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Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447


This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.

Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444


Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.

La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879015


The volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum medicinal materials was extracted by steam distillation, and the chemical components of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS technology. The differences of the volatile oil components were compared and study on the Helicobacter pylori in vitro antimicrobial activitiy was conducted. The results showed that the yields of the volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum were 11.93% and 2.40%, respectively. A total of 46 compounds(91.31%) were identified from the volatile oil from Mastiche annd 35 compounds(92.49%) from Olibanum. The classification and comparison study of the components showed that the content of monoterpenes in the volatile oil from Mastiche was the highest(40.69%), followed by alcohols(28.48%); while the content of alcohols in the volatile oil from Olibanum was the highest(35.81%), followed by esters(24.92%). There were significant differences in the components of volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum, which might be one of the reasons for the difference in efficacy and application. In vitro bacteriostatic experiments showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of the volatile oil from Mastiche against H. pylori was 1 mg·mL~(-1), and the MIC of the volatile oil from Olibanum against H. pylori was more than 1 mg·mL~(-1). In combination with the results of the oil yield experiment, Mastiche had the advantage of inhibiting H. pylori activity. The research results provide scientific basis for the rational application of Mastiche and Olibanum.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Frankincense , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Helicobacter pylori , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284300


The chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from the leaves and rhizomes of Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex. A. Dietr. were reported. The main compounds in the leaf oil were ß-pinene (13.8%), ß-phellandrene (11.3%) and α-pinene (7.3%) while the rhizome oil was dominated by sabinene (41.1%), terpinen-4-ol (22.7%) and (E)-nerolidol (14.3%). The minimum lethal concentration (larvicidal activity) LC50of the rhizome oil at 24 h against Aedes albopictus was 35.17 µg/mL, while LC50 values of 32.20 µg/mL and 31.12 µg/mL were obtained against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. At 48 h the oil displayed larvicidal action with LC50 values of 23.18 µg/mL, 25.58 µg/mL and 18.99 µg/mL respectively towards Ae. albopictus, Ae. Aegyptiand Cx. quinquefasciatus. The leaf oil did not exhibit significant mortality and larvicidal action. The results indicate the potential of rhizome essential oil of Z. montanumas a source of larvicidal agent.

En el presente trabajo se reportan la composición química y actividad larvicida de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de hojas y rizomas de Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex. A. Dietr. Los principales compuestos en el aceite de hojas fueron ß-pineno (13.8%), ß-felandrene (11.3%) y α-pineno (7.3%); mientras que los más abundantes en el aceite de rizomas fueron sabineno (41.1%), terpinen-4-ol (22.7%) y (E)-nerolidol (14.3%). La concentración letal mínima (actividad larvicida) LC50 del aceite de riomas ante Aedes albopictus fue 35.17 µg/mL, mientras que los valores de LC50 de 32.20 µg/mL y 31.12 µg/mL fueron obtenidos ante Aedes aegyptiy Culex quinquefasciatus respectivamente. A las 48 horas, el aceite mostró acción larvicida con valores de LC50 de 23.18 µg/mL, 25.58 µg/mL y 18.99 µg/mL respectivamente, ante Ae. albopictus, Ae. Aegyptiand Cx. quinquefasciatus. El aceite de hojas no mostró mortalidad ni acción larvicida significativa. Los resultados indican el potencial del aceite esencial de rizomas de Z. montanum como una fuente de agentes larvicidas.

Animals , Pesticides/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Culicidae/drug effects , Pesticides/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larvicides , Mosquito Vectors
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102643


This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.

Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 480-491, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008273


In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the M. officinalis essential oil was carried out on three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7, NCI-H460 and MOLT-4 by MTT assay. M. officinalis essential oil was characterized by high percentage of monoterpenes (77,5%), followed by the sesquiterpene fraction (14,5%) and aliphatic compounds (2,2%). The main constituents of the essential oil of M. officinalis are citral (47,2%), caryophyllene oxide (10,2%), citronellal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), geranyl acetate (4,1%) and ß- caryophyllene (3,8%). The essential oil showed significant antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines, MOLT-4, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cells, with GI50 values of <5, 6±2 and 31±17 µg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that M. officinalis L. essential oil has a potential as anticancer therapeutic agent.

En el presente estudio, investigamos la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de las hojas de Melissa officinalis L. cultivadas en el sur de Bosnia y Herzegovina. La evaluación in vitro de la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de M. officinalis se llevó a cabo en tres líneas celulares de tumores humanos: MCF-7, NCI-H460 y MOLT-4 utilizando el ensayo de MTT. El aceite esencial de M. officinalis se caracterizó por un alto porcentaje de monoterpenos (77,5%), seguido de la fracción sesquiterpénica (14,5%) y compuestos alifáticos (2,2%). Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial de M. officinalis fueron citral (47,2%), óxido de cariofileno (10,2%), citronelal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), acetato de geranilo (4, 1%), y ß-cariofileno (3,8%). El aceite esencial mostró una actividad antiproliferativa significativa contra las líneas celulares de cáncer MOLT-4, MCF-7 y NCI-H460, con valores GI50 de <5, 6±2 y 31±17 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite esencial de M. officinalis L. tiene potencial como agente terapéutico contra el cáncer.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Melissa , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 435-443, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008258


Volatiles compounds are involved in defensive induction against insects, playing an important role in insect-plant interaction being induced by response to mechanical damage. However, they could decrease according to the domestication degree in cultivated plants. Currently, it has been established that secondary metabolites are reduced due to the domestication process in murtilla. Hence, the follow question emerges: Are volatile organic compounds induced by mechanical damage reduced in cultivated murtilla plants in relation to wild plants? Two cultivated ecotypes and their respective wild counterparts were sampled. Volatiles compounds were obtained using Porapak-Q columns and analyzed by gas chromatography. Results showed that compounds as 2-hexanone, α-pinene, 2-thujene, 3-thujene and 1,8- cineole were more abundant in wild plants exposed to a mechanical damage than cultivated plants. Hence, these compounds have been associated to induced defense, these results suggest that domestication reduced the induction of defensive volatiles in cultivated murtilla in response to mechanical damage.

Los compuestos volátiles están implicados en la defensa inducida contra insectos, desempeñando un papel importante en esta interacción. Sin embargo, estos compuestos podrían disminuir según el grado de domesticación. Actualmente, se ha reportado que algunos metabolitos secundarios son reducidos en plantas de murtilla domesticadas. Por lo tanto, surge la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Los compuestos orgánicos volátiles inducidos por el daño mecánico son reducidos en plantas cultivadas de murtilla en comparación con plantas silvestres? Para dos ecotipos cultivados y sus respectivas contrapartes silvestres, los compuestos volátiles fueron capturados usando columnas de Porapak-Q y las muestras analizadas por cromatografía gaseosa. Los resultados mostraron que compuestos tales como 2- hexanona, α-pineno, 2-tujeno, 3-tujeno y 1,8-cineol fueron más abundantes en plantas silvestres expuestas a daño mecánico que en cultivadas. Debido a que estos compuestos se han asociado a defensa inducida, estos resultados sugieren que la domesticación reduce la inducción de volátiles en plantas cultivadas sometidas a daño mecánico.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Myrtaceae/metabolism , Myrtaceae/microbiology , Domestication , Insecta/physiology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Wilderness , Larva/physiology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(1): 58-70, ene. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007470


The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration and chemical composition of the essential oil the leaves of basil cultivars and hybrids cultivated in different cropping seasons: dry season and rainy season. The variables evaluated were the content and composition of essential oils in the two seasons. The essential oil content ranged from 0.66% to 3.21% in the dry season and from 0.80% to 4.20% in the rainy season. The major compounds found among the genotypes were linalool, methyl chavicol, neral, geranial, eugenol, and methyl (E)- cinnamate, defining the formation of five groups in each season, classified in the following chemotypes: methyl chavicol (Group 1), citral (neral+geranial) (Group 2), methyl cinnamate (Group 3), linalool (Group 4), and intermediate linalool (Group 5). All the traits evaluated had heritability (h ) greater than 95% and high CVg/CVe ratio values. The cropping season affected the content and chemical compositions of basil essential oil.

