con o sin lesión de caries dental. Se obtuvieron imágenes digitales de todos los dientes utilizando radiografías intraorales convencionales, radiografía con placas de fósforo VistaScan DürrDental®, radiografía con sensor digital XIOS XG Sirona® y CBCT I- C ATTM. Tres observadores evaluaron las imágenes para la detección de lesiones de caries. Los dientes se seccionaron clínicamente y la estereomicroscopía sirvió como herramienta de validación. Se determinó relación de sensibilidad y especificidad entre todos los sistemas a través de la curva ROC utilizando valores Az. Resultados: Los valores de área debajo de la curva (Az) obtenidos para el sistema CBCT I-CATTM fueron de 0.89 (0.84-0.93), para radiografía convencional 0.71 (0.66-0.76), radiografía con sensor digital 0.74 (0.70-0.78) y radiografía digital con placas de fósforo 0.73 (0.69-0.77). Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el sistema CBCT I-CATTM y todos los sistemas radiográficos convencionales y digitales (p<0.01). Los valores de sensibilidad y especificidad para el CBCT I-CATTM fueron 0.84 y 0.93 respectivamente. Conclusión: La CBCT tiene una alta sensibilidad y especificidad en comparación a los sistemas radiográficos intraorales en el diagnóstico de lesiones de caries dental in vitro.

Humans , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Peru , In Vitro Techniques , Molar/diagnostic imaging
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190628, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134803


Abstract The study of dental development in individuals born with cleft lip and palate (CLP) serves to determine when orthodontic intervention should start. Objective To evaluate the permanent second molar development in children born with cleft lip and palate according to Demirjian's and Nolla's methods. Methodology Out of a total of 513 digital panoramic radiographs, 113 pairs of children aged 3 to 16 years were selected. The exams were from children born with or without cleft lip and palate, of the same sex, with an age difference of up to 30 days. The images were analyzed by three examiners and reliability was checked through intra-examiner agreement by the Kappa test. The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon's and Mann-Whitney tests according to each dataset. Results The findings indicated delayed development of the permanent second molars in children with CLP (P<0.001). The development of the right permanent second molar was delayed compared to the left molar in children with CLP. Moreover, mandibular teeth showed significantly earlier development than maxillary teeth in both the case and control groups. There was no significant difference in the development of permanent second molars between sexes. Conclusion Children with CLP presented delay in the development of permanent second molars.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cleft Lip/physiopathology , Cleft Palate/physiopathology , Dentition, Permanent , Molar/growth & development , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Molar/diagnostic imaging
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190168, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090767


Abstract Isthmuses are reported as common anatomic complexities in teeth often associated with failures in endodontic treatment. They should be considered before starting treatment and a preoperative computed tomography scan (CT) may demonstrate these complexities. Objective To assess the diagnostic value of the highest resolution settings of a cone-beam CT (CBCT) system in identifying and measuring apical isthmuses, using micro-CT as reference. Methodology After micro-CT scanning, 40 humans' lower first molars with isthmuses in the apical-3 mm of mesial roots were scanned by the highest resolution settings of the New Generation i-Cat ® CBCT equipment. Two blinded observers recorded the detection of isthmuses in CBCT scans. The lengths of isthmuses were compared between micro-CT and CBCT to assess the diagnostic value of CBCT. Quantitative data for sensitivity were represented as percentages (95% confidence interval). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess differences between gold standard lengths (micro-CT) and CBCT lengths. Results BCT demonstrated 30 positive findings, representing sensitivity for isthmus identification of 75% (95% CI=0.4114-1.1364). Differences between the lengths in micro-CT (1.99±0.40 mm) and CBCT (1.53±0.41 mm) were significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion The CBCT device used presented limited diagnostic value in the identification and measurement of apical isthmuses in the mesial roots of lower molars. In some cases, the actual anatomy of the apical root canal may not be completely delineated in this type of CBCT system, even using the highest resolution settings.

