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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19544, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429970


Abstract A new series of N-Mannich bases of 2-Phenyl-5-benzimidazole sulfonic acid have been synthesized through amino methylation reaction with secondary amines. The two moieties were held together through a methylene bridge, which comes from formaldehyde (Formalin Solution 37%) used in the reaction. Chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed using FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Different in vitro assays including Anti-oxidant, Enzyme inhibition, Anti-microbial and Cytotoxicity assay were performed to evaluate the biological potential with reference to the standard drug. Among the synthesized library, compound 3a shows maximum alpha-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 66.66 µg/ml, compound 3d was found most toxic with LC50 value of 10.17 µg/ml. ADME evaluation studies were performed with the help of Molinspiration online software. Docking calculations were also performed. Given the importance of the nucleus involved, the synthesized compound might find extensive medicinal applications as reported in the literature.

Benzimidazoles/agonists , Mannich Bases/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sulfonic Acids/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , alpha-Glucosidases/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Methylation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19958, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383955


Abstract The ß-carboline-1,3,5-triazine hydrochlorides 8-13 were evaluated in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The analysed compounds were selective to BuChE, with IC50 values in the range from 1.0-18.8 µM being obtained. The N-{2-[(4,6-dihydrazinyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]ethyl}-1-phenyl-ß-carboline-3-carboxamide (12) was the most potent compound and kinetic studies indicate that it acts as a competitive inhibitor of BuChE. Molecular docking studies show that 12 strongly interacts with the residues of His438 (residue of the catalytic triad) and Trp82 (residue of catalytic anionic site), confirming that this compound competes with the same binding site of the butyrylthiocholine

Triazines/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pain , Acetylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Butyrylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Butyrylthiocholine/adverse effects , Carbolines/agonists , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18310, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350230


This study aimed to evaluate the anticholinesterase activities of extracts and fractions of Ocotea daphnifolia in vitro and characterize its constituents. The effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were determined with a spectrophotometry assay. All extracts inhibited cholinesterase activity, and the ethanolic extract (2 mg/mL) exhibited the highest inhibition of both enzymes (99.7% for BuChE and 82.4% for AChE). The ethanolic extract was fractionated by column chromatography resulting in 14 fractions that were also screened for their anticholinesterase effects. Fraction 9 (2 mg/mL) showed the highest activity, inhibiting AChE and BuChE by 71.8% and 90.2%, respectively. This fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry which allowed the characterization of seven glycosylated flavonoids (containing kaempferol and quercetin nucleus) and one alkaloid (reticuline). In order to better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction of the reticuline toward cholinesterase, molecular modeling studies were performed. Reticuline targeted the catalytic activity site of the enzymes. Ocotea daphnifolia exhibits a dual cholinesterase inhibitory activity and displays the same pattern of intermolecular interactions as described in the literature. The alkaloid reticuline can be considered as an important bioactive constituent of this plant.

In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Ocotea/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Flavonoids , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Alkaloids
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19190048, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055378


Abstract Phytochemicals present in plant extract include a number of biological active compounds which have shown promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in many animal studies. Present knowledge about the biochemical interactions of these compounds present in phytochemical extracts and target enzymes or proteins responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity is limited. Present work is an attempt to identify and validate possible biological targets as enzymes or proteins involved in these targeted studies using molecular docking as computational method. IMPPAT: Indian Medicinal Plants, Photochemistry and Therapeutics (a curated database) has been used to retrieve various phytochemicals derived from selected plants which includes Carica papaya, Citrus limon, Curcuma longa, Dalbergia sissoo and Punica granatum. These phytochemicals are further evaluated using molecular docking against three enzymes involved in antioxidant activity which includes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Catalase (CAT). Cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) has been tested for anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals. Gliadin (Triticum aestivum), Tea Extract (Punica granatum), Hesperidin (Citrus limon), Terrestribisamide (Triticum aestivum), Vitamin P (Carica papaya) and 1,2,6-Trigalloylglucose (Punica granatum) are few phytochemicals which has shown promising binding affinities towards target proteins or enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Catalase (CAT) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2).

Phytochemicals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 123 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998353


A tuberculose (TB) é considerada uma das principais doenças infecciosas e apresenta fatores críticos como a relação com o HIV/AIDS, tratamento longo e a resistência a múltiplos fármacos. A enzima di-hidrofolato redutase das micobactérias (mtDHFR) é um alvo pouco explorado e apresenta grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos contra TB. Estudos preliminares obtiveram fragmentos com baixa afinidade à mtDHFR, entretanto com potencial para otimização. Com isso, o fragmento foi usado como protótipo para a proposição de 22 análogos. Os compostos foram planejados utilizando informações sobre ligantes e a estrutura tridimensional de mtDHFR, além do biososterismo como estratégia norteadora. Os ensaios de docking molecular com a mtDHFR revelaram que os análogos propostos tiveram escores interessantes e, além disso, a inserção de substituintes demonstrou favorecer a ligação à enzima, o que corroborou o planejamento. Com isso, sintetizou-se 22 análogos planejados e o protótipo MB872, por meio de protocolos de alquilação, hidrólise e cicloadição 1,3 dipolar para os compostos com anéis triazol e tetrazol. Os compostos foram obtidos com rendimentos de bom a ótimo (60 ~ 90%) e suas estruturas foram elucidadas por RMN 1H e 13C. Os resultados do ensaio de inibição enzimática corroboraram com os dados de docking, uma vez que a presença do grupo carboxílico revelou ser importante para a atividade. Além disso, alguns dos compostos revelaram atividades interessantes, entre 8 a 40 µM, sendo que o mais ativo apresentou IC50 de 7 µM. Ensaios de cinética enzimática com o análogo mais ativo indicou uma inibição não competitiva com o substrato natural da enzima, uma vez que os valores de Km se mantiveram constantes, enquanto Vmax decaiu (0,22 µM e 0,43 - 0,34 ΔFU/min, respectivamente). Os análogos sintetizados foram mandados para ensaio in vitro para avaliar a atividade frente a micobactéria

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important infectious disease and presents critical factors such as the relationship with HIV / AIDS, long treatment and resistance to multiple drugs. The enzyme dihydrofolate reductase from mycobacteria (mtDHFR) is a poorly explored and presents great potential to be a target for new drugs against TB. Preliminary studies have obtained fragments with low affinity to mtDHFR, but with potential to become lead compounds. Therefore, the fragment was used as a prototype for 22 analogues proposed in this work. The compounds were designed using bioisosterism, information about ligands and the three-dimensional structure of mtDHFR. Molecular docking assays with mtDHFR revealed satisfactory scores for anlogues. Furthermore, the insertion of substituents seemed to increase the affinity with the enzyme. Thereby, twenty two analogues and prototype were synthesized using alkylation, hydrolysiss and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methods. The compounds were obtained in good yields (60 ~ 90%) and their structures were elucidated with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The enzymatic affinity assay corroborates docking results, because the presence of carboxyl group showed to be important for the activity. Furthermore, some of the compounds revealead interesting activities, ranging 8 to 40 µM. The most active showed IC50 of 7 µM and enzyme kinetics assays indicated noncompetitive inhibition with natural enzyme substrate. The synthesized analogs were sent for in vitro assay to assess mycobacteria activity

Process Optimization , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Mycobacterium/classification , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Tuberculosis/pathology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods