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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10285, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153507

ABSTRACT

The increasing number of cesarean sections worldwide has encouraged research on the long-term effects of this birth type on the offspring's mental health. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between birth by cesarean section and the development of mood disorders (depression and bipolar disorders) in adolescents. A cohort study was carried out with 1603 adolescents from 18 to 19 years old who participated in the third phase of a birth cohort study in São Luís, MA, in 2016. Information on birth type and weight, prematurity, mother's age and schooling, parity, marital status, and smoking behavior during pregnancy, were collected at birth. The study outcomes were depression, bipolar disorder, and "mood disorder" construct. A Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) was developed to select the variables for minimal adjustment for confounding and collision bias. Associations were estimated through propensity score weighting using a two-step estimation model, and confounders for cesarean birth were used in the predictive model. There was no significant association in the relationship between birth type and depression (95%CI: -0.037 to 0.017; P=0.47), bipolar disorder (95%CI: -0.019 to 0.045; P=0.43), and mood disorder (95%CI: -0.033 to 0.042; P=0.80) in adolescents of both sexes. Birth by cesarean section was not associated with the development of mood disorders in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cesarean Section , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies
2.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 105-113, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223378

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La comorbilidad médica en pacientes con trastornos del estado de ánimo tiende a convertirse en un problema de salud pública clínica y global cada vez más importante. Varias patologías médicas específicas están asociadas con un mayor riesgo de padecer trastornos del estado de ánimo y, por otra parte, los trastornos del estado de ánimo están asociados con un aumento de la morbilidad y mortalidad debidas a condiciones médicas comórbidas. En este artículo se revisan las comorbilidades médicas que más comúnmente se asocian a los trastornos afectivos (enfermedades cardiovasculares, obesidad y síndrome metabólico) examinando sus posibles implicaciones bidireccionales. MÉTODOS Se ha realizado una revisión no sistemática y búsqueda de la literatura científica sobre la asociación entre las tres enfermedades médicas más frecuentes en trastorno depresivo mayor y trastorno bipolar (enfermedades cardiovasculares, obesidad, síndrome metabólico) entre enero de 1995 y noviembre de 2019. RESULTADOS La evidencia sugiere que la comorbilidad entre estas tres enfermedades médicas y los trastornos del estado de ánimo es muy frecuente; la presencia de las primeras empeora significativamente el pronóstico y el manejo terapéutico de las segundas y viceversa, comparten mecanismos fisiopatológicos e implican una etiología aparentemente bidireccional. CONCLUSIONES La presencia de estas enfermedades médicas concurrentes en un individuo con un trastorno del estado de ánimo se asocia con una presentación de enfermedad más compleja. En muchos casos, estas comorbilidades pueden preceder a la aparición de los trastornos del estado de ánimo, aunque en la mayoría de los casos parecen seguir a la aparición de los trastornos del estado de ánimo. Para los profesionales, la evidencia apoya inequívocamente las recomendaciones para la vigilancia rutinaria de las comorbilidades según un enfoque multidisciplinar.


INTRODUCTION Medical comorbidity in patients with mood disorders tends to become an increasingly important clinical and global public health problem. On one hand, several specific medical pathologies are associated with an increased risk of mood disorders and on the other hand, mood disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to comorbid medical conditions. This article reviews the medical comorbidities that are most commonly associated with affective disorders (cardiovascular diseases, obesity and metabolic syndrome) examining their possible bidirectional implications. METHODS A non-systematic review about the association between the three most common medical diseases in major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder (cardiovascular diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome) has been carried out from January 1995 to November 2019. RESULTS The evidence suggests that comorbidity between these three medical diseases and mood disorders is very prevalent. The presence of medical disease significantly worsens the prognosis and therapeutic management of the mood disorders and vice versa. In many cases, these comorbidities may precede the onset of mood disorders, although in most cases they appear to follow the onset of mood disorders. CONCLUSIONS the presence of these concurrent medical diseases in an individual with a mood disorder is associated with a more complex disease presentation. For professionals, the evidence unequivocally supports recommendations for routine surveillance of comorbidities according to a multidisciplinary approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Health , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Comorbidity , Metabolic Syndrome/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology
3.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 122-129, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223502

ABSTRACT

La relación entre función tiroidea y trastornos del ánimo se ha observado desde hace más de 50 años. Las hormonas tiroideas, actúan en el cerebro modulando génicamente proteínas asociadas a la fisiopatología de los trastornos del ánimo y potenciando los sistemas de neurotransmisión serotoninérgica y noradrenérgica. En el tratamiento de un episodio depresivo, la normalización de hormonas tiroideas es fundamental, y debe realizarse en todo paciente con sintomatología anímica, especialmente en aquellos con respuestas insuficientes a tratamiento, que requieren niveles de hormonas más estrictos que lo recomendado para población general. En pacientes eutiroideos, la potenciación con triyodotironina ha sido probada, pero también se ha utilizado T4 en altas dosis en casos resistentes, en que se postula que pudiese existir un estado de resistencia a hormonas tiroideas, no reflejado en los niveles hormonales periféricos evaluados rutinariamente. Las enzimas deiodasas, el receptor de hormona tiroidea, y el transportador de hormona tiroidea en la barrera hematoencefálica son blancos a investigar. Los objetivos de la presente revisión son ofrecer orientaciones respecto del uso de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes con trastornos del ánimo, una puesta al día sobre la relación entre hormonas tiroídeas y sistema nervioso central, y las interacciones entre psicofármacos y función tiroidea.


The relationship between thyroid function and mood disorders has been observed for more than 50 years. Thyroid hormones act in the brain genetically modulating proteins associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders and potentiating the serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission systems. In the treatment of a depressive episode, the normalization of thyroid hormones is essential, and should be performed in all patients with mood symptoms, especially in those with insufficient responses to treatment, which require more stringent hormone levels than recommended for the general population. In euthyroid patients, potentiation with triiodothyronine has been proven, but T4 has also been used in high doses in resistant cases, in which it is postulated that there might be a state of resistance to thyroid hormones, not reflected in the peripheral hormonal levels evaluated routinely. The enzymes deiodasas, the thyroid hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone transporter in the blood brain barrier are white to investigate. The objectives of this review are to provide guidance regarding the use of thyroid hormones in patients with mood disorders, an update on the relationship between thyroid hormones and central nervous system, and the interactions between psychoactive drugs and thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Diseases/psychology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroid Hormones/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Depression , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 174-182, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223625

ABSTRACT

La comorbilidad entre trastornos del ánimo (TA) y trastornos por uso de sustancias (TUS) es frecuente, empeora el pronóstico de ambos cuadros y dificulta su tratamiento. El reconocimiento y manejo de síntomas anímicos en usuarios de sustancias significa un desafío en la práctica clínica. Si bien existen los trastornos anímicos secundarios a la patología por consumo, la evidencia muestra que la mayor parte de las veces en que ambas patologías coexisten, el trastorno anímico es primario, por lo tanto, el uso de sustancias activo no debiese impedir un tratamiento oportuno del TA, sin descuidar el manejo específico del uso de sustancias, ya que el tratamiento del cuadro afectivo por sí sólo no resuelve el TUS. Existe acuerdo en la necesidad de realizar un tratamiento integrado de ambos trastornos, que incorpore intervenciones farmacológicas y psicoterapéuticas ya validadas para el tratamiento de ambos trastornos por separado, y especialmente aquellas que han mostrado efectividad en la comorbilidad. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque en la recuperación, que promueva la adherencia y reinserción social. Se requiere mayor investigación sobre el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la comorbilidad entre Trastorno anímicos y por uso de sustancias, y el fortalecimiento de la red de salud general y salud mental en la pesquisa y manejo de estos cuadros.


Comorbidity between Mood Disorders (MD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) are common and it worsens the prognosis of both conditions. The recognition and management of mood symptoms in SUD patients is a usual challenge in clinical practice. As opposed to the usual belief, most mood disorders in TUS patients are primary disorders and therefore the use of active substances should not prevent timely treatment of MD, without neglecting the specific management of substance use, since that the treatment of the affective condition alone does not resolve your SUD. There is agreement on the need to perform an integrated treatment of both disorders, which incorporates pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions already validated for the treatment of both disorders, and especially those that have shown effectiveness in comorbidity. Treatment should have a focus on recovery, which promotes adherence and social reintegration. More research is required on the prognosis and treatment of comorbidity between mood and substance use disorders, and the strengthening of the general health and mental health network in the research and management of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Mood Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(2): 167-170, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Our aim was to analyze hospitalization due to affective disorders in Brazil from 2003 to 2017 and the possible association with economic indicators during crises. We used data on hospitalizations due to affective disorders within the Brazilian National Health System, obtained from DATASUS; data on health-related behavior (television-viewing and physical activity) from the VIGITEL database; and economic data from the World Bank database. We found that the numbers of hospitalizations increased one year after the 2009 crisis and one year after the 2016 crisis. Negative changes in health-related behavior also followed changes in the numbers of hospitalizations due to affective disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Behavior , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual
6.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(1): 1-5, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899410

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results: Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. Conclusion: These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Anxiety/complications , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Alcoholism/psychology
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(4): 380-388, Jul.-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903777

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To describe the characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents 5-17 years with severe functioning difficulties and disability and explore their participation in child labor. Materials and methods: Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used logistic regression to explore the association between this condition and child labor. Results: While 11.2% of Mexicans 5-17 years-old has severe functioning difficulties or disability, 13.4% work. The functioning difficulty and disability domains with the highest prevalence are experiencing anxiety (5.4%) and depression (1.5%) daily. Children and adolescents with severe functioning difficulties and disability are 70% more likely to do child labor [OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.2,2.4]. Educational lag doubles the likelihood of doing child labor [OR=2.2, 95%CI:1.5,3.3]. Conclusions: Guaranteeing educational opportunities and respect for the rights of children with severe functioning difficulties and disability is essential to achieve development of their full potential.


Resumen: Objetivo: Describir la población mexicana de 5-17 años con problemas severos de funcionamiento y discapacidad y explorar su realización de trabajo infantil. Material y métodos: Basado en la Encuesta Nacional de Niños, Niñas y Mujeres 2015, se estimaron prevalencias de problemas de funcionamiento y discapacidad y se exploró la relación con el trabajo infantil en un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: El 11.2% de los mexicanos de 5-17 años tiene dificultades severas de funcionamiento o discapacidad y 13.4% realiza trabajo infantil. Los ámbitos con la mayor prevalencia fueron ansiedad (5.4%) y depresión (1.5%) experimentadas diariamente. Niños y adolescentes con problemas severos de funcionamiento o discapacidad tienen 70% más posibilidades de realizar trabajo infantil [RM=1.7, IC95%:1.2,2.4]. El rezago educativo duplica las posibilidades de realizar trabajo infantil [RM=2.2, IC95%:1.5,3.3]. Conclusiones: Es imprescindible garantizar oportunidades educativas y respeto a los derechos de la población infantil con problemas de funcionamiento y discapacidad para lograr su desarrollo integral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Poverty , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Family Characteristics , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Maternal Age , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Educational Status , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , Income , Mexico/epidemiology , Mothers/education
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(12): 999-1002, Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the prevalence of headache in post-menopausal women. Methods Women attending gynecology outpatient services in the coastal region of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil were invited to participate in this study. Only those with non-surgical menopause and no hormone replacement therapy were included. Prevalence and characterization of headaches were assessed, as well as the burden of migraine, traits of anxiety and depression, and menopausal symptomatology. Results One hundred and three women were included in the study. Migraine affected 14.7% of them. Some previous type of headache was reported by 86.2% of the women, most of whom improved during menopause but still presented with headache attacks. There was a correlation between higher migraine disability and depressive traits. Conclusions Many women believe that their headaches, particularly migraine, will end after menopause. This is, unfortunately, not the case for many of them.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência de cefaleia em mulheres no período pós-menopausal. Métodos Mulheres atendidas em serviços de ginecologia na região costeira do estado de São Paulo, Brasil foram convidadas a participar deste estudo. Apenas mulheres com menopausa não-cirúrgica e sem terapia de reposição hormonal foram incluídas. Foram avaliados prevalência e características das cefaleias, incapacidade por enxaqueca, traços de ansiedade e depressão e sintomatologia menopausal. Resultados Centro e três mulheres foram incluídas neste estudo. Enxaqueca afetava 14,7% delas. Antecedente de algum tipo de dor de cabeça foi relatada por 86,2% das mulheres, a maioria das quais melhorou durante a menopausa, mas ainda apresentava crises. Houve correlação entre maior incapacidade por enxaqueca e traço depressivo. Conclusão Muitas mulheres acreditam que suas cefaleias, particularmente enxaqueca, terminarão quando começar a menopausa. Este, infelizmente, não é o caso para muitas delas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Postmenopause/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Social Class , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Postmenopause/physiology , Age of Onset , Depression/epidemiology
9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(3): 853-860, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775777

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypo)manic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05), except for the occurrence of (hypo)manic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk.


Resumo O artigo tem por objetivo analisar a associação entre abuso sexual, episódios maníacos, depressivos e risco de suicídio em jovens adultos. Este é um estudo transversal de base populacional realizado com jovens entre 18 e 24 anos em Pelotas/RS. A seleção da amostra foi realizada por conglomerados. Foram avaliados a prevalência de violência sexual, o episódio de mania, depressão, misto e o risco de suicídio. Para a análise bruta dos dados foi utilizado o teste Qui-Quadrado, posteriormente, a análise ajustada foi realizada por Regressão de Poisson. A amostra do estudo foi de 1560 jovens, dos quais 3,1% haviam sofrido abuso sexual em algum momento de sua vida. O episódio depressivo esteve presente em 10,0% dos jovens entrevistados, seguido pelo maníaco (hipo) (2,3%) e pelo misto (2,4%). O risco de suicídio apresentou prevalência de 8,6% na amostra total. Nos jovens que sofreram abuso sexual, a probabilidade de apresentar alterações de humor ou risco de suicídio foi maior do que naqueles que não haviam sofrido (p < 0,05), exceto para a ocorrência de episódio maníaco (hipo). Os achados deste estudo indicam uma forte associação entre abuso sexual e episódios de depressão, misto e risco de suicídio, ainda, em uma amostra sem nenhum tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Sex Offenses
10.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 28(4): 753-763, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: lil-763121

ABSTRACT

This study investigated what predicts the occurrence of hot flushes (HF) and night sweats (NS). A community sample of 992 women (42-60 years) answered a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, health and menopause-related, as well as lifestyle information. Depressive mood and stress, as well as HF and NS (in terms of presence, frequency and intensity), were also assessed. Structural equation modelling was used to build a structural model to predict the occurrence of both vasomotor symptoms. Results: Stress predicted NS (ß =.154; p =.006), whereas depressive mood was linked to the occurrence of HF's (ß =.149; p =.006). Being peri-menopausal and post-menopausal, among several other characteristics, were also significant predictors of the occurrence of both HF and NS. This study supports a distinguished influence of stress and depressive mood in NS and HF respectively, probably due to the nature of psychological symptoms. Moreover, significant associations between vasomotor symptoms and socio-demographic, health and menopause-related characteristics, and alcohol were confirmed. (AU)


Este estudo investigou os preditores da ocorrência de afrontamentos (Af) e de suores noturnos (SN). Foi utilizada uma amostra comunitária de 992 mulheres (42-60 anos), que respondeu a um questionário para a recolha de informação sociodemográfica, de estado de saúde e menopausa, e sobre o estilo de vida. Os níveis de humor deprimido e estresse, tal como a ocorrência, frequência e intensidade dos Af e SN, foram avaliados. Modelos de equações estruturais foram utilizados para construir o modelo estrutural para predizer a ocorrência de ambos os sintomas vasomotores. Os resultados indicaram que estresse predisse os SN (ß =0,154; p =0,006), enquanto o humor deprimido associou-se à ocorrência de Af (ß =0,149; p =0,006). Estar na peri-menopausa ou na pós-menopausa, entre outras características, associou-se igualmente à ocorrência de Af e SN. Este estudo suporta uma influência diferenciada do estresse e do humor deprimido na ocorrência de SN e Af, respetivamente, provavelmente devido à natureza dos sintomas psicológicos. Adicionalmente confirmou-se uma associação significativa entre os sintomas vasomotores e características sociodemográficas, de saúde, de menopausa e consumo de álcool. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Climacteric/psychology , Menopause/psychology , Women's Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Life Style
11.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 79(1): 13-28, jul. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-836521

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos psiquiátricos son una de las principales causas de morbilidad mundial, y la respuesta insuficiente de los servicios de salud mental viene siendo objeto de estudios científicos.Surge así la necesidad de actualizar la información epidemiológica de nuestros servicios y compararla con estudios previos.La impresión clínica lleva a plantearnos la hipótesis de un aumento en la frecuencia delos trastornos por consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y violencia, lo cual requiere objetivar estos datos.Es un estudio descriptivo observacional transversal de la población asistida en la sala de salud mental del Hospital Maciel durante un año. La internación en sala cumple actualmente con una asistencia de corta estadía, multidisciplinaria,con criterios geográficos y clínicos, de amplio espectro nosológico, predominando los trastornos por consumo de sustancias.Algunos puntos objetivados son: patología dual 40,82 %, no compensación 15 % (egresos sin alta médica y derivaciones) y el 12,24 % de reinternaciones en el período analizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Users/psychology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Sociological Factors , Substance-Related Disorders , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Personality Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Uruguay
12.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 36(3): 123-133, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724124