Humans , Tooth Root/anatomy & histology , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Organ Size , Reference Values , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molar/anatomy & histology , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Odontol. vital ; (30): 87-97, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1091418


Resumen La revascularización amplía, hoy en día, el panorama de cómo recuperar un diente que se encuentra con un tercio de su formación radicular, producto de un evento de necrosis pulpar. El procedimiento indicado por la literatura implica una serie de pasos como el uso de pasta tri o biantibiótica o del hidróxido de calcio, para lograr mayor éxito en la técnica. Sin embargo, hay excepciones a la regla. Se describe un caso clínico, el cual incluyó una revascularización no planeada y a la cual, como consecuencia de los materiales utilizados, el diente respondió de excelente manera. Se modificaron las técnicas descritas en la literatura y se logró la formación radicular, demostrada a nivel radiográfico, aún en presencia de una fuerte infección, la cual se drenó por tejido extraoral, manifestando el alto grado de concentración bacteriana en la zona afectada. Como resultado, una vez más se muestra el potencial de regeneración, diferenciación y capacidad de respuesta de las células madre. El caso clínico tiene una evolución de 8 años.

Abstract Nowadays, revascularization gives us a wider panoramic in saving a tooth from pulp necrosis. The procedure involves a series of steps, including the use of antibiotic paste to increase the chance of success. However, some exceptions may apply to the rule. A clinical case is described, which -as a consequence of the use of specific materials- was transformed into a revascularization case. The revascularization technique was modified and a radicular formation was accomplished, as shown in the main X ray, even with a severe infection which was drained by extraoral tissue, demonstrating a higher level presence of bacteria in the affected area. As a result, this clinical case showed the potential of pulp regeneration and most importantly, the potential of stem cells and its differentiation and response capacity. The case has an evolution of eight years.

Humans , Male , Child , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Cavity , Regenerative Endodontics , Regeneration , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e082, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019606


Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the internal configuration of the maxillary molars of a population from the Northeast region of Brazil. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams from 512 patients (1501 teeth) were evaluated regarding the anatomical configuration of the root canal system, according to Vertucci's classification. The images were obtained using a Prexion 3D scanner operating at 90 kVp and 4 mA. The voxel size was 0.125 mm and the cut thickness was 1 mm. The images were then analyzed in the Prexion 3D Viewer software. The data were analyzed statistically by Pearson's chi-square test, with 5% of significance. The first and second molars presented three roots in 99.14% and 87.27% of the cases, respectively. In relation to the number of canals, the first and second molars had a significantly higher frequency of three and four root canals respectively, presenting a higher prevalence of types I and II (p < 0.001). The second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) was observed in 48.21% and 22.72% of the first and second molars, respectively (p < 0.001). The identification of the MB2 canal was greater in young and adult patients (p < 0.001), presenting a higher prevalence in male patients (p < 0.001). The internal configuration of the MB root was influenced by gender and by age, presenting a higher prevalence of the MB2 in male patients younger than 50 years of age.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Molar/anatomy & histology , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Brazil , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Maxilla , Middle Aged
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 9(1): 66-74, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-999003


Este estudio presenta un relato de caso clínico sobre la retención de molares primarios, el objetivo es describir los medios de diagnóstico, la etiología, las implicaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de esta condición. Factores etiológicos locales, ambientales o genéticos pueden llevar a la retención de molares primarios, interfiriendo en la secuencia normal de erupción de los premolares. Paciente de sexo femenino, 12 años de edad, compareció a la clínica de Odontopediatría de la Facultad de Odontología de Araçatuba (FOA/UNESP), Brasil, con queja de dolor y aumento volumétrico en la región vestibular del diente 63 y cuadro casode erupción dentaria incompatible con la edad cronológica de los dientes 54/55, 75, 84/85. Exámenes complementarios fueron realizados para el establecimiento del diagnóstico, el cual se definió como retención prolongada de molares primarios. La conducta terapéutica fue basada en la realización de exodoncia de los dientes con retención prolongada, seguida del control clínico y radiográfico, hasta la erupción de los sucesores. Se concluye que el diagnóstico y la intervención temprana para la retención prolongada son de fundamental importancia para evitar daños a la oclusión.

Objetivo: Apresentar um relato de caso clínico sobre a retenção de molares de dentes decíduos, como o objetivo de descrever os meios de diagnóstico, a etiologia, as implicações clínicas e o tratamento desta condição. Fatores etiológicos locais, ambientais ou genéticos podem levar à retenção de molares decíduos, interferindo na sequência normal de erupção dos pré-molares. Paciente do sexo feminino, 12 anos de idade, compareceu à clínica de Odontopediatria da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba (FOA/UNESP), Brasil queixando-se de dor e aumento volumétrico na região vestibular do dente 63 e quadro de erupção dentária incompatível com a idade cronológica dos dentes 54/55, 65, 74/75, 84/85. Exames complementares foram realizados para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico, o qual foi definiu-se como retenção prolongada de molares decíduos. A conduta terapêutica baseou-se na realização de exodontia dos dentes com retenção prolongada, seguida do controle clínico e radiográfico, até a erupção dos sucessores. Conclui-se que o diagnóstico e a intervenção precoces para a retenção prolongada são de fundamental importância para evitar danos à oclusão.

