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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880946

ABSTRACT

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a heterogeneous genetic profile. Chemotherapy exhibits substantial activity in a small subset of these patients. Drug resistance is inevitable. Major progress has been made in the genetic analysis of TNBC to identify novel targets and increase the precision of therapeutic intervention. Such progress has translated into major advances in treatment strategies, including modified chemotherapy approaches, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and targeted therapeutic drugs. All of these strategies have been evaluated in clinical trials. Nevertheless, patient selection remains a considerable challenge in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2232-2239, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887792

ABSTRACT

The development and progression of most cancers have been well recognized as the result of highly activated cell cycle. Cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 plays important roles not only in mitosis, but also in multiple biological processes that contribute to cancer development, such as aging, apoptosis and histone modification. Three FDA approved CDK4/6 inhibitors, Palbociclib, Ribociclib and Abemaciclib, have been used as targeted cancer therapeutic agents to benefit patients with endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer and other types of cancer, prolonging their survival. However, the clinical application of these inhibitors also leads to acquired drug resistance and other problems. This paper reviews the regulatory roles of CDK4/6, the application of CDK4/6 inhibitors in cancer and the challenge of drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 39-59, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877497

ABSTRACT

Primary lung cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death in China, with an estimated 787 thousands incident cases and 631 thousands deaths in 2015. Due to its aggressive behavior and the absence of effective early screening methods, most patients with lung cancer in China are in stage Ⅳ when diagnosed. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone of stage Ⅳ lung cancer, but its efficacy is unsatisfactory. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy, the treatment concept has continuously changed and survival for patients has also been greatly improved. In order to update the progress in the treatment of stage Ⅳ lung cancer worldwide timely, and further improve the level of standardized diagnosis and treatment of stage Ⅳ lung cancer in China, Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists and Medical Oncology Branch of Chinese International Exchange and Promotion Association for Medical and Healthcare organized experts to formulate "Clinical Practice Guideline for Stage Ⅳ Primary Lung Cancer in China(2021 version)" .


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Medical Oncology , Molecular Targeted Therapy
5.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8010, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122665

ABSTRACT

Las terapias target constituyen hoy en día una alternativa terapéutica cada vez más utilizada para el manejo de pacientes con melanoma metastásico. Sin embargo, se han descrito múltiples efectos farmacológicos adversos asociados a su uso, siendo los cutáneos los de mayor prevalencia. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 55 años con diagnóstico de melanoma cutáneo metastásico etapa IV, BRAFV600E mutado, en tratamiento con dabrafenib/trametinib que consultó por desarrollo de lesiones nodulares eritematosas sensibles en extremidades superiores e inferiores, asociadas a sensación febril durante el curso del tratamiento. Se descartó alguna infección sobreagregada. Se realizó una biopsia de las lesiones cutáneas, con confirmación diagnóstica histopatológica de una paniculitis mixta de predominio septal, granulomatosa y con vasculitis leucocitoclástica. La paniculitis asociada a esta terapia ha sido descrita en la literatura y se ha considerado un efecto farmacológico inmunomediado adverso, relacionándose a un mejor pronóstico para el melanoma metastásico en tratamiento. Por lo tanto, así como en el caso presentado, se evita la suspensión del fármaco y se asocia terapia sintomática en caso de mayores molestias del paciente. Es de alta relevancia para el dermatólogo conocer e interpretar adecuadamente este efecto adverso farmacológico, y así indicar el manejo más adecuado para el paciente.