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compile data on Tourette's syndrome (TS), tics and associated disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the 5S levels of organization of healthcare research evidence (systems, summaries, synopses, syntheses, studies), based on the model described by Haynes. The search keywords were Tourette, tics and comorbidity, which were cross-referenced. Studies provided by publishers and articles being processed on July 31, 2013, were also included. Results: Of all studies retrieved during the search, 64 were selected because they analyzed the epidemiology, clinical features and etiopathogenesis of TS and its comorbidities. TS is classified as a hyperkinetic movement disorder, and at least 90% of the patients have neuropsychiatric comorbidities, of which attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorders are the most common. The syndrome is clinically heterogeneous and has been associated with a dysfunction of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits involving various neurotransmitters. Although its genetic etiology has been widely studied, other factors may be important to understand this syndrome and its associated disorders. Conclusions: TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from the impact of stress factors on a vulnerable biological substrate during the critical periods of neurodevelopment. The study of TS and its comorbidities may contribute, at different levels, to the understanding of several neuropsychiatric disorders of clinical and therapeutic relevance (AU)


Objetivo: Compilar o conhecimento existente sobre a síndrome de Tourette (ST), tiques e patologias associadas. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura usando os níveis 5S (sistemas, sumários, sinopses, sínteses e estudos) de organização de evidência de pesquisa em saúde, com base no modelo proposto por Haynes. Os termos de busca foram Tourette, tiques e comorbidades, completados por pesquisa por referência cruzada. Os artigos fornecidos pelos editores e aqueles a serem processados para publicação em 31 de julho de 2013 também foram incluídos. Resultados: De todos os artigos encontrados durante a pesquisa, 64 foram selecionados porque analisavam a epidemiologia, as características clínicas e a etiopatogenia da ST. A ST define-se como um distúrbio hipercinético do movimento, e pelo menos 90% dos pacientes apresentam comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas, das quais as mais comuns são a perturbação de déficit de atenção com hiperatividade e a perturbação obsessivo- -compulsiva. Esta síndrome é clinicamente heterogênea e tem sido relacionada com a disfunção dos circuitos córtico-estriado- -tálamo-corticais envolvendo vários neurotransmissores. Apesar de sua etiologia genética ter sido amplamente estudada, outros fatores podem ser importantes para entender esta síndrome e as perturbações relacionadas. Conclusões: A ST resulta de uma perturbação do desenvolvimento neurológico causado pelo impacto de fatores de estresse num substrato biológico vulnerável durante os períodos críticos do desenvolvimento neurológico. O estudo da ST e das suas comorbidades poderá contribuir, em diferentes níveis, para o entendimento de várias perturbações neuropsiquiátricas com relevância clínica e terapêutica (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Comorbidity , Tics , Tourette Syndrome/physiopathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Personality Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Tourette Syndrome/epidemiology
13.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 19(9): 3941-3946, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720586

ABSTRACT

Transtornos de humor são consequentes de uma interação entre fatores biológicos e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar associações entre eventos vitais estressores e transtornos de humor em uma amostra comunitária de jovens do Sul do Brasil. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional com jovens de 18 a 24 anos. A seleção da amostra foi realizada por conglomerados. Os episódios de alteração do humor foram avaliados através da Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview , enquanto os eventos vitais estressores foram mensurados através da escala de reajustamento social de Holmes e Rahe. A amostra foi de 1172 jovens. A proporção de eventos vitais estressores no último ano, em cada categoria, no total da amostra, foi de: 53,8% trabalho, 42,4% perda de suporte social, 63,8% família, 50,9% mudanças ambientais, 61,1% dificuldades pessoais e 38,7% finanças. Houve associação significativa entre eventos vitais estressores e episódios de alteração de humor. Foi verificada maior ocorrência de eventos vitais estressores entre os jovens em episódio misto, quando comparados aos jovens em episódio depressivo, (hipo) maníaco e controles. Esses achados sugerem uma interação psicossocial entre eventos vitais estressores e os episódios de alteração de humor.


Mood disorders are a consequence of the interaction between environmental and biological factors. The objective of this study was to identify associations between stressful life events (LEs) and mood disorders in a community sample of young people in southern Brazil. It is a cross-sectional population-based study on young people between 18 and 24 years of age. The selection of the sample was conducted via conglomerates. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interviews were used to evaluate mood disorders, and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale to assess stressful life events. The sample included 1172 young people. Of the total sample, the proportion of stressful life events in the last year in each category was: 53.8% work, 42.4% loss of social support, 63.8% family, 50.9% environmental changes, 61.1% personal difficulties, and 38.7% finances. A significant relationship was found between categories of stressful life events and mood disorder episodes. A higher incidence of stressful life events was found among young people in a mixed episode compared to young people in a depressive, (hypo)maniac episode with controls. This finding suggests a psychosocial interaction between stressful life events and the occurrence of mood disorders.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Life Change Events , Mood Disorders/etiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics
14.
Summa psicol. UST ; 11(1): 65-72, 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-723028

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo es una investigación de tipo descriptivo-correlacional, transversal con diseño no experimental sobre el estado afectivo emocional de los trabajadores de la Salud. Su objetivo es identificar la existencia de diferencias significativas entre el género y estados afectivos emocionales (depresión, ansiedad y estrés) de los trabajadores de una institución del sector salud pública ubicada en la ciudad de Ensenada perteneciente al estado de Baja California situado al noroeste de México. Se trabajó con una muestra por conveniencia la cual integra a 130 empleados; en la recolección de los datos se utilizó la escala DASS-21. Los resultados identificaron los estados afectivos emocionales dentro de un rango normal y que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto al género; además, se encontraron correlaciones fuertes, positivas y significativas entre las subescalas del DASS-21.


This study is a descriptive correlational cross-sectional approach with a non-experimental design about emotional affective states related dissorders in Mexican public health workers. It´s goal was to identify the existence of significant differences between gender and emotional affective state (depression, anxiety and stress) for workers in a hospital located in Ensenada, Baja California in north-western Mexico. The work covers a sample of 130 employees. To collection of data used a DASS-21 scale. The results identified an emotional affective state within a normal range. No statistically differences in gender were identified. Positive and significant correlations between subscales of the DASS-21 were found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Nursing Staff/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Mexico , Sex Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mood Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705087

ABSTRACT

O Transtorno de Humor (TH) é uma doença crônica, recorrente, de difícil diagnóstico e tratamento terapêutico. A baixa adesão à terapia relaciona-se a fatores ligados ao paciente, ao medicamento, ao profissional de saúde ou à doença. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de adesão ao tratamento e ao lítio de pacientes acometidos pelo TH, delineando o perfil farmacoepidemiológico destes. Para tanto, foram utilizadas de janeiro a outubro de 2011, entrevistas e questionários validados para indivíduos com TH assistidos em Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS). Dos 56 entrevistados, a maioria estava na faixa de 30-50 anos, era do sexo feminino e solteiro. Quanto ao histórico familiar, 55,4 % possuíam outros membros da família com TH, 60,7 % participaram de grupos-CAPS e 62,5 % nunca foram internados. A “Escala de Adesão à Medicação” mostrou que 60,7 %, alguma vez já se esqueceu de tomar o medicamento e do horário de tomá-lo. A maioria não toma o medicamento apenas quando se sente doente e seus pensamentos ficam mais coerentes quando está sob o uso de medicamentos. Do total, 35 pacientes eram bipolares e 23 tomavam lítio, os quais foram entrevistados seguindo o Questionário “Atitudes em Relação ao Lítio”. Destes, cerca de 78 % (n=18) considerou fácil seguir a prescrição, aceitável e importante tomar o lítio por vários anos, apesar dos efeitos colaterais e relataram não tomar o lítio somente quando sente necessidade. Em geral, os entrevistados mostraram boa adesão à terapia medicamentosa, compreendendo que somente através de um tratamento bem estabelecido podem manter a doença estabilizada.


Mood Disorder (MD) is a chronic disease, which is recurrent, hard to diagnose and hard to treat. The low compliance to therapy has been related to the patient, to the medicine, to the health professional or to the illness. The aim of this study was to determine the percent compliance with the drug treatments, and specifically with the lithium treatment, of patients affected by MD, outlining their pharmacoepidemiological profile. Thus, interviews and validated questionnaires were applied to 56 people with MD attended at two Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS), between January and October 2011. Most of the respondents were between 30-50 years of age, female and single. With regard to their family history, 55.4% had other family members with TH, 60.7% participated in CAPS groups and 62.5% had never been hospitalized. Replies to the “Medication Adherence Scale” questionnaire showed that 60.7% had at some time forgotten to take the medicine and the time to take it. Most of them take the medicine even when they are not feeling sick and their thoughts become more coherent when they are making use of the medication. In addition, 35 patients were bipolar and 23 took lithium; these were interviewed with the questionnaire “Attitudes in Relation to Lithium”. Approximately 78% of these (n = 18) thought it was easy to follow the prescription and that it was acceptable and important to take lithium for several years, despite the side effects reported, and they denied taking lithium only when they felt the need. In general, the respondents showed good adherence to drug therapy, understanding that only through a well-established treatment could they keep the disease stabilized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Lithium , Mental Health Services , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Unified Health System
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(11): 852-855, 1jan. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-691312

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric disorders are frequent among patients with epilepsy. Data in the literature have shown a heterogeneous clinical presentation of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy. Interictal dysphoric disorder could be a specific psychiatric comorbidity associated with epilepsy, primarily in patients treated in tertiary centers. Objective The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of interictal dysphoric disorder among patients with epilepsy who were followed in two tertiary epilepsy services in Brazil. Method Sixty-five patients with epilepsy completed the Portuguese version of the Interictal Dysphoric Disorder Inventory. Results Thirty-three (50.7%) patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for interictal dysphoric disorder, although all participants answered positively to having at least one key symptom. Conclusion The high rate of patients with epilepsy who fulfilled the diagnosis of interictal dysphoric disorder confirms an association between epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. However, there is clearly a need to improve diagnostic tools to allow better differentiation between interictal dysphoric disorder and other psychiatric disorders. .


Transtornos psiquiátricos são frequentes entre pacientes com epilepsia. Estudos evidenciam apresentações clínicas heterogêneas neste grupo. O transtorno disfórico interictal pode um transtorno específico destes pacientes, particularmente naqueles acompanhados em centros terciários. Objetivo Determinar a prevalência de transtorno disfórico interictal entre pacientes com epilepsia atendidos em dois serviços terciários de epilepsia do Brasil. Método Sessenta e cinco pacientes foram convidados a responder a versão brasileira do Interictal Dysphoric Disorder Inventory adaptado e validado para o Português. Resultados Trinta e três pacientes (50,7%) preencheram critérios para transtorno disfórico interictal, embora todos os entrevistados tenham afirmado que são acometidos por ao menos um dos sintomas-chave. Conclusão A alta prevalência de transtorno disfórico interictal em pacientes com epilepsia pode ser um indício da associação entre epilepsia e transtornos psiquiátricos. No entanto, é necessário melhorar a acurácia dos instrumentos de diagnóstico para poder diferenciar casos de transtorno disfórico interictal de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Mood Disorders/physiopathology , Personality Inventory , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159666

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Substance use disorders and mood and anxiety disorders are widespread among the general population. Methods: This study assessed the rate of current mood disorders and anxiety disorders in outdoor opioid addicts. The data were collected from five hundred opioiddependent patients who were seeking treatment from outdoor dept. of civil hospital, Gurdaspur. The Research version of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders was used. Results: The majority (23%) were self employed and 20% were unemployed. 25% had education till the level of high school, 15% were illiterate. 326(65.2%) subjects were diagnosed as having mood disorders, of those 274 (29%) had substance induced depression, 41 (8.2%) had major depression, 5 (1%) had dysthymia, 5 (1%) bipolar mood disorder type I, and 2 (0.4%) were diagnosed as having bipolar mood disorder type II. 138 (27.6%) subjects were diagnosed as having substance-induced anxiety disorders, and 88 (17.6%) as having generalized anxiety disorder. Of the participants 218 (43.6%) reported more than 5 years use of opioid abuse. Conclusions: Due to high rates of mood disorders in opioid-dependent subjects, psychiatric treatment services should be open and accessible to the patients, especially those who voluntarily seek help and treatment to reduce the rate of mood disorders and reduce relapse of substance abuse also.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Young Adult
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 34(supl.2): s233-s245, Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is accumulating evidence that the limbic system is pathologically involved in cases of psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Our objective was to develop a conceptual framework describing how neuropathological, neurochemical and electrophysiological aspects might contribute to the development of psychiatric symptoms in TLE and the putative neurobiological mechanisms that cause mood disorders in this patient subgroup. METHODS: In this review, clinical, experimental and neuropathological findings, as well as neurochemical features of the limbic system were examined together to enhance our understanding of the association between TLE and psychiatric comorbidities. Finally, the value of animal models in epilepsy and mood disorders was discussed. CONCLUSIONS:TLE and psychiatric symptoms coexist more frequently than chance would predict. Alterations and neurotransmission disturbance among critical anatomical networks, and impaired or aberrant plastic changes might predispose patients with TLE to mood disorders. Clinical and experimental studies of the effects of seizures on behavior and electrophysiological patterns may offer a model of how limbic seizures increase the vulnerability of TLE patients to precipitants of psychiatric symptoms.


OBJETIVO: Há evidências crescentes do envolvimento do sistema límbico nas comorbidades psiquiátricas associadas à epilepsia do lobo temporal (ELT). Nosso objetivo foi descrever o panorama atual das alterações neuropatológicas, neuroquímicas e eletrofisiológicas que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de sintomas psiquiátricos na ELT e explorar possíveis mecanismos neurobiológicos que podem levar ao aparecimento das desordens de humor nesse subgrupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Achados clínicos, de modelos experimentais e neuropatológicos foram revistos, assim como características neuroquímicas do sistema límbico foram examinadas em conjunto para auxiliar nossa compreensão sobre a associação entre ELT e transtornos de humor. CONCLUSÕES: A ELT e os sintomas psiquiátricos coexistem numa frequência muito maior do que o acaso poderia sugerir. Alterações e desregulação de redes anatômicas essenciais, além de mudanças plásticas aberrantes ou deficientes, podem predispor o cérebro de pacientes com ELT a transtornos de humor. Estudos experimentais e clínicos sobre o efeito das crises no comportamento e nos padrões eletrofisiológicos podem oferecer um modelo de como as crises límbicas aumentam a vulnerabilidade a sintomas psiquiátricos em pacientes com ELT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Mood Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder, Major/physiopathology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/epidemiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Models, Animal , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Neurotransmitter Agents/physiology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Suicide
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(4): 481-488, July-Aug. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-646892

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar em portadores de doença de Crohn (DC) a incidência de oscilação do humor (OH) e os possíveis fatores associados à mesma. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo longitudinal com 50 pacientes (60% sexo feminino; média de idade de 40,6 a) com diagnóstico de DC acompanhados por 16 meses. A atividade clínica foi avaliada pelo índice de atividade da DC. Utilizaram-se os instrumentos de autoavaliação do estado psicológico (Inventário de Depressão de Beck e subescala de ansiedade da Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão) para diagnóstico de transtorno de humor. Os instrumentos foram aplicados na inclusão no estudo e, a seguir, em intervalos de quatro meses. RESULTADOS: O fenótipo inflamatório foi o mais comum (86%), 36% tinham história prévia de cirurgia relacionada com DC; 82% estavam em remissão clínica na inclusão. OH ocorreu em 58% dos pacientes; 28% evoluíram com sintomas depressivos e/ou ansiosos a partir do humor normal de base e 30% normalizaram o humor depressivo e/ou ansioso de base. Em 38% dos pacientes com OH não houve mudança na atividade clínica da doença (p = 0,015), enquanto 20% tiveram alteração na atividade da DC. Sexo feminino e ausência de cirurgia prévia relacionada com complicações da DC foram associadas à maior incidência de OH (p = 0,04 para ambos). CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, verificou-se elevada incidência (58%) de OH em pacientes com DC. O sexo feminino e ausência de cirurgia prévia por complicações da DC foram associadas à maior incidência de OH. Avaliação psicológica periódica pode ser útil para detecção e abordagem de OH em pacientes com DC.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of mood swings (MS) and possible associated factors in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study of 50 patients (60% females; mean age 40.6 years) with a diagnosis of CD over a 16-month follow-up. Clinical activity was assessed by the CD activity index. Psychological status self-report tools (Beck Depression Inventory and the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were used for mood disorder diagnosis. The tools were applied at baseline and at four-month intervals thereafter. RESULTS: The inflammatory phenotype was the most common (86%); 36% had a previous history of surgery related to CD; 82% were in clinical remission at baseline. MS occurred in 58% of patients; 28% had progression of depression and/or anxiety symptoms from baseline normal mood, and 30% had baseline depressive and/or anxious mood normalized. In 38% of patients with MS, no change in the disease clinical activity could be found (p = 0.015), whereas 20% had a change in CD activity. Female gender and absence of previous surgery related to CD complications were associated with higher MS incidence (p = 0.04 for both). CONCLUSION: In this study, a high MS incidence (58%) was found in patients with CD. Female gender and absence of previous surgery from CD complications were associated with a higher MS incidence. Periodic psychological assessment could be useful to detect and approach MS in patients with CD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Crohn Disease/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Mood Disorders/psychology , Prospective Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
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