This study shows a clinical case report about the retention of primary molars, with the aim of describing diagnosis, etiology, clinical implications and treatment of this condition. Local, environmental or genetic etiologic factors may lead to retention of primary molars, interfering with the normal sequence of eruption of the premolars. A 12-year-old female patient attended the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry of Araçatuba (FOA / UNESP), complaining of pain and volumetric increase in the buccal region of the tooth 63 and a scenario of age-incompatible eruption chronological analysis of teeth 54/55, 64/65, 74/75, 84/85. Complementary examinations were performed to establish the diagnosis, which was defined as prolonged retention of deciduous molars. Therapeutic conduct was based on the extraction of teeth with prolonged retention, followed by clinical and radiographic control until the successors erupted. It is concluded that the early diagnosis and intervention for prolonged retention are of fundamental Latinoamericanaimportance to avoid occlusal complications.

Humans , Child , Molar , Surgery, Oral , Denture Retention , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1394-1397, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975714


El conocimiento de las relaciones anatómicas entre el piso del seno maxilar y los ápices de dientes maxilares posteriores, es muy importante al planificar una terapia endodóntica o cirugías en molares maxilares. Este estudio tiene por objetivo, establecer la distancia existente entre el ápice de la raíz palatina del primer molar superior y el piso del seno maxilar, obtenida de una muestra de 61 tomografías volumétricas Cone beam. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, donde se procedió a medir la distancia entre el ápice de la raíz palatina del primer molar superior y el piso del seno maxilar en 61 tomografías volumétricas Cone Beam, obteniendo medidas de un total de 107 raíces palatinas de molares maxilares. Las imágenes fueron almacenadas en formato DICOM y analizadas con el software Sky View Dental Plan en un computador HP Compaq LA1951g Z600 y en su análisis estadístico se utilizó el Programa Stata 11.0. El promedio de distancia registrado entre el ápice de la raíz palatina del primer molar superior y el piso del seno maxilar fue de 1,2 mm. La mayor distancia fue de 12,5 mm y la menor de 0 mm. La medida de 0 mm se presentó en 48 casos y alcanzó al 44,9 % de la muestra. Es frecuente que los ápices radiculares se encuentren dentro del seno maxilar, condición que debe ser de conocimiento clínico, con el objetivo de prevenir al máximo accidentes y complicaciones en las terapias endodónticas.

The knowledge of the anatomical relationships between the floor of the maxillary sinus and the apices of the posterior maxillary teeth is very important when planning an endodontic therapy or surgeries in the area. The objective of this study is to establish the distance between the apex of the palatal root of the first maxillary molar and the floor of the maxillary sinus, in a sample of 61 cone-beam computed tomography. A crosssectional observational study was carried out. We proceeded to measure the distance between the apex of the palatal root of the first upper molar and the floor of the maxillary sinus in 61 conebeam computed tomography, obtaining measurements of a total of 107 first maxillary molar palatal roots. The images were stored in DICOM format and analyzed with the Sky View software and the Stata 11.0. for statistical analysis. The average distance recorded between the apex of the palatal root of the first upper molar and the floor of the maxillary sinus was 1.2 mm. The greatest distance was 12.5 mm and the smallest was 0 mm. The measurement of 0 mm was presented in 48 cases and reached 44.9 % of the sample. It is common for radicular apices to be located within the maxillary sinus. The clinician must know this condition to prevent accidents and complications in the endodontic therapies as much as possible.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Root/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Maxillary Sinus/anatomy & histology , Molar/anatomy & histology
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(8): 356-362, nov. 30, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121069


Objectives: to establish the frequency of the various types of direct contacts of the root apices with the wall of the mandibular canal and to determine gender differences in number of such contacts in a selected belarusian population using cone beam computed tomography. methodology: one hundred and two cone beam computed tomography scans were analyzed to classify the types of contact and three-dimensional relationship between the mandibular teeth and the mandibular canal. results: the direct contact between the teeth and the mandibular canal was observed in 63.7 percent of patients. overall 300 roots of 189 teeth were in direct contact with the mandibular canal: 9.3 percent were second premolars, 14.7 percent were first molars, 33.8 percent were second molars and 50.0 percent were third molars. there were no statistically significant differences in the number of teeth with direct contact with the mandibular canal between males and females. conclusion: the direct contact of the root apices with the mandibular canal was most often found in the second and third molars. the root apices of the third molars had the greatest variability of location relatively to the mandibular canal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tooth Root/anatomy & histology , Bicuspid/anatomy & histology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Molar/anatomy & histology , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Bicuspid/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(5): 39.e1-39.e13, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975019


Abstract Introduction: The selection of appropriate sites for miniscrew insertion is critical for clinical success. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate how interradicular spaces measured on panoramic radiograph compare with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), and how crowding can influence the presence of available space for miniscrew insertion, in order to define a new "safe zones" map. Methods: A total of 80 pre-treatment panoramic radiographs and 80 CBCT scans with corresponding digital models were selected from the archives of the department of Dentistry, Aarhus University. Crowding was measured on digital models, while interradicular spaces mesial to the second molars were measured on panoramic radiographs and CBCTs. For panoramic radiographs, a magnification factor was calculated using tooth widths measured on digital models. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between the amount of crowding and the available interradicular space. Visual maps showing the amount of interradicular spaces measured were drawn. Results: The most convenient interradicular spaces are those between the second molar and the first premolar in the mandible, and between the central incisors in the maxilla. However, some spaces were revealed to be influenced by crowding. Conclusions: Calibration of panoramic radiographs is of utmost importance. Generally, panoramic radiographs underestimate the available space. Preliminary assessment of miniscrew insertion feasibility and the related selection of required radiographs can be facilitated using the new "safe zone" maps presented in this article.

Resumo Introdução: a seleção de locais apropriados para a inserção de mini-implantes é crítica para o sucesso clínico. Objetivo: os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar as medições de espaços inter-radiculares feitas em radiografias panorâmicas e compará-las com as medições feitas com tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC), além de avaliar como o apinhamento pode influenciar na disponibilidade de espaços para inserção dos mini-implantes, no intuito de definir um novo mapa de "áreas seguras". Métodos: foram selecionadas, nos arquivos do departamento de Ortodontia da Aarhus University, 80 radiografias panorâmicas pré-tratamento e 80 imagens de TCFC com os modelos digitais correspondentes. O apinhamento foi medido nos modelos digitais, enquanto os espaços inter-radiculares mesiais aos segundos molares foram medidos nas radiografias panorâmicas e na TCFC. O fator de magnificação das radiografias panorâmicas foi calculado utilizando-se as larguras dentárias medidas nos modelos digitais. Análises estatísticas foram realizadas para investigar a correlação entre a quantidade de apinhamento e o espaço inter-radicular disponível. Foram desenhados mapas visuais mostrando a quantidade dos espaços inter-radiculares medidos. Resultados: os espaços inter-radiculares mais adequados são aqueles entre o segundo molar e o primeiro pré-molar inferior, e entre os incisivos centrais superiores. Porém, verificou-se que alguns espaços são influenciados pelo apinhamento. Conclusões: A calibração das radiografias panorâmicas é de suma importância, pois, geralmente, as radiografias panorâmicas subestimam o espaço disponível. A avaliação preliminar da viabilidade de inserção dos mini-implantes e a seleção das radiografias necessárias para isso podem ser facilitadas utilizando-se os novos mapas de "áreas seguras" aqui apresentados.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bone Screws , Dental Arch/diagnostic imaging , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Calibration , Radiography, Panoramic , Retrospective Studies , Dental Arch/anatomy & histology , Dental Implantation/methods , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Molar/anatomy & histology
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 35.e1-35.e9, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953024


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the three-dimensional effects of the conventional helical uprighting spring (CA) and the mini-implant assisted helical uprighting spring (MIA), using CBCT scans. Methods: Twenty patients with mesially tipped second mandibular molars were divided into two groups: CA group, in which 10 patients were treated using a conventional helical uprighting spring with conventional anchorage; and MIA group, in which 10 patients were treated using a mini-implant supported uprighting spring. Molar uprighting was observed in both groups for a period of four months. Two standardized 11×5-cm CBCT sections of the mandible were taken, being one prior to uprighting and one at the end of the four month follow-up. Statistical analyses at the beginning of treatment and after a 4 month follow-up were performed, with a significance level of p< 0.05. Results: The mean amount of change in mesiodistal angulation in the MIA group was 8.53 ± 2.13o (p< 0.001) and in the CA group was 9.8 ± 0.5o (p< 0 .001). Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups with regard to buccolingual inclination of canine, first and second premolars (p< 0.05), second molar (p< 0.001) and extrusion of second molar (p< 0.05). Conclusions: The mean amount of change in the mesial angulation of the second molar in the CA as well as the MIA groups was similar. MIA, which used mini-implant as a source of anchorage, was more effective in preventing movement of the anchorage teeth as well as preventing extrusion of the second molar in the vertical plane, when compared to the CA group, which used dental units as a source of anchorage.