Target therapies are currently a therapeutic option increasingly used for the management of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, there are multiple adverse pharmacological effects associated with their use that have been described. Cutaneous adverse reactions are the most frequent. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a diagnosis of stage IV BRAFV600E-mutated metastatic cutaneous melanoma undergoing treatment with dabrafenib/trametinib, who consulted due to the development of erythematous nodular lesions in the upper and lower limbs associated with febrile sensation during the course of treatment. Infection was ruled out and a biopsy of the skin lesions was done, which provided the histopathological confirmation of a predominantly septal, granulomatous with leukocytoclastic vasculitis, mixed panniculitis. Panniculitis associated with this therapy has been described in the literature and has been considered an immune-mediated pharmacological adverse effect. It is considered to be related to a better prognosis in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Consequently, as shown in this case report, target therapy should not be discontinued and symptomatic medication should be given to alleviate patient discomfort. The dermatologist should know and properly interpret this adverse effect and prescribe the most appropriate management for the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Panniculitis/chemically induced , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Oximes/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyrimidinones/administration & dosage , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Panniculitis/diagnosis , Panniculitis/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Molecular Targeted Therapy/adverse effects , Dermatologists , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Melanoma/drug therapy
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 505-511, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094519

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Brazil. In the 2000s, better understanding of molecular pathways led to development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted treatments that have improved outcomes. However, these treatments are unavailable in most Brazilian public healthcare services (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential number of years of life not saved, the budget impact of the treatment and strategies to improve access. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pharmacoeconomic study assessing the potential societal and economic impact of adopting EGFR-targeted therapy within SUS. METHODS: We estimated the number of cases eligible for treatment, using epidemiological data from the National Cancer Institute. We used data from a single meta-analysis and from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) study as the basis for assessing differences in patients' survival between use of targeted therapy and use of chemotherapy. The costs of targeted treatment were based on the national reference and were compared with the amount reimbursed for chemotherapy through SUS. RESULTS: There was no life-year gain with EGFR-targeted therapy in the single meta-analysis (hazard ratio, HR, 1.01). The LCMC showed that 1,556 potential life-years were not saved annually. We estimated that the annual budget impact was 125 million Brazilian reais (BRL) with erlotinib, 48 million BRL with gefitinib and 52 million BRL with afatinib. Their incremental costs over chemotherapy per life-year saved were 80,329 BRL, 31,011 BRL and 33,225 BRL, respectively. A drug acquisition discount may decrease the budget impact by 30% (with a 20% discount). A fixed cost of 1,000 BRL may decrease the budget impact by 95%. CONCLUSION: Reducing drug acquisition costs may improve access to EGFR-targeted therapy for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Costs , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , ErbB Receptors/economics , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Quinazolines/economics , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Brazil , Budgets , Survival Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Risk Sharing, Financial/methods , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics , ErbB Receptors/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 412-422, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040242

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus associated with significant morbidity and mortality regarded as a global health issue. MicroRNAs - small RNA molecules responsible for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by degradation of messenger RNA or translational repression of protein synthesis - rank among the factors linked to the development and progression of DKD. This study aimed to offer a narrative review on investigations around the use of microRNAs in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of DKD. Various microRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of DKD, while others have a role in nephroprotection and thus serve as promising therapeutic targets for DKD. Serum and urine microRNAs levels have also been considered in the early diagnosis and monitoring of individuals with DKD, since increases in albuminuria, decreases in the glomerular filtration rate, and progression of DKD have been linked to changes in the levels of some microRNAs.