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la concentración y composición química del aceite esencial las hojas de cultivares de albahaca e híbridos cultivados en diferentes temporadas de cultivo: estación seca y estación lluviosa. Las variables evaluadas fueron la contenido y la composición de los aceites esenciales en las dos estaciones. La contenido de aceite esencial varió de 0.66% a 3.21% en la estación seca y de 0.80% a 4.20% en la estación lluviosa. Los principales compuestos encontrados entre los genotipos fueron linalool, metilchavicol, neral, geranial, eugenol y metil (E)-cinamato, definiendo la formación de cinco grupos en cada estación, clasificados en los siguientes quimiotipos: metil chavicol (Grupo 1), citral (neral + geranial) (Grupo 2), cinamato de metilo (Grupo 3), linalool (Grupo 4) y linalol intermedio (Grupo 5). Todos los rasgos evaluados mostraron una heredabilidad (h ) mayor que el 95% y altos valores de relación CVg/CVe. La temporada de cultivo afectó la contenido y las composiciones químicas del aceite esencial de albahaca.

Seasons , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ocimum basilicum , Eugenol/analysis , Cinnamates/analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis , Anisoles/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 604-609, nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007366


This study describes the qualitative and quantitative seasonal analysis of the essential oils from an unexplored plant Eugenia brevistyla, native from Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest and Semidecidual Forest. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 28 compounds. The largest fraction corresponds to oxygenated sesquiterpenes in all seasons. The major compound was E-nerolidol in all seasons, being higher in winter (83.14%) and lower in spring (69.6%). The second major compound was byciclogermacrene in the spring and in the summer essential oils. Alloaromadendrene and spathulenol were the second major compounds in autumn and winter, respectively. Sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons showed higher variation along the year (58%) than oxygenated sesquiterpenes (2%). No monoterpenes were found in the analyzed essential oils.

Este estudio describe el análisis estacional cualitativo y cuantitativo del aceite esencial de la planta inexplorada Eugenia brevistyla, nativa de la Selva Tropical Atlántica dey del Bosque Semidecidual de Brasil. El análisis por GC-FID y GC-MS permitió la identificación de 28 compuestos. La fracción más grande corresponde a sesquiterpenos oxigenados en todas las estaciones. El compuesto principal fue E-nerolidol en todas las estaciones, siendo más alto en invierno (83.14%) y más bajo en la primavera (69.6%). El segundo compuesto principal fue biciclogermacreno en los aceites esenciales de la primavera y del verano. El aloaromadendreno y el espatulenol fueron los segundos compuestos principales en otoño e invierno, respectivamente. Los hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos mostraron una mayor variación a lo largo del año (58%) que los sesquiterpenos oxigenados (2%). No se encontraron monoterpenos en los aceites esenciales analizados.

Seasons , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Eugenia , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Brazil , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4)jul. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915429


Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) is an economically important shrub known in Mexico as Oregano. In this work, the biocidal effect of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves was evaluated on two crop pests. Thus, larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda were fed with mixtures of extract and artificial diet. The nematicidal activity was evaluated on juveniles of Meloydogine javanica. Regarding S. frugiperda, quantitative differences between treatments and control were observed in dead pupae, surviving adults, and deformed adults (P < 0.05). All the surviving adults from the extract treatments were deformed. Nematicidal effect was registered, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.672 (0.654-0.690) and 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectively. The extract was characterized by NMR and GC-MS, being thymol the most abundant component (70.6%) in addition to carvacrol (22.8%). The results suggest the consideration of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves within the alternatives for the biological control of pests.

Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) es un arbusto con importancia económica conocido en México como Orégano. En éste trabajo se evaluó el efecto biocida del extracto hexánico de hojas L. graveolens sobre dos plagas agrícolas. Así, larvas de S. frugiperda fueron alimentadas con mezclas de dieta artificial y extracto. La actividad nematicida fue evaluada en juveniles de Meloydogine javanica, Respecto a S. frugiperda, se observaron diferencias cuantitativas entre tratamiento y control en cuanto a pupas muertas, adultos sobrevivientes y adultos deformes (P < 0.05). Todos los adultos provenientes de tratamientos con extracto estuvieron malformados. Hubo efecto nematicida, calculándose CL50 y CL90 de 0.672 (0.654-0.690) y 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectivamente. El extracto se caracterizó por RMN y CG-EM. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron timol (70.6%), ademas del carvacrol (22.8%). Los resultados sugieren considerar al extracto hexánico de hojas de L. graveolens dentro de las alternativas para el control biológico de plagas.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Verbenaceae , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Antinematodal Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 486-492, sept. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912588


Clinopodium gilliesii (Benth.) Kuntze, harvested in the Chilean highlands, contains a surprising 93.87% of the toxic monoterpene pulegone in the essential oil. These results show remarkable differences with studies of the same species carried out in Argentina and Peru. These dissimilarities in the monoterpene composition of essential oils should be associated with differences in toxicity and biological activity of this medicinal plant used in ethnomedicine in different countries for the treatment of similar discomforts and diseases. These results are discussed considering the risk of consuming C. gilliesii, without clear recommendations and control of at least pulegone content in essential oils.

Clinopodium gilliesii (Benth.) Kuntze, recolectada en el altiplano chileno, contiene un sorprendente 93,87% del monoterpeno toxico pulegona, en el aceite esencial. Estos resultados muestran diferencias notables con estudios de la misma especie realizados en Argentina y Perú. Estas disimilitudes, en la composición de los aceites esenciales deben estar asociadas con diferencias en la toxicidad y actividad biológica de esta especie medicinal que se utiliza en etnomedicina en diferentes lugares para el tratamiento de molestias y enfermedades similares. Estos resultados se discuten considerando el riesgo de consumir C. gilliesii, sin recomendaciones claras y control de al menos el contenido de pulegona en los aceites esenciales.

Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lamiaceae , Monoterpenes/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Chile , Monoterpenes/adverse effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 26-33, ene. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907562


This paper reports the chemical constituents of essential oils from the various parts of Alpinia macroura K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) from Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by means of gas chromatography coupled to Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the oils were beta-pinene (8.8 percent-16.4 percent), 1,8-cineole (5.5 percent-17.7 percent), upsilon-terpinene (5.9 percent-16.9 percent), alpha-pinene (4.5 percent-8.4 percent) and beta-caryophyllene (1.4 percent-18.6 percent). Sabinene (9.0 percent) was identified only in the fruit. Overall, nineteen of the identified compounds are coming to all the essential oils. The chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower of A. macroura are being reported for the first time and were found to be different from those of other Alpinia oils.

En este trabajo se presentan los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de las distintas partes de Alpinia macroura K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) de Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los principales constituyentes de los aceites fueron beta-pineno (8,8 por ciento -16,4 por ciento), 1,8-cineol (5,5 por ciento -17,7 por ciento), ípsilon-terpineno (5,9 por ciento -16,9 por ciento), alfa-pineno (4,5 por ciento -8,4 por ciento) y beta-cariofileno (1,4 por ciento -18,6 por ciento). Sabineno (9,0 por ciento) fue identificado solamente en la fruta. En general, diecinueve de los compuestos identificados están llegando a todos los aceites esenciales. Los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de la hoja, tallo, raíz, frutas y flores de A. macroura están siendo reportados por primera vez y se encontró que eran diferentes de las de otros aceites de Alpinia.