RESUMO Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo prospectivo foi comparar, usando imagens de TCFC, os efeitos tridimensionais da mola convencional de verticalização (CA) e da mola de verticalização com ancoragem em mini-implantes (MIA). Métodos: vinte pacientes com segundos molares inferiores inclinados mesialmente foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo CA, no qual 10 pacientes foram tratados usando mola helicoidal de verticalização com ancoragem convencional; e grupo MIA, com 10 pacientes tratados usando mola de verticalização ancorada em mini-implantes. A verticalização dos molares foi observada nos dois grupos por um período de quatro meses. Foram obtidas duas secções tomográficas da mandíbula, com dimensões padronizadas de 11 x 5 cm, uma antes da verticalização e outra ao fim dos quatro meses de acompanhamento. As análises estatísticas ao início do tratamento e após os quatro meses de acompanhamento foram realizadas a um nível de significância de p< 0,05. Resultados: a média das alterações na angulação mesiodistal do grupo MIA foi de 8,53 ± 2,13o (p< 0,001), e do grupo CA foi de 9,8 ± 0,5o (p< 0,001). Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram encontradas entre os dois grupos em relação à inclinação vestibulolingual do canino, do primeiro e segundo pré-molares (p< 0,05) e do segundo molar (p< 0,001), bem como para a extrusão do segundo molar (p< 0,05). Conclusões: a alteração média na angulação mesial do segundo molar nos grupos CA e MIA foi semelhante. O método MIA, que usou mini-implantes como ancoragem, foi mais efetivo na prevenção da movimentação dos dentes de ancoragem, bem como na prevenção da extrusão do segundo molar no plano vertical, quando comparado com o grupo CA, em que dentes foram usados como fonte de ancoragem.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tooth Movement Techniques/methods , Dental Implants , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Movement Techniques/instrumentation , Prospective Studies , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/instrumentation
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 290-295, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951552


Abstract The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the remaining microbial load after treatments based on complete and selective caries removal and sealing. Patients with active carious lesions in a permanent molar were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a test group (selective caries removal-SCR; n=18) and a control group (complete caries removal - CCR; n=18). Dentin samples were collected following the excavation and three months after sealing. Streptococcus species, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus species, and total viable microorganisms were cultured to count the viable cells and frequency of species isolation. CCR resulted in significant lower total viable microorganisms counts (p≤0.001), Streptococcus species (p≤0.001) and Lactobacillus species (p≤0.001) initially. However, after sealing, a decrease in total viable microorganisms, Streptococcus species, and Lactobacillus species in the SCR resulted in no difference between the groups after 3 months. In conclusion, selective caries removal is as effective as complete caries removal in reducing dentin bacterial load 3 months after sealing.

Resumo O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi comparar os microrganismos remanescentes após tratamentos baseados em remoção total de tecido cariado e selamento e a remoção seletiva de tecido cariado e selamento. Pacientes com lesões de cárie ativas em molares permanentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo teste (remoção seletiva de tecido cariado-SCR; n=18), e grupo de controle (remoção total de tecido cariado-CCR; n=18). Amostras de dentina foram obtidas após a remoção da tecido cariado e após 3 meses de selamento das cavidades. Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. e microrganismos viáveis totais foram cultivados para contagem de células e frequência de isolamento de espécies. CCR resultou em menores contagens totais de microorganismos viáveis (p≤0,001), Streptococcus spp. (p≤0,001) e Lactobacillus spp. (p≤0,001) inicialmente. Entretanto, após o selamento, uma redução significativa nas contagens totais de microrganismos viáveis, Streptococcus spp. e Lactobacillus spp. resultou em nenhuma diferença entre os grupos após 3 meses. Conclui-se que a remoção seletiva de cárie é tão seletiva quanto a remoção completa de cárie na redução da infecção dentinária após três meses com selamento da lesão.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/therapy , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Molar/microbiology , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 159-165, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951525


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and histological outcomes of the dentin-pulp complex from primary molars after pulpotomy with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and 15.5% ferric sulfate (FS). Thirty-one primary molars were randomly allocated into MTA or FS groups. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 3-, 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up. Teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Clinical and radiographic data were tested by statistical analysis (p≤0.01). Histological outcomes were analyzed descriptively. All of the treated teeth presented clinical success over the experimental periods. Both groups exhibited 100% of radiographic success at 3, 6 and 12 months. At the 18-month follow-up, one tooth from FS group presented inter-radicular radiolucency (p>0.01). Histologically, the treated teeth presented pulp vitality and absence of inflammatory infiltrate into the connective tissue. Only MTA group showed hard tissue barrier surrounded by odontoblasts over the pulp stumps. Both MTA and 15.5% FS are effective for pulpotomies of primary teeth. Although MTA is considered the first-choice material, FS may be a suitable alternative when treatment cost is an issue.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados clínicos, radiográficos e histológicos do complexo dentino-pulpar de molares decíduos após pulpotomia com agregado trióxido mineral (MTA) e sulfato férrico (SF) 15,5%. Trinta e um molares decíduos foram alocados aleatoriamente nos grupos MTA ou SF. As avaliações clínicas e radiográficas foram realizadas aos 3, 6, 12 e 18 meses de acompanhamento. Os dentes no período regular de esfoliação foram extraídos e processados ​​para análise histológica. Os dados clínicos e radiográficos foram analisados estatisticamente (p≤0,01). O resultados histológicos foram analisados ​​descritivamente. Todos os dentes tratados apresentaram sucesso clínico ao longo dos períodos experimentais. Ambos os grupos exibiram 100% de sucesso radiográfico aos 3, 6 e 12 meses. Aos 18 meses de acompanhamento, um dente do grupo SF apresentou radiolucidez interradicular (p>0,01). Histologicamente, os dentes tratados apresentaram vitalidade pulpar e ausência de infiltrado inflamatório no tecido conjuntivo. Somente o grupo MTA mostrou barreira de tecido duro rodeada por odontoblastos sobre os cotos pulpares. MTA e SF 15,5% são eficazes para pulpotomias de dentes decíduos. Embora o MTA seja considerado o material de primeira escolha, o SF pode ser uma alternativa adequada quando o custo do tratamento é um problema.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Oxides/administration & dosage , Pulpectomy/methods , Ferric Compounds/administration & dosage , Calcium Compounds/administration & dosage , Aluminum Compounds/administration & dosage , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents , Tooth, Deciduous/surgery , Tooth, Deciduous/pathology , Tooth, Deciduous/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Dental , Treatment Outcome , Dental Pulp/pathology , Drug Combinations , Molar/pathology , Molar/diagnostic imaging
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(3): 94-97, mar. 28, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120592


Objective: to determine the prevalence of hypercementosis in a Saudi Arabian population. material and methods: a total of 642 CBCT scans from patients comprising 4471 teeth were incorporated in the study sample. all teeth were analyzed for the presence of hypercementosis in sagittal, axial and coronal plains by two qualified and experienced observers. the characteristics of the involved tooth in terms of gender, jaw and location were recorded from the CBCT scans. the obtained data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 21.0. the reliability of measurements was evaluated by kappa statistics. results: out of total 642 subjects hypercementosis was observed in 31 patients (4.82 percent) and 43 teeth (0.96 percent). Eight (2.68 percent) maxillary 1st molars, 6 (1.88 percent) mandibular 1st molars, 5 (1.46 percent) maxillary second molars, 7 (1.95 percent) mandibular 2nd molars, 9 (4.76 percent) maxillary 3rd molars and 8 (3.58 percent) mandibular 3rd molars were observed to have hypercementosis. among males, 4.76 percent were affected with hypercementosis as compared to 4.86 percent of females (p=0.97). likewise, no significant difference in the occurrence of hypercementosis was observed between maxillary and mandibular arches or between sides (p>0.05). conclusion: the prevalence of hypercementosis in a Saudi population was found to be 4.82 percent with respect to patients and 0.96 percent with respect to teeth. No significant propensity for gender, jaw and arch side was noted.

Humans , Hypercementosis/epidemiology , Hypercementosis/diagnostic imaging , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Bicuspid/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Incisor/diagnostic imaging , Mandible , Maxilla , Molar/diagnostic imaging