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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928007


Monoterpenes are widely used in cosmetics, food, medicine, agriculture and other fields. With the development of synthetic biology, it is considered as a potential way to create microbial cell factories to produce monoterpenes. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce monoterpenes has been a research hotspot in synthetic biology. In S. cerevisiae, the production of geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate(FPP) is catalyzed by a bifunctional enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase(encoded by ERG20 gene) which is inclined to synthesize FPP essential for yeast growth. Therefore, reasonable control of FPP synthesis is the basis for efficient monoterpene synthesis in yeast cell factories. In order to achieve dynamic control from GPP to FPP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, we obtained a novel chassis strain HP001-pERG1-ERG20 by replacing the ERG20 promoter of the chassis strain HP001 with the promoter of cyclosqualene cyclase(ERG1) gene. Further, we reconstructed the metabolic pathway by using GPP and neryl diphosphate(NPP), cis-GPP as substrates in HP001-pERG1-ERG20. The yield of GPP-derived linalool increased by 42.5% to 7.6 mg·L~(-1), and that of NPP-derived nerol increased by 1 436.4% to 8.3 mg·L~(-1). This study provides a basis for the production of monoterpenes by microbial fermentation.

Fermentation , Geranyltranstransferase/genetics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 427-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927720


Monoterpenoids that belong to the terpenoids family are usually volatile and have strong aroma. Some monoterpenoids also have antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, which make them important raw materials for medicine, food and cosmetics industry. In recent years, the heterologous synthesis of monoterpenoids by microorganisms has attracted extensive attention. However, its large-scale application is greatly hampered by the low yield and high production cost. Nowadays, the rapid development of synthetic biology provides new approaches for enhancing the production of monoterpenoids by microorganisms. Different kinds of recombinant strains can be obtained via engineering of microbial cells to produce a variety of monoterpenoids with different properties. This paper summarized the latest strategies and progress in the application of synthetic biology to produce monoterpenoids by microorganisms, including the design and modification of biosynthetic pathway, as well as the design and optimization of high-yield monoterpenoids producing chassis cells.

Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878981


To compare the effect of hot or warm property of Chinese medicine(CM) on the skin toxicity of essential oils(EOs) as penetration enhancer in vitro and in vivo, and explore the mechanism. EOs were extracted from WIM of Bichengqie(Litseae Fructus), Dingxiang(Flos Syzygii Aromatici), Huajiao(Pericarpium Zanthoxyli Bungeani), and Xiaohuixiang(Fructus Foeniculi) with warm property, and Ganjiang(Rhizoma Zingiberis), Gaoliangjiang(Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinari), Hujiao(Fructus Piperis), and Wuzhuyu(Fructus Evodiae Rutaecarpae) with hot property, respectively. Then the in vitro toxicity was evaluated by human keratinocyte cytotoxicity. In vivo skin irritation potency was also evaluated through pathological observation after topical administration. The components, especially those located in stratum corneum, were analyzed by GC-MS. The main components, namely monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, of EOs extracted from CM with hot property,were detected for the interaction with keratino-lipid ceramide 3 by molecular simulation technology; and the interaction energy value was calculated based on the optimal conformation. It was found that the skin cell toxicity of EOs from CM with hot property was significantly higher than that of EOs from CM with warm property. However, there was no significant difference between them by in vivo skin irritation evaluation. Whether from CM with hot property or warm property, EOs showed a significant reduced toxicity compared with azone. Sesquiterpenes(33.56%±19.38%) were found to be one of the main components in EOs from CM with hot property, while almost no sesquiterpenes was found in EOs from CM with warm property. After topical administration of EOs from CM with hot property, sesquiterpenes were demonstrated to be prone to locate in stratum corneum. The results of molecular simulation also revealed that the interaction between sesquiterpenes and ceramide 3 was significantly stronger than that of monoterpenes(P<0.01). In conclusion, the location of sesquiterpenes in stratum corneum resulted in the significant difference between in vitro skin cell toxicity and in vivo skin irritation potency. The EOs from CM with hot property shall be taken into account for further development of potent penetration enhancer.

Humans , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Skin Absorption
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 435-443, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008258


Volatiles compounds are involved in defensive induction against insects, playing an important role in insect-plant interaction being induced by response to mechanical damage. However, they could decrease according to the domestication degree in cultivated plants. Currently, it has been established that secondary metabolites are reduced due to the domestication process in murtilla. Hence, the follow question emerges: Are volatile organic compounds induced by mechanical damage reduced in cultivated murtilla plants in relation to wild plants? Two cultivated ecotypes and their respective wild counterparts were sampled. Volatiles compounds were obtained using Porapak-Q columns and analyzed by gas chromatography. Results showed that compounds as 2-hexanone, α-pinene, 2-thujene, 3-thujene and 1,8- cineole were more abundant in wild plants exposed to a mechanical damage than cultivated plants. Hence, these compounds have been associated to induced defense, these results suggest that domestication reduced the induction of defensive volatiles in cultivated murtilla in response to mechanical damage.

Los compuestos volátiles están implicados en la defensa inducida contra insectos, desempeñando un papel importante en esta interacción. Sin embargo, estos compuestos podrían disminuir según el grado de domesticación. Actualmente, se ha reportado que algunos metabolitos secundarios son reducidos en plantas de murtilla domesticadas. Por lo tanto, surge la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Los compuestos orgánicos volátiles inducidos por el daño mecánico son reducidos en plantas cultivadas de murtilla en comparación con plantas silvestres? Para dos ecotipos cultivados y sus respectivas contrapartes silvestres, los compuestos volátiles fueron capturados usando columnas de Porapak-Q y las muestras analizadas por cromatografía gaseosa. Los resultados mostraron que compuestos tales como 2- hexanona, α-pineno, 2-tujeno, 3-tujeno y 1,8-cineol fueron más abundantes en plantas silvestres expuestas a daño mecánico que en cultivadas. Debido a que estos compuestos se han asociado a defensa inducida, estos resultados sugieren que la domesticación reduce la inducción de volátiles en plantas cultivadas sometidas a daño mecánico.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Myrtaceae/metabolism , Myrtaceae/microbiology , Domestication , Insecta/physiology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Wilderness , Larva/physiology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 261-264, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748265


The monoterpenoid 1,8-cineole is obtained from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus and it has important biological activities. It is a cheap natural substrate because it is a by-product of the Eucalyptus cultivation for wood and pulp production. In this study, it was evaluated the potential of three filamentous fungi in the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole. The study was divided in two steps: first, reactions were carried out with 1,8-cineole at 1 g/L for 24 h; afterwards, reactions were carried out with substrate at 5 g/L for 5 days. The substrate was hydroxylated into 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole and 3-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole by fungi Mucor ramannianus and Aspergillus niger with high stereoselectivity. Trichoderma harzianum was also tested but no transformation was detected. M. ramannianus led to higher than 99% of conversion within 24 h with a starting high substrate concentration (1 g/L). When substrate was added at 5 g/L, only M. ramannianus was able to catalyze the reaction, but the conversion level was 21.7% after 5 days. Both products have defined stereochemistry and could be used as chiral synthons. Furthermore, biological activity has been described for 3-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of M. ramannianus in this reaction.

Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Cyclohexanols/metabolism , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Mucorales/metabolism , Hydroxylation , Time Factors , Trichoderma/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 138-141, 03/02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741607


Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Cocos/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pelargonium/growth & development , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Iran , Industrial Waste/analysis , Industrial Waste/economics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/economics , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Pelargonium/chemistry , Pelargonium/metabolism , Perfume/chemistry , Perfume/economics , Perfume/isolation & purification , Perfume/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Silicates/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/metabolism
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1075-1080, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705285


Perillyl derivatives are increasingly important due to their flavouring and antimicrobial properties as well as their potential as anticancer agents. These terpenoid species, which are present in limited amounts in plants, may be obtained via bioconversion of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons. In this study, seventeen yeast strains were screened for their ability to oxidize the exocyclic methyl group in the p-menthene moiety of limonene into perillic acid. Of the yeast tested, the highest efficiency was observed for Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 18942. The conversion of R (+)-limonene by Y. lipolytica was evaluated by varying the pH (3 to 8) and the temperature (25 to 30 ºC) in a reaction medium containing 0.5% v/v limonene and 10 gµL of stationary phase cells (dry weight). The best results, corresponding to 564 mgµL of perillic acid, were obtained in buffered medium at pH 7.1 that was incubated at 25 ºC for 48 h. The stepwise addition of limonene increased the perillic acid concentration by over 50%, reaching 855 mgµL, whereas the addition of glucose or surfactant to the reaction medium did not improve the bioconversion process. The use of Y. lipolytica showed promise for ease of further downstream processing, as perillic acid was the sole oxidised product of the bioconversion reaction. Moreover, bioprocesses using safe and easy to cultivate yeast cells have been favoured in industry.

Cyclohexenes/metabolism , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Terpenes/metabolism , Yarrowia/metabolism , Biotransformation , Culture Media/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidation-Reduction , Temperature
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 47(2): 343-351, abr.-jun. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694557


Las estatinas son inhibidores competitivos de la 3-hidroxi-3-metilglutaril-coenzima A (HMG-CoA) reductasa ampliamente usados en los tratamientos contra las hipercolesterolemias. Los monoterpenos son componentes no nutritivos de la dieta presentes en aceites esenciales de varias plantas que han demostrado tener múltiples efectos en la vía del mevalonato. Se estudia el efecto y mecanismo de acción de monoterpenos presentes en aceites esenciales, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí y con simvastatina sobre la síntesis de colesterol, el metabolismo lipídico y la proliferación celular in vitro en células hepáticas Hep G2 y no hepáticas A549, e in vivo en ratones atímicos huéspedes y no huéspedes de tumores derivado de células A549 implantados en ellos. Se abre así una gran expectativa sobre la potencialidad de la administración conjunta de distintos monoterpenos y de extractos naturales de aceites esenciales en el mejoramiento de las terapias antihipercolesterolemiantes y/o el tratamiento del cáncer, como así también en el potencial sinergismo con estatinas como una alternativa para disminuir las dosis efectivas y los efectos indeseados y/o tóxicos.

Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase used in hypercholesterolemic patients. Monoterpenes are non-nutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of many plants with pharmacologic effects on mevalonate metabolism. The study is centered on the effects and action mechanisms of the monoterpene components of essential oils and the combination of monoterpenes between them and combined with simvastatin on cholesterogenesis, lipid metabolism and cellular proliferation in vitro using two established cell lines, Hep G2 (derived from a human hepatoblastoma), A549 (derived from a human lung adenocarcinoma) and in vivo in no host and host nude mice carrying implanted tumors derived from A549. This opens up great expectations about the potential of co-administration of different natural isoprenoids and essential oils in improving anti-cholesterolemic therapies and/or cancer treatment as well as in the potential synergism with statins as an alternative to lower effective doses, decreasing the likelihood of undesired and/or toxic effects.

As estatinas são inibidores competitivos da 3-hidroxi-3-metilglutaril - coenzima A (HMG-CoA) reductase amplamente utilizados nos tratamentos contra as hipercolesterolemias. Os monoterpenos são componentes não nutritivos da dieta encontrados em óleos essenciais de várias plantas que demonstraram ter múltiplos efeitos na via do mevalonato. Estudamos o efeito e o mecanismo de ação de monoterpenos encontrados em óleos essenciais, bem como a combinação deles entre si e com sinvastatina sobre a síntese de colesterol, o metabolismo lipídico e a proliferação celular in vitro em células hepáticas Hep G2 e não hepáticas A549 e in vivo em camundongos atímicos hospedeiros ou não hospedeiros de tumores derivados de células A549 implantadas neles. Isto abre grandes expectativas sobre o potencial da co-administração de diferentes monoterpenos e de extratos naturais de óleos essenciais na melhoria das terapias anti-hipercolesterolemiantes e/ou tratamento do câncer, assim como no potencial sinergismo com estatinas como uma alternativa para reduzir as doses efetivas e os efeitos indesejáveis e/ou tóxicos.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/metabolism , Monoterpenes/metabolism , A549 Cells , Anticholesteremic Agents , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatocytes
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(2): 2-3, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567080


The purpose of this work was to study the biodegradation of citronellol, citronellal and citronellyl acetate by a soil Pseudomonas mendocina strain (IBPse 105) isolated from a Cymbopogon windelandi field. This strain efficiently used citronellol, citronellal, citronellyl acetate and myrcene as sole source of carbon, but was not able to grow on other 15 monoterpenoids evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of metabolites accumulation during P. medocina IBPse 105 growth on citronellol showed that this strain uses the citronellol catabolic pathway described for other species of the genus. IBPse 105 degradation of citronellyl acetate initiates by its hydrolysis to citronellol. The mini-Tn5 insertion in mutant IBPse 105-303, impaired in citronellol degradation, but able to grow on citronellal, was located in a homologous of the P. aeruginosa atuB gene, that codifies citronellol deshydrogenase.

Monoterpenes/metabolism , Pseudomonas mendocina/metabolism , Biotransformation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hydrolysis , Mutagenesis , Pseudomonas mendocina/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 10(4): 500-507, oct. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-504125


This work describes the bioconversion of (-)- and (+)-alpha-pinene (2,6,6-trimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene), targeted at the production of (-)- and (+)-verbenone (4,6,6-trimethyl-bicyclo (3.1.1) hept-3-en-2-one), respectively, using Psychotria brachyceras and Rauvolfia sellowii cell suspension cultures. P. brachyceras showed selectivity to (-)-alpha-pinene with 80.9 percent conversion (relative integrated area gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) of (-)-verbenone in 10-day-incubation, whereas R. sellowii was able to convert both pinene enantiomers (37.6% conversion of (-)-verbenone in 7-day-incubation and 32.2% conversion of (+)-verbenone in 10-day-incubation). In both systems trans-verbenol was formed as main product and then slowly biocatalyzed to verbenone. Verbenone were also present among the autoxidation products during control experiments, but in much lower amounts and accompanied by several by-products, highlighting the usefulness of the biotransformation process.

Monoterpenes/metabolism , Terpenes/metabolism , Biotransformation , Biotechnology/methods , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, Gas , Plants