Alpinia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(5): 301-314, Sept. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907547


Origanum vulgare L. better known as oregano or marjoram in Europe and Brazil is a herbaceous plant which determines long-range chemical and morphological diversity. The composition of essential oil of herbs like oregano, depends on different factors such as climate, geographical origin, harvest season, nutrition that can significantly affect the oil production and quality. The objective of this work was investigate the oregano oil production and composition in differents conditions of crops and seasons in Cerrado of Brazil. The experimental was a randomized block design (RBD) in a factorial 2 x 2 x 2 with five replications, two systems of planting (greenhouse and field), two types of fertilizers (mineral and organic) and two seasons (autumn and spring). The results of essential oil presented the same composition for all the treatments. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the planting in greenhouse or in field and organic or mineral fertilizer. Carvacrol, terpinene, ortho-cymene were the major constituents. The spring season and the field conditions favored better essential oil yield and carvacrol production.

Origanum vulgare L. mejor conocido como orégano o mejorana en Europa y Brasil es una planta herbácea que presenta una gran diversidad química y morfológica. La composición del aceite esencial de hierbas como el orégano, depende de diversos factores tales como el clima, la procedencia geográfica, época de la cosecha, la nutrición que pueden afectar significativamente la producción de aceites y su calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la producción de aceite de orégano y composición en diferentes condiciones de los cultivos y las estaciones en Cerrado de Brasil. La parte experimental consistió en bloques al azar (RBD) en un diseño factorial 2 x 2 x 2 con cinco repeticiones, dos sistemas de siembra (invernadero y de campo), dos tipos de fertilizantes (minerales y orgánicos) y dos estaciones (otoño y primavera). Los resultados del aceite esencial presentan la misma composición para todos los tratamientos. Sin embargo, la proporción relativa de algunos componentes químicos se modificó de acuerdo con la siembra en invernadero o en el campo y abono orgánico o mineral. Carvacrol, terpineno, orto-cimeno fueron los principales constituyentes. La temporada de primavera y las condiciones de campo favorecieron el rendimiento de aceite esencial y una mejor producción de carvacrol.

Fertilization , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Origanum
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(4): 249-257, jul. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907541


Los aceites esenciales son motivo de estudio debido a propiedades bioactivas, las cuales varían de acuerdo con su composición química. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron el estudio de la composición química volátil del aceite esencial (AE) de Croton trinitatis Millsp (Euphorbiaceae) obtenido de plantas colectadas en el municipios Maria La Baja (Bolívar). Además, evaluar sus propiedades antioxidante y repelente. AEs fueron aislados mediante la técnica de hidrodestilación e identificados por cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los compuestos mayoritarios encontrados en C. trinitatis fueron sesquiterpenos: cariofileno (15,3 por ciento), dihidrocurcumeno (14,5 por ciento), cis y trans calameneno (4.0 y 13.7.0 por ciento, respectivamente), ipsilon-cadina-1,4-dieno (7.4 por ciento), alaskeno (6.4 por ciento), gerrmacreno A (5.8 por ciento), biciclogermacreno (5.3 por ciento); y monoterpenos como fenchona (4.4 por ciento) y eucaliptol (1,8-cineol) (2.4 por ciento). La actividad antioxidante de los AEs se determinó por el método del radical DPPH. El porcentaje de inhibición de DPPH del aceite esencial de C. trinitatis fue del 92.2 por ciento comparado con la del ácido ascórbico (96.4 por ciento). El AE presentó la mayor actividad repelente frente al gorgojo Tribolium castaneum, a una concentración de 0.1 μL/cm2 a 2 y 4 horas de exposición (86.0 y 92.0 por ciento, respectivamente).

Essential oils are being studied because bioactive properties, which vary according to their chemical composition. The objectives of this work were to study the volatile chemical composition of essential oil (EO) from Croton trinitatis Millsp (Euphorbiaceae), obtained from plants collected in Maria la Baja (Bolívar). Also, evaluate their antioxidant and repellent properties. EOs were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and identified by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The major compounds found in C. trinitatis were sesquiterpens: Caryophyllene (15,3 percent), dihydrocurcumene (14,5 percent), cis and trans calamenene (4.0 y 13.7.0 percent, respectively), upsilon-cadina-1,4-diene (7.4 percent), alaskene /6.4 percent), gerrmacrene A (5.8 percent), bicyclogermacrene (5.3 percent); and monoterpens as fenchone (4.4 percent) and eucalyptol (1,8-cineol) (2.4 percent). The antioxidant activity of the EOs were determined using the method of DPPH radical. The percentage of inhibition of DPPH from C. trinitatis was 92.2 percent compared with ascorbic acid (96,4 percent). The EO from Turbaco had the highest repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum, at a concentration of 0.2 uL/cm2 at 2 and 4 hours of exposure (86.0 and 92.0 percent, respectively).

Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Insect Repellents/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(2): 88-93, mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907522


The essential oils of Brazilian Piper lepturum var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (Piperaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by flame-detector gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to GC and GC/MS analysis, the essential oils are mostly composed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. beta-Guaiene (29.96 percent) was the principal component in the essential oil of P. lepturum var. lepturum and beta-Bisabolene (17.72 percent) was the principal components in the essential oil of P. lepturum var. angustifolium.

Los aceites esenciales de las especies brasileñas Piper lepturum var. lepturum y Piper lepturum var. angustifolium fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilación y analizados utilizando cromatografía gas líquido con detector de ionización de llama (CG) y cromatografía gas líquido acoplada a un detector de masas (CG/EM). De acuerdo con los análisis de CG y CG/EM, los aceites esenciales muestran como componente principal beta-Guaieno (29,96 por ciento) en el aceite esencial de P. lepturum var. lepturum y beta-Bisaboleno (17,71 por ciento) en el aceite esencial de P. lepturum var. angustifolium.

Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 356-362, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782980


RESUMO A erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jaqc.) é uma importante planta medicinal, com ocorrências em vários biomas brasileiros, dela é possível extrair óleo essencial utilizado na produção de fitoterápicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do horário de coleta das folhas sobre o teor e os constituintes químicos do óleo essencial da V. curassavica. As folhas foram obtidas da coleção do germoplasma do Horto Medicinal do Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICA/UFMG). Os tratamentos constaram de cinco horários de coleta (6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 e 18:00 horas) e três repetições, utilizando o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. O óleo essencial foi extraído pelo método de hidrodestilação, utilizando-se o sistema Clevenger e a constituição química determinada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM). O teor do óleo essencial não sofreu influencia do horário de coleta. Entretanto, o horário de coleta influenciou a composição química do óleo essencial de erva-baleeira. Os compostos majoritários em todos os horários de coleta foram β-cariofileno (22,6 a 27,4%), elixeno (14,9 a 17,2%) e γ-muuroleno (9,1 a 9,8%). Já o composto de menor abundância relativa, sabineno (1,1 %), apresentou ocorrência apenas as 6 h da manhã.

ABSTRACT The erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jacq.) is an important medicinal plant which occurs in several Brazilian biomes, from which it is possible to extract essential oil used in the production of herbal medicines. The objective of this study was to observe the effect of the collection schedule for the leaves on the content and the chemical constituents of the essential oil of V. curassavica. The leaves were obtained from the germplasm collection of the Medicinal Garden of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (ICA/UFMG). The treatments consisted of five collection schedules (6:00 and 9:00 AM, and 12:00, 3:00, and 6:00 PM) and three replications, using a completely randomized design. The essential oil was extracted by the hydrodistillation method, using the Clevenger system, and the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The harvest time did not influence the content of the essential oil. However, the collection schedule did influence the chemical composition of the essential oil of erva-baleeira. The major compounds at all collection times were β-caryophyllene (22.6 to 27.4%), xylene (14.9 to 17.2%) and γ-muurolene (9.1 to 9.8%). The compound of lowest relative abundance, sabinene (1.1%), was found only at 6 AM.

Chemistry , Cordia/classification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Specimen Handling/classification
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(6): 449-455, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907506


The chemical constituents of essential oils obtained from leaves, stems and roots of Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume and Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep collected from Vietnam have been studied. The determination of essential oil components was performed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaves oil of Zingiber gramineum were zingiberene (19.5 percent), beta-cubebene (12.9 percent), beta-sesquiphellandrene (12.9 percent) and beta-elemene (11.6 percent) while the stems oil was dominated by benzyl benzoate (22.6 percewnt), beta-elemene (9.7 percent) and beta-selinene (8.8 percent). However, upsilon-terpinene (17.9 percent), alpha-terpinene (17.1 percent), terpinen-4-ol (13.0 percent) and 1,8-cineole (12.8 percent) were the present in the root oil. In addition, beta-agarofuran (13.7 percent), alpha-humulene (8.8 percent) and alpha-pinene (8.7 percent) were the main compounds identified in the leaves of Zingiber rufopilosum. The stems comprised of alpha-cadinol (15.1 percent), beta-muurolol (12.1 percent) and endo-1-bourbonanol (9.9 percent) while (E,E)-farnesol (11.6 percent), alpha-pinene (10.0 percent), bornyl acetate (6.6 percent) and beta-pinene (6.2 percent) were the significant compounds of the root oil. This is the first report on the volatile compositions of these plant species.

El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el efecto del extracto metanólico acuoso a partir de los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas, tallos y raíces de Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume y Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep recogidos de Vietnam. La determinación de componentes de aceites esenciales se realizó por cromatografía de gases-detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los principales componentes del aceite de hojas de Zingiber gramineum fueron zingibereno (19,5 por ciento), beta-cubebene (12,9 por ciento), beta-sesquiphellandrene (12,9 por ciento) y beta-elemene (11,6 por ciento), mientras que el aceite de tallos fue dominada por benzoato de bencilo (22,6 por ciento), beta-elemene (9,7 por ciento) y beta-selineno (8,8 por ciento). Sin embargo, ipsilon-terpineno (17,9 por ciento), alfa-terpineno (17,1 por ciento), terpinen-4-ol (13,0 por ciento) y 1,8-cineol (12,8 por ciento) fueron los presentes en el aceite de la raíz. Además, beta-agarofuran (13,7 por ciento), alfa-humuleno (8,8 por ciento) y alfa-pineno (8,7 por ciento) fueron los principales compuestos identificados en las hojas de Zingiber rufopilosum. Los tallos componen de alfa-cadinol (15,1 por ciento), beta-muurolol (12,1 por ciento) y endo-1-bourbonanol (9,9 por ciento), mientras que (E, E)-farnesol (11,6 por ciento), alfa-pineno (10,0 por ciento), acetato de bornilo (6,6 por ciento) y beta-pineno (6,2 por ciento) fueron los compuestos significativos del aceite de la raíz. Este es el primer informe sobre las composiciones volátiles de estas especies de plantas.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Monoterpenes/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(5): 355-363, Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907498


Smallanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the Asteraceae family, which has about 24 species, ranging mostly from southern Mexico and Central America to the Andes in South America. The aim of the present study was to identify the chemical composition of leaf essential oil of S. quichensis, growing wild in Costa Rica. The extraction of the oils was carried out by the hydrodistillation method, using a modified Clevenger type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS using the retention indices on DB-5 type capillary column. A total of 100 compounds were identified, accounting for about 90 percent of the total amount of the oils. Smallanthus quichensis leaf produced a monoterpenoid-rich oil, whose composition was dominated by αlfa-pinene (64.5 percent) and 1,8-cineole (9.7 percent) or, in a different sample, by αlfa-pinene (35.5 percent) with moderate amounts of p-cymene (11.5 percent), beta-phellandrene (9.2 percent), alfa-phellandrene (9.0 percent) and limonene (5.8 percent). This is the first report of the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from this plant species.