Resumo A doença renal do diabetes (DRD) é uma complicação crônica do diabetes mellitus associada à elevada morbidade e mortalidade, considerada um problema de saúde mundial. Dentre os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento e à progressão da DRD, destacam-se os microRNAs, que consistem em pequenas moléculas de RNA que regulam a expressão gênica por meio da degradação pós-transcricional do RNA mensageiro ou inibição translacional da síntese proteica. Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão narrativa buscando investigar os microRNAs como auxiliares no diagnóstico, monitoramento e tratamento da DRD. Vários microRNAs estão envolvidos na patogênese da DRD, enquanto que outros têm papel nefroprotetor, consistindo assim em alvos terapêuticos promissores para o tratamento da DRD. A dosagem laboratorial dos microRNAs no soro e na urina também é muito promissora para o diagnóstico precoce e o monitoramento da DRD, já que os níveis de alguns microRNAs se alteram antes do aumento da albuminúria e da diminuição da taxa de filtração glomerular e podem ainda se alterar com a progressão da DRD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , MicroRNAs/urine , MicroRNAs/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Biomarkers/urine , Biomarkers/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Albuminuria , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Glomerular Filtration Rate
8.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 169-177, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia are particularly difficult to treat, as they have a high risk of comorbidities, poor performance status and less tolerability to chemotherapy, as well as a more aggressive disease biology, responsible for the resistance to treatment. There is a need to explore novel therapeutic agents that are more effective and tolerable. Venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor is a promising agent, as BCL-2 overexpression is present in 84% of acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis and 95% of patients at relapse and has been associated with leukemia cell survival, chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. Objective: To review the available data about venetoclax in acute myeloid leukemia and how it can influence the treatment in older patients. Methods: Using the Pubmed database, we selected 29 articles published within the last 15 years, considering preclinical and clinical trials and review studies that combined venetoclax with acute myeloid leukemia. Results: Venetoclax has demonstrated promising results in preclinical and clinical trials, especially in patients with poor prognosis and the IDH mutation, with an excellent side-effect profile. However, resistance seems to develop rapidly with venetoclax monotherapy, because of antiapoptotic escape mechanisms. Conclusions: While the results with the use of venetoclax seem encouraging, it is not likely that targeting a single pathway will result in long-term disease control. The solution includes the use of combined therapy to block resistance mechanisms and enhance apoptosis, by reducing MCL-1, increasing BIM or inhibiting the complex IV in the mitochondria.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genes, bcl-2 , BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 239-244, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775637

ABSTRACT

With the in-depth study of tumor immunity, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors has made a great breakthrough in solid tumors. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 15%-20% of all lung cancers, with high malignancy, early metastasis and lack of effective treatment strategy. The appearance of immune checkpoint inhibitors brings new hope for SCLC. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the persistent efficacy and clinical activity of the programmed death receptor/ligand 1 (PD-1/L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in the treatment of SCLC. However, its efficacy and safety are not very accurate, and the markers that can effectively predict the efficacy of immunotherapy have not been concluded. In this paper, for further changing the treatment strategy of SCLC clinical practice and providing theoretical basis of research, we reviewed the progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors, related markers in the treatment of SCLC by exploring the value, problems and challenges of immunotherapy in SCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Methods , Prognosis , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761954

ABSTRACT

Although recent advances in molecular targeted therapy and immuno-oncology have revolutionized the landscape of lung cancer therapeutics, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains an essential component of lung cancer treatment. Extensive evidence has demonstrated the clinical benefit of chemotherapy, either alone or in combination with other treatment modalities, on survival and quality of life of patients with early and advanced lung cancer. Combinational approaches with other classes of anti-neoplastic agents and new drug-delivery systems have revealed promising data and are areas of active investigation. Chemotherapy is recommended as a standard of care in patients that have progressed after tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immune checkpoint inhibitors. Chemotherapy remains the fundamental means of lung cancer management and keeps expanding its clinical implication. This review will discuss the current position and future role of chemotherapy, and specific consideration for its clinical application in the era of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Precision Medicine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Quality of Life , Standard of Care
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764514

ABSTRACT

The 34th Annual Meeting of Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO) was held in Busan, Korea from 26 to 27 April. Around 460 Korean and international clinicians gathered in Busan to share and discuss their latest work and key issues of gynecologic oncologic research and treatment. The scope of this meeting included recent clinical trials and updates in gynecologic oncology, advances in ovarian cancer treatment, targeted therapy and immunotherapy in gynecologic cancer, management of hereditary gynecologic cancer, and newly revised staging of cervical cancer. As expected, the ongoing debate regarding the recent clinical trial on minimally invasive surgery for early-stage cervical cancer was addressed throughout the congress and the initial outline of the KSGO position statement was open for discussion. The meeting was an opportunity for all participants to come together and explore scientific insights of gynecologic cancer.


Subject(s)
Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Immunotherapy , Korea , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
12.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 235-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764503

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest malignancies in the world. Currently, clinical treatment decisions are mostly made based on the extent of the tumor and its anatomy, such as tumor-node-metastasis staging. Recent advances in genome-wide molecular technology have enabled delineation of the molecular characteristics of GC. Based on this, efforts have been made to classify GC into molecular subtypes with distinct prognosis and therapeutic response. Simplified algorithms based on protein and RNA expressions have been proposed to reproduce the GC classification in the clinical field. Furthermore, a recent study established a single patient classifier (SPC) predicting the prognosis and chemotherapy response of resectable GC patients based on a 4-gene real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. GC patient stratification according to SPC will enable personalized therapeutic strategies in adjuvant settings. At the same time, patient-derived xenografts and patient-derived organoids are now emerging as novel preclinical models for the treatment of GC. These models recapitulate the complex features of the primary tumor, which is expected to facilitate both drug development and clinical therapeutic decision making. An integrated approach applying molecular patient stratification and patient-derived models in the clinical realm is considered a turning point in precision medicine in GC.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Classification , Decision Making , Drug Therapy , Heterografts , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Organoids , Precision Medicine , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , Stomach Neoplasms
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To decipher the possible mechanisms of Sinomenium Acutum (SA) in treating diseases by a bioinformatics method.@*METHODS@#SA ingredients were searched according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chinese Medicine Dictionary and Traditional Chinese Medicines Database (TCMD). Active compounds and target proteins of SA were acquired through the Pubchem platform. Pathway, network and function analyses of SA were performed with ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), a bioinformatics analysis platform. Disease, biofunction-target networks were established with Cytoscape.@*RESULTS@#Eighteen ingredients from SA were obtained. Seven active ingredients with 31 active target proteins were acquired according to PubChem Bioassay test. By IPA analysis, 277 canonical pathways belonging to 17 function categories were collected, 23 kinds of diseases, 21 categories bio-functions were obtained. Based on P value, calculated by IPA, the top 5 significant pathway of SA targets include phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling, prostate cancer signaling, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) regulation of innate immunity, Guanosine-binding protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) signaling. Disease and bio-function network analysis indicated that mitogen activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), MAPK3, p65 nuclear factor κB (RELA), nuclear factor of κB inhibitor alpha (NFκBIA), interleukin 1β(IL-1β), prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) and tumor protein 53 (TP53) were the critical targets in various diseases treated by SA.@*CONCLUSION@#In the different view of target, pathway, disease and bio-function, inflammation was found to be a central theme in many chronic conditions. SA could be used not only as an anti-inflammatory agent, but also for the treatment of cancers, neurological diseases, psychological disorders and metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Methods , Disease , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proteins , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sinomenium , Chemistry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772278

ABSTRACT

Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are common cystic lesions of odontogenic epithelial origin that can occur sporadically or in association with naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). OKCs are locally aggressive, cause marked destruction of the jaw bones and have a propensity to recur. PTCH1 mutations (at ∼80%) are frequently detected in the epithelia of both NBCCS-related and sporadic OKCs, suggesting that PTCH1 inactivation might constitutively activate sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling and play a major role in disease pathogenesis. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of SHH signalling might represent a new treatment strategy for OKCs. However, studies on the molecular mechanisms associated with OKCs have been hampered by limited epithelial cell yields during OKC explant culture. Here, we constructed an isogenic PTCH1 cellular model of PTCH1 inactivation by introducing a heterozygous mutation, namely, c.403C>T (p.R135X), which has been identified in OKC patients, into a human embryonic stem cell line using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system. This was followed by the induction of epithelial differentiation. Using this in vitro isogenic cellular model, we verified that the PTCH1 heterozygous mutation causes ligand-independent activation of SHH signalling due to PTCH1 haploinsufficiency. This activation was found to be downregulated in a dose-dependent manner by the SHH pathway inhibitor GDC-0449. In addition, through inhibition of activated SHH signalling, the enhanced proliferation observed in these induced cells was suppressed, suggesting that GDC-0449 might represent an effective inhibitor of the SHH pathway for use during OKC treatment.


Subject(s)
Anilides , Pharmacology , Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome , Hedgehog Proteins , Genetics , Pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Odontogenic Cysts , Genetics , Therapeutics , Odontogenic Tumors , Genetics , Therapeutics , Pyridines , Pharmacology
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760161

ABSTRACT

After FDA approval of cetuximab at 2006, receptor tyrosine kinase, including an epidermal growth factor receptor, blocking agents have been evaluated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Agents targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR, IL-6/JAK/STAT3, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and cyclin D-CDK-4/6-INK4/Rb pathway have developed. Most of them have failed to demonstrate better treatment outcome in recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC than conventional chemotherapy. Since a pivotal role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in immunological tumor microenvironment was revealed, the immune checkpoint inhibitors, including pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have opened new paradigm of cancer treatment modality and propagates other immune-based therapies for R/M HNSCC. Various types of combination trials consisting of immunotherapy with other class of immunotherapy, targeted agents, radiation therapy, or conventional chemotherapy have been under investigation to improve treatment outcome. Biomarker studies to find an optimal candidate for the newly developed agents are accompanied. These clinical trials lead to tailored approach based on immunotherapy with precision medicine is expected to lead to promising results.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cetuximab , Cyclins , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Head , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 302-308, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786558

ABSTRACT

The abscopal effect is a term that has been used to describe the phenomenon in which localized radiation therapy treatment of a tumor lesion triggers a spontaneous regression of metastatic lesion(s) at a non-irradiated distant site(s). Radiation therapy induced abscopal effects are believed to be mediated by activation and stimulation of the immune system. However, due to the brain’s distinctive immune microenvironment, extracranial abscopal responses following cranial radiation therapy have rarely been reported. In this report, we describe the case of 42-year-old female patient with metastatic melanoma who experienced an abscopal response following her cranial radiation therapy for her brain metastasis. The patient initially presented with a stage III melanoma of the right upper skin of her back. Approximately 5 years after her diagnosis, the patient developed a large metastatic lesion in her upper right pectoral region of her chest wall and axilla. Since the patient’s tumor was positive for BRAF and MEK, targeted therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib was initiated. However, the patient experienced central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such as headache and disequilibrium and developed brain metastases prior to the start of targeted therapy. The patient received radiation therapy to a dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions to her brain lesions while the patient was on dabrafenib and trametinib therapy. The patient’s CNS metastases improved significantly within weeks of her therapy. The patient’s non-irradiated large extracranial chest mass and axilla mass also shrank substantially demonstrating the abscopal effect during her CNS radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy of her residual chest lesions, the patient was disease free clinically and her CNS lesions had regressed. However, when the radiation therapy ended and the patient continued her targeted therapy alone, recurrence outside of her previously treated fields was noted. The disease recurrence could be due to the possibility of developing BRAF resistance clones to the BRAF targeted therapy. The patient died eventually due to wide spread systemic disease recurrence despite targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Axilla , Brain , Central Nervous System , Clone Cells , Diagnosis , Female , Headache , Humans , Immune System , Immunization , Melanoma , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiation, Ionizing , Recurrence , Skin , Skin Neoplasms , Thoracic Wall , Thorax
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786476

ABSTRACT

Radiomics handles imaging biomarker from high-throughput feature extraction through complex pattern recognition that is difficult for human to process. Recent medical paradigms are rapidly changing to personalized medicine, including molecular targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and theranostics, and the importance of biomarkers for these is growing day by day. Even though biopsy continues to gold standard for tumor assessment in personalized medicine, imaging is expected to complement biopsy because it allows whole tumor evaluation, whole body evaluation, and non-invasive and repetitive evaluation. Radiomics is known as a useful method to get imaging biomarkers related to intratumor heterogeneity in molecular targeted therapy as well as one-size-fits-all therapy. It is also expected to be useful in new paradigms such as immunotherapy and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted theranostics. Radiomics research should move to multimodality (CT, MR, PET, etc.), multicenter, and prospective studies from current single modality, single institution, and retrospective studies. Image-quality harmonization, intertumor heterogeneity, and integrative analysis of information from different scales are thought to be important keywords in future radiomics research. It is clear that radiomics will play an important role in personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biopsy , Complement System Proteins , Humans , Immunotherapy , Membranes , Methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Population Characteristics , Precision Medicine , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Somatostatin , Retrospective Studies , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Weights and Measures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786454

ABSTRACT

Exploring the unknown is one of the key factors that lead to great discoveries in mankind history.With the advances in medicine and the development of new approaches towards patient care, like next-generation sequencing and patient-centered care, the need for treatments tailored to patient through personalized medicine has become more compelling. Theranostics has been introduced as a combination of a diagnostic tool and a therapeutic tool on the same vector for a specific disease, to facilitate personalized medicine. Nuclear medicine has shown the capability of providing a strong platform for this new approach through its arms, molecular imaging, and targeted molecular therapies. Though the prototype of theranostics has been practiced in Jordan since decades in the field of diagnosis and treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, recently, the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), a leading and comprehensive cancer center in Jordan and in the Middle East, has leaped forward to introduce the new approaches of theranostics through the nuclear medicine applications. This paper sheds the light on the most important aspects of this new theranostics practice in Jordan such as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)–based theranostics.


Subject(s)
Arm , Diagnosis , Humans , Jordan , Membranes , Middle East , Molecular Imaging , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Nuclear Medicine , Patient Care , Patient-Centered Care , Precision Medicine , Receptors, Peptide , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Thyroid Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788777

ABSTRACT

Brain tumors are the second most common type of structural brain lesion that causes chronic epilepsy. Patients with low-grade brain tumors often experience chronic drug-resistant epilepsy starting in childhood, which led to the concept of long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and ganglioglioma are representative LEATs and are characterized by young age of onset, frequent temporal lobe location, benign tumor biology, and chronic epilepsy. Although highly relevant in clinical epileptology, the concept of LEATs has been criticized in the neuro-oncology field. Recent genomic and molecular studies have challenged traditional views on LEATs and low-grade gliomas. Molecular studies have revealed that low-grade gliomas can largely be divided into three groups : LEATs, pediatric-type diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG; astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma), and adult-type DLGG. There is substantial overlap between conventional LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG in regard to clinical features, histology, and molecular characteristics. LEATs and pediatric-type DLGG are characterized by mutations in BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB/MYBL1, which converge on the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. Gene (mutation)-centered classification of epilepsy-associated tumors could provide new insight into these heterogeneous and diverse neoplasms and may lead to novel molecular targeted therapies for epilepsy in the near future.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Astrocytoma , Biology , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Classification , Epilepsy , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial , Seizures , Temporal Lobe
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740193

ABSTRACT

This extensive review summarizes clinical evidence on immunotherapy and targeted therapy currently available for endometrial cancer (EC) and reports the results of the clinical trials and ongoing studies. The research was carried out collecting preclinical and clinical findings using keywords such as immune environment, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, immune checkpoint inhibitors, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and others' on PubMed. Finally, we looked for the ongoing immunotherapy trials on ClinicalTrials.gov. EC is the fourth most common malignancy in women in developed countries. Despite medical and surgical treatments, survival has not improved in the last decade and death rates have increased for uterine cancer in women. Therefore, identification of clinically significant prognostic risk factors and formulation of new rational therapeutic regimens have great significance for enhancing the survival rate and improving the outcome in patients with advanced or metastatic disease. The identification of genetic alterations, including somatic mutations and microsatellite instability, and the definition of intracellular signaling pathways alterations that have a major role in in tumorigenesis is leading to the development of new therapeutic options for immunotherapy and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Biological Therapy , Carcinogenesis , Developed Countries , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Microsatellite Instability , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Uterine Neoplasms
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