Smallanthus es un género de plantas perteneciente a la familia Asteraceae que contiene aproximadamente 24 especies, la mayoría ubicadas desde el sur de México, América Central y hasta la cordillera de los Andes en América del Sur. El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de identificar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas de S. quichensis. La extracción se realizó mediante el método de hidrodestilación, empleando un instrumento de tipo Clevenger. Se analizó la composición de los aceites mediante CG-FID y CG-EM, utilizando índices de retención obtenidos en una columna capilar tipo DB-5. Se identificaron 100 compuestos, correspondientes a un 90 por ciento de los constituyentes totales. Los aceites están constituidos principalmente por monoterpenoides (ca. 85 por ciento). Los componentes mayoritarios se identificaron como alfa-pineno (64.5 por ciento), acompañado por 1,8-cineol (9.7 por ciento) o, en otra muestra distinta, αlfa-pineno (35.5 por ciento) junto a cantidades moderadas de p-cimeno (11.5 por ciento), beta-felandreno (9.2 por ciento), alfa-felandreno (9.0 por ciento) y limoneno (5.8 por ciento). Este es el primer informe acerca de la composición química de aceites esenciales obtenidos de S. quichensis.

Asteraceae/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Costa Rica , Chromatography, Gas/methods
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 138-141, 03/02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741607


Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Cocos/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pelargonium/growth & development , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Iran , Industrial Waste/analysis , Industrial Waste/economics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/economics , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Pelargonium/chemistry , Pelargonium/metabolism , Perfume/chemistry , Perfume/economics , Perfume/isolation & purification , Perfume/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Silicates/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/metabolism
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(1): 60-66, ene.2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795834


The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves, stems and flowers of Euodia lepta and Euodia callophylla grown in Vietnam and then analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were being reported. The main compounds of the leaves oil of E. lepta were (E)-beta-ocimene (24.4 percent), alpha-pinene (9.8 percent), (Z)-beta-ocimene (6.3 percent) and delta-cadinene (5.2 percent), while the stems oil comprised of spathulenol (26.0 percent), (E)-beta- ocimene (9.9 percent) and (Z)-9-octadecenamide (7.7 percent). However, ciscarane (19.2 percent), alpha-cadinol (10.8 percent), alpha-pinene (10.5 percent) and (E)-beta-ocimene (9.0 percent) were present in the flowers oil of E. lepta. On the other hand, alpha-pinene (8.3 percent), trans-alpha-bergamotene (7.5 percent), (E)-beta-ocimene (7.0 percent) and (E)-nerolidol (6.6 percent) were the major constituents of the leaves oil of E. calophylla. The quantitatively significant compounds of the stems oil were (E,E)-alpha-farnesene (11.9 percent), alpha-terpinolene (11.3 percent) and alpha-pinene (8.2 percent), while alpha-pinene (21.6 percent), limonene (19.0 percent) and sabinene (15.5 percent) were obtained from the flowers oil...

La composición químicas de los aceites esenciales obtenidos por hidrodestilación de las hojas, tallos y flores de Euodia lepta y Euodia callophylla cultivadas en Vietnam, fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases-detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y la cromatografía de gases/espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los principales compuestos del aceite de hojas de E. lepta fueron (E) -beta-ocimeno (24,4 por ciento), alfa-pineno (9,8 por ciento), (Z)-beta- ocimeno (6,3 por ciento) y delta-cadineno (5.2 por ciento), mientras que los tallos de aceite estaban compuestos de spatulenol (26,0 por ciento), (E) -beta-ocimeno (9,9 por ciento) y (Z) -9- octadecenamida (7,7 por ciento). Sin embargo, cis-carano (19,2 por ciento), alfa-cadinol (10,8 por ciento), alfa-pineno (10,5 por ciento) y (E) -beta-ocimeno (9,0 por ciento) estaban presentes en el aceite de flores de E. lepta. Por otro lado, alfa-pineno (8,3 por ciento), trans-alfa-bergamoteno (7,5 por ciento), (E) - beta-ocimeno (7,0 por ciento) y (E) -nerolidol (6,6 por ciento) fueron los principales constituyentes del aceite de las hojas de E. calophylla. Los compuestos cuantitativamente significativos del aceite de los tallos fueron (E, E)-farneseno -alfa (11,9 por ciento), alfa-terpinoleno (11,3 por ciento) y alfa-pineno (8,2 por ciento), mientras que alfa-pineno (21,6 por ciento), limoneno (19,0 por ciento) y sabineno (15,5 por ciento) se obtuvieron del aceite de las flores...

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Evodia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry