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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532


Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.

Animals , Cannabis , Morus , Brain , Goats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928957


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloids (Sangzhi alkaloids, SZ-A) for treatment of type 2 diabetes in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial.@*METHODS@#A total of 200 patients were randomized to receive SZ-A (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 16 weeks. The data analysis system for electronic data capture clinical trial central randomization system was used for randomization and dispensing of drugs. The primary outcome was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The secondary outcome included the proportions of cases with HbA1c <7.0% and HbA1c <6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), area under curve for the PBG (AUC0-2h), body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Adverse events (AEs), severe adverse events (SAEs), treatment-related adverse events (TAEs), gastrointestinal disorders (GDs), blood pressure, routine blood tests, and liver and kidney function were monitored.@*RESULTS@#Compared with baseline, the change of HbA1c at week 16 was -0.80% (95% CI: -0.98% to -0.62%) and -0.09% (95% CI: -0.27% to 0.09%) in SZ-A group and placebo group, respectively. The proportion of patients with HbA1c <7% and <6.5% was higher in the SZ-A group than in the placebo group (46.8% vs. 21.6% and 29.9% vs. 10.8%). The observed values and changes in FBG, 1 h-PBG, 2 h-PBG, and AUC0-2h differed significantly between groups (P<0.001), but differences were not significant in body weight and BMI (P>0.05). The incidence rates of AEs, TAEs, and GDs differed significantly between groups (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.006, respectively), whereas the incidence rates of SAEs showed no significant differences between groups (P=1.000).@*CONCLUSION@#SZ-A are effective and safe for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The protocol was registered in (ChiCTR2000038550).

Alkaloids , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Glycated Hemoglobin , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Morus , Tablets/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928117


Morus alba, a traditional economic crop, is also a significant medicinal plant. The branches(Mori Ramulus), leaves(Mori Folium), roots and barks(Mori Cortex), and fruits(Mori Fructus) of M. alba are rich in chemical components, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, benzofurans, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, and possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, liver protective, immunoregulatory, and other pharmacological activities. This study analyzed the sources, classification, and functions of the main chemical components in M. alba and systematically summarized the latest research results of essential active components in M. alba and their pharmacological effects to provide references for in-depth research and further development as well as utilization of active components in M. alba.

Anthocyanins , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Morus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 26(1): 4-14, Jan.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351544


ABSTRACT Objective. This study was conducted to research the effects of different levels of dried white mulberry (Morus alba) pulp supplementation in diets of laying quail on yield performances, egg quality, blood parameters, yolk fatty acid profiles and cholesterol concentrations. Materials and Methods. A completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments and four replicates, was applied. The experimental treatments were M0: control diet; M4: dietary inclusion of 4% mulberry pulp; M8: dietary inclusion of 8% mulberry pulp; M12: dietary inclusion of 12% mulberry pulp. This experiment was carried out for 4 weeks, and 128 7-week-old female quail were used. Results. Addition of dried mulberry pulp to the diet significantly affected weekly feed intake, egg yield, albumin index, yolk weight, triglyceride, LDL, serum cholesterol and yolk cholesterol levels (p<0.05, p<0.01). The feed conversion ratio, egg weight, and egg yolk fatty acid profile were not significantly affected by the dried mulberry pulp in the diet. Conclusions. As a result, it may be stated that adding dried mulberry pulp up to 8% of the diets of laying quail does not cause any adverse effects and may be used without any problems.

RESUMEN Objetivo. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo investigar los efectos de los diferentes niveles de suplemento de la pulpa de mora blanca seca (Morus alba) en las dietas de la codorniz ponedora, el rendimiento, la calidad del huevo, los parámetros sanguíneos, perfiles de los ácidos grasos de la yema y las concentraciones de colesterol. Materiales y Métodos. Fue aplicado un diseño experimental totalmente aleatorio, con cuatro tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Los tratamientos experimentales fueron M0: dieta de control; M4: introducción de 4% de pulpa de mora en la dieta; M8: introducción de 8% de pulpa de mora en la dieta; M12: introducción de 12% de pulpa de mora en la dieta. Este experimento se llevó a cabo durante 4 semanas, y se utilizaron 128 codornices hembras de 7 semanas de edad. Resultados. La agregación de pulpa de morera seca a la dieta influyó notablemente en la ingesta semanal de piensos, la producción de huevos, el índice de albúmina, el peso de la yema, el triglicérido, LDL, los niveles de colesterol en el suero y el colesterol en la yema (p<0.05, p<0.01). La tasa de proporción de conversión del pienso, el peso del huevo y el perfil de ácidos grasos de la yema de huevo no se vieron afectados significativamente por la pulpa de mora seca en la dieta. Conclusiones. Como resultado, se puede señalar que la agregación de pulpa de more seca hasta el 8% de las dietas de codorniz ponedora no causa ningún efecto adverso y se puede utilizar sin ningún problema.

Animals , Ovum , Quail , Morus , Fatty Acids , Animal Feed , Diet
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879183


In this study, HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC methods were established to explore the differences in the main chemical components and content of Mori Cortex with(mulberry root bark) and without(Mori Cortex) the phellem layer from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The HPLC-ESI-MS method was used for quality analysis in positive and negative ion modes, and 33 compounds were identified in mulberry root bark, 22 compounds in Mori Cortex, and 26 compounds in phellem layer; mulberry root bark and Mori Cortex shared 22 components, and mulberry root bark has 11 unique compounds; Mori Cortex and its phellem layer shared 15 components, while Mori Cortex has 7 unique compounds. HPLC method was used to simultaneously determine 7 major constituents, including mulberroside A, chlorogenic acid, dihydromorin, oxyresveratrol, moracin O, kuwanon G, and kuwanon H, and the developed method showed good linearity(r>0.998 9) within the concentration range and the recoveries varied from 99.88% to 103.0%, and the RSD was 1.7%-2.9%. The HPLC results showed that the contents of the 7 compounds have great differences in 13 batches samples, compared with mulberry root bark, the contents of mulberroside A, chlorogenic acid, dihydromorin and moracin O of Mori Cortex were increased, while the contents of oxyresveratrol, kuwanon G and kuwanon H were decreased after peeling process. These results can provide a basis for the rationality and quality control of Mori Cortex required to remove the phellem layer.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry , Morus , Plant Bark
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879159


The present work is to analyze the HPLC fingerprints of mulberry-sourced materials(Mori Ramulus, Mori Folium, Muri Cortex, Mori Fructus) using the fingerprint division total statistical moment method and information entropy, and to study the diffe-rences of the chemical components and the overall characteristics of the imprinting template in different parts of mulberry-sourced medicinal materials, so as to provide the basis for finding the effective substances in response to "homologous and different effect" of mulberry(Morus alba). The fingerprints of 24 batches of mulberry-related materials, such as Mori Ramulus, Mori Folium, Muri Cortex, Mori Fructus, were established, and the similarities and differences of the fingerprints were analyzed by calculating the division total statistical moment parameters and information entropy. The AUC_T, MCRT_T, VCRT_T and H values of 24 batches of mulberry-sourced materials were less than 0.05, with significant difference. Among them, all samples showed absorption peaks within 3-11, and 20-24 min, indicating that the four types had the identical or similar chemical composition in the same time period. After 34 min, none of the four types showed absorption peaks. Greater VCRT_T value of the fingerprints of the four kinds was observed at the retention time ranges of 3-4, 16-18, 25-27, and 31-32 min, indicating that the components of the four kinds were significantly different in these time periods; and VCRT_T value of the mulberry was significantly higher than that of the other three kinds of medicinal materials at the retention time windows of 3-4 and 15-17 min; the VCRT_T value of the mulberry white skin was significantly higher at the time windows of 8-10 and 28-30 min; the VCRT_T value of all four kinds was significantly higher within 21-23 min, indicating that the four herbs contain the same or similar components in the chromatogram during this period, but there may be significant differences between the content and the proportion. In addition, the information entropy of mulberry branches is the largest at 7-12, 23-27 min, and that of mulberry fruits is the largest at 2-8 min, which indicates that the components of mulberry branches and mulberry fruits respond greatly in the corresponding period of time, which is also the main peak period of their chemical components. For the chemical components and corresponding efficacy here. The results showed that there are significant differences in the components and contents of mulberry-sourced medicinal materials. The division total statistical moment and information entropy of the total amount of segments can be used to analyze the differences in the components of "homology and different effects", which could provide a more comprehensive analysis method for the determination of quality markers.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Entropy , Fruit , Morus , Plant Leaves
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e009820, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138141


Abstract Natural products are ecofriendly agents that can be used against parasitic diseases. Eimeria species cause eimeriosis in many birds and mammals and resistance to available medications used in the treatment of eimeriosis is emerging. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activity of Morus nigra leaf extracts (MNLE) against sporulation of oocysts and infection of mice with Eimeria papillata. Phytochemical analysis of MNLE showed the presence of seven compounds and the in vitro effects of MNLE, amprolium, DettolTM, formalin, ethanol, and phenol were studied after incubation with oocysts before sporulation. Furthermore, infection of mice with E. papillata induced an oocyst output of approximately 12 × 105 oocysts/g of feces. MNLE significantly decreased oocyst output to approximately 86% and the total number of parasitic stages in the jejunum by approximately 87%. In addition, the reduction in the number of goblet cells in the jejuna of mice was increased after treatment. These findings suggest that mulberry exhibited powerful anticoccidial activity.

Resumo Os produtos naturais são agentes ecologicamente corretos que podem ser usados ​​contra doenças parasitárias. As espécies de Eimeria causam eimeriose em muitas aves e mamíferos e a resistência aos medicamentos disponíveis usados ​​no tratamento da eimeriose está emergindo. Foram investigadas as atividades in vitro e in vivo dos extratos de folhas de Morus nigra (MNLE) contra esporulação de oocistos e infecção de camundongos com Eimeria papillata. A análise fitoquímica do MNLE mostrou a presença de sete compostos e os efeitos in vitro do MNLE, amprolium, DettolTM, formalina, etanol e fenol foram estudados após incubação com oocistos antes da esporulação. Além disso, a infecção de camundongos com E. papillata induziu uma produção de oocistos de aproximadamente 12 × 105 oocistos / g de fezes. O MNLE reduziu significativamente a produção de oocistos para aproximadamente 86%, e o número total de estágios parasitários no jejuno em aproximadamente 87%. Além disso, a redução no número de células caliciformes no jejuno de camundongos aumentou após o tratamento. Esses achados sugerem que a amoreira exibia uma poderosa atividade anticoccidiana.

Animals , Rabbits , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coccidiosis/drug therapy , Coccidiostats/pharmacology , Morus/chemistry , Eimeria
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0432018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118052


The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is considered the main insect pest of small fruit in the world. Identifying susceptible hosts is essential to develop management strategies. The aim of this study was to verify the level of D. suzukii infestation in blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, cattley guava and Surinam cherry fruits cultivated in the southern region in Brazil, and to determine the infestation index (II) per fruit. The studies were carried out during two harvests (2015/16 and 2016/17) in three areas with organic cultivation of small fruit. The highest level of D. suzukii natural infestation was observed in blackberry (40 to 65% infestation), and strawberry (approximately 30% infestation) fruits. In contrast, blueberries were less preferred (< 7% infestation). For native fruit of the region (cattley guava and Surinam cherry), it was also verified infestation of the fly, demonstrating they are hosts for multiplication in the off-season periods of the other crops. In relation to II, blackberry and Surinam cherry provided a higher average number of insects per gram of fruit (≈ 1.6 adults of D. suzukii). In contrast, blueberries and cattley guava had the lowest insect ratio per gram of fruit (≈ 0.7 adults per gram). The period between late spring to mid-autumn was considered ideal for the pest occurrence in the field. The knowledge of natural infestation levels is essential for understanding the behavior of the pest in the field, which will assist in the design of management strategies.(AU)

A drosófila-da-asa-manchada, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, é considerada o principal inseto-praga de pequenos frutos no mundo. A identificação de hospedeiros suscetíveis é essencial para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o nível de infestação de D. suzukii em frutos de amoreira-preta, mirtileiro, morangueiro, araçazeiro e pitangueira cultivados na região no sul do Brasil e determinar os índices de infestação (II) por fruto. Os estudos foram realizados durante duas safras (2015/16 e 2016/17) em três áreas com cultivo orgânico de pequenas frutas. O maior nível de infestação natural de D. suzukii foi observado em amora-preta (40 a 65% de infestação) e morango (aproximadamente 30% de infestação). Em contraste, o mirtilo foi menos preferido (< 7% de infestação). Para as frutas nativas da região (araçá e pitanga), também ocorreu infestação da mosca, demonstrando serem hospedeiros potenciais para a multiplicação da praga nos períodos de entressafras. Em relação ao II, amoras e pitangas proporcionaram um maior número médio de insetos por grama de fruto (≈ 1,6 adultos de D. suzukii). Por outro lado, mirtilos e araçás apresentaram a menor relação de insetos emergidos por gramas de frutos (≈ 0,7 adultos por grama). O período entre final da primavera até meados do outono foi considerado ideal para a ocorrência da praga no campo. O conhecimento dos níveis de infestação natural é fundamental para o entendimento do comportamento da praga no campo, o que auxiliará no delineamento de estratégias de manejo.(AU)

Drosophila , Fruit/parasitology , Seasons , Brazil , Agricultural Pests , Vaccinium myrtillus , Morus , Fragaria , Introduced Species , Eugenia
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828016


Cardiovascular diseases are the most important diseases that endanger national health, and its development process is complex and diverse. Various cardiovascular diseases caused by obesity, such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and atherosclerosis, are interrelated and interacted each other. Diet, as the main means of prevention and treatment, plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease. Mori Fructus is one of the first ingredients that are listed in medicinal and edible food. With a wide range of applications in daily life, it contains polysaccharides(polysaccharide, APS), anthocyanins(anthocyanin, LCRA), flavonoids and other bioactive ingredients. With a wide range of antioxidant, anti-aging, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, these materials exert effects in alleviating diabetes, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and other cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, we retrieved such databases as PubMed, Web of science, CNKI, VTTMS, Wan Fang, and collected literatures about the effect of single administration of mulberry on cardiovascular diseases in the past 15 years, with "mulberry and cardiovascular disease" as the key word, and summarized the latest progress. The results of many experimental studies have showed that different forms of mulberry can significantly alleviate obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, suggesting that the scope of action of Mori Fructus covers different pathological stages of cardiovascular diseases. This paper systematically analyzes and summarizes the application forms, efficacy and the existing problems of these experiments, and provides study thinking and development direction for the utilization and new product design of Mori Fructus-related products in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Antioxidants , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fruit , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Morus
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1674-1680, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049089


Empowerment of wheat genotypes by application of growth regulators, compatible solutes and plant extracts under water restriction is an important strategy for getting sustainable yield. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of drought stress on the growth and yield of wheat genotypes and also monitor and compare the role of ABA, SA as well as moringa and mulbery leaf water extracts in improving drought tolerance of wheat genotypes. The work was performed at the research area of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. Three wheat cultivars Aas-2011, Faisalabad- 2008 and Triple dwarf-1 were subjected to drought stress (skipping the irrigation at grain filling stage). The wheat genotypes were subjected to treatments viz., T1 i.e. All normal irrigation without application of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), moringa (MLE) and mulberry leaf water extract (MBLE), T2 i.e. skipping the irrigation at grain filling stage and application of 2µM ABA, T3 i.e. skipping the irrigation at grain filling stage and application of 10 m mol SA, T4 i.e. skipping the irrigation at grain filling stage and application of 15% MLE and T5 i.e. skipping the irrigation at grain filling stage and application of 10% MBLE. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with factorial arrangement and repeated three times. From this study it is concluded that Aas-2011 shown best result under drought condition by applying growth regulators and plant water extracts.

O fortalecimento de genótipos de trigo pela aplicação de reguladores de crescimento, solutos compatíveis e extratos vegetais sob restrição hídrica é uma importante estratégia para obtenção de produção sustentável. Trilha de campo foi realizada na área de pesquisa da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade de Ghazi, Dera Ghazi Khan, Paquistão. Três cultivares de trigo Aas-2011, Faisalabad-2008 e Triple anão-1 foram submetidas a estresse hídrico (pulando a irrigação no estágio de enchimento de grãos). Os genótipos de trigo foram submetidos a tratamentos, T1, ou seja, irrigação normal sem aplicação de ácido abscísico (ABA), ácido salicílico (SA), moringa (MLE) e extrato de água de amoreira (MBLE), T2¬, pular a irrigação em estágio de enchimento de grãos e aplicação de ABA 2µM, T3 ou seja, ignorando a irrigação no estágio de enchimento de grãos e aplicação de 10 m mol SA, T4 ou seja, ignorando a irrigação no estágio de enchimento de grãos e aplicação de 15% MLE e T5 ou seja, ignorando a irrigação no enchimento de grãos estágio e aplicação de 10% MBLE. O experimento foi exposto no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com arranjo fatorial e repetido três vezes. A partir deste estudo conclui-se que Aas-2011 apresentou melhor resultado sob condição de seca, aplicando reguladores de crescimento e extratos de água de plantas.

Plant Growth Regulators , Triticum , Moringa , Dehydration , Morus
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(1): 85-92, Jan. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990234


This study evaluated the effect of Morus nigra leaf extract, with or without supplementation, on morphology, activation and DNA damage of preantral follicles cultured within sheep ovarian tissue. Ovaries were collected and divided into fragments, being one fixed for histological and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis (fresh control). The remaining fragments were cultured for 7 days in alpha minimum essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), insulin, transferrin, selenium, glutamine, hypoxanthine and ascorbic acid (α-MEM+; control medium) or into medium composed of M. nigra extract without supplements (0.1; 0.2 or 0.4mg/mL) or supplemented with the same substances described above for α-MEM+ (MN 0.1+; 0.2+ or 0.4+mg/mL). Then, tissues were destined to histological and TUNEL analysis. The α-MEM+ treatment had more morphologically normal follicles than all M. nigra extract treatments. However, α-MEM+ treatment also showed signs of atresia because the percentage of TUNEL positive cells was similar in α-MEM+ and in 0.1mg/mL M. nigra without and with supplements. Moreover, a reduction in the primordial follicles and an increase in the growing ones were observed in all treatments, except 0.2mg/mL M. nigra. In conclusion, the follicles cultured at 0.1mg/mL M. nigra extract were in good condition and able to continue their development, as demonstrated by the same rates of DNA damage and follicular activation as the control medium.(AU)

Este estudo avaliou o efeito do extrato das folhas de Morus nigra, com ou sem suplementos, sobre a morfologia, a ativação e o dano ao DNA de folículos pré-antrais cultivados inclusos em tecido ovariano. Os ovários foram coletados e divididos em fragmentos, sendo um fixado para análise histológica e ensaio de marcação de terminações dUTP mediada por desoxinucleotidil transferase terminal (TUNEL) (controle fresco). Os fragmentos restantes foram cultivados durante 7 dias em meio essencial mínimo alfa (α-MEM) suplementado com albumina sérica bovina (BSA), insulina, transferrina, selênio, glutamina, hipoxantina e ácido ascorbico (α-MEM+; meio controle) ou em meio composto de extrato de M. nigra sem suplementos (0,1; 0,2 or 0,4mg/mL) ou suplementado com as mesmas substâncias descritas para α-MEM+ (MN 0,1+; 0,2+ or 0,4+mg/mL). Então, os tecidos foram destinados à análise histológica e TUNEL. O tratamento do α-MEM+ apresentou mais folículos morfologicamente normais que todos os tratamentos do extrato de M. nigra. No entanto, o tratamento com α-MEM+ também mostrou sinais de atresia, pois a porcentagem de células TUNEL positivas foi semelhante em α-MEM+ e em 0,1mg/mL M. nigra sem e com suplementos. Além disso, observou-se uma redução nos folículos primordiais e um aumento nos folículos em crescimento em todos os tratamentos, exceto 0,2mg/mL M. nigra. Em conclusão, os folículos cultivados com 0,1mg/mL de extrato de M. nigra estavam em boas condições e aptos a continuar seu desenvolvimento, como demonstrado pelas taxas de dano ao DNA e de ativação folicular semelhantes ao meio controle.(AU)

Animals , Female , Oocytes/growth & development , Ovary/cytology , DNA Damage , Sheep , Morus , Ovarian Follicle , In Vitro Techniques
Natural Product Sciences ; : 233-237, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760567


Three Diels-Alder type adducts, guangsangon E (1), chalcomoracin (2) and sorocein I (3) were isolated from hairy root cultures of Morus macroura. The structures of the isolated compounds (1 – 3) were determined by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS), and spectral comparison to literature. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds (1 – 3) were investigated against P-388 murine leukemia cell line. Guangsangon E (1) showed the most potent cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cell line with IC₅₀ value of 2.75 ± 0.32 µg/mL. To the best of our knowledge, guangsangon E (1) and sorocein I (3) were reported for the first time from the tissue cultures of M. macroura.

Cell Line , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leukemia , Methods , Morus
Natural Product Sciences ; : 268-274, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760561


Morus alba L., known as white mulberry, is a medicinal plant belongs to family Moraceae. It has long been used commonly in Ayurvedic for the treatment of lung-heat, cough, asthma, hematemesis, dropsy and hypertension. In the present study, seven prenylated flavonoids, along with four benzofuran compounds were isolated by means of repeated column chromatography. The structures of the known compounds were identified as kuwanon G (1), kuwanon E (2), kuwanon T (3), morusin (4), sanggenon A (5), sanggenon M (6), sanggenol A (7), moracin R (8), mulberofuran G (9), mulberofuran A (10) and mulberofuran B (11), by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. For these isolates, containing trace compounds, the inhibitory activity against IL-6 production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was examined. All isolated compounds (1

Asthma , Chromatography , Cough , Edema , Flavonoids , Hematemesis , Humans , Hypertension , Interleukin-6 , Moraceae , Morus , Plants, Medicinal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777523


A stable hepatoma cell line(Hep G2 cell) insulin resistance model was established and used to analyze the effect of effective components of Mori Folium in alleviating insulin resistance,and preliminary explore the mechanism for alleviating insulin resistance. The Hep G2 insulin action concentration and the duration of action were investigated using the glucose oxidase method(GOD-POD method) to establish a stable Hep G2 insulin resistance model. Normal control group,model group,Mori Folium polysaccharide group,Mori Folium flavonoid group and rosiglitazone group were divided to determine the glucose consumption. The effect of Mori Folium effective components on Hep G2 insulin resistance was analyzed. The mRNA expressions of JNK,IRS-1 and PDX-1 in each group were detected by Real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR). The protein expressions of p-JNK,IRS-1 and PDX-1 were detected by Western blot. And the mechanism of effective components of Mori Folium in alleviating insulin resistance was investigated. The results showed that the glucose consumption was significantly decreased in the insulin resistance cells after incubation with 25. 0 mg·L-1 insulin for 36 h(P<0. 01),and the model was relatively stable within 36 h. Mori Folium polysaccharides and flavonoids all alleviated insulin resistance,among which Mori Folium flavonoids had better effect in alleviating Hep G2 insulin resistance(P<0. 05). The qRT-PCR analysis showed that Mori Folium polysaccharides and flavonoids could inhibit JNK and IRS-1 mRNA expressions,while enhancing PDX-1 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis displayed that Mori Folium polysaccharides and flavonoids could inhibit p-JNK and IRS-1 protein expressions,while enhancing PDX-1 protein expression. Mori Folium polysaccharides and flavonoids can alleviate insulin resistance in Hep G2 cells,and its mechanism may be the alleviation of insulin resistance by inhibiting JNK signaling pathway.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glucose , Hep G2 Cells , Homeodomain Proteins , Metabolism , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Metabolism , Insulin Resistance , MAP Kinase Kinase 4 , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Morus , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Trans-Activators , Metabolism
Rev. luna azul ; 49(0): 162-171, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121050


Objetivo. Por medio del modelo de taller participativo se realizó la caracterización del subsistema de plagas de mora sin espina en el departamento de Risaralda con agricultores de las diferentes asociaciones. Metodología. Se utilizó el análisis multivariado, empleando la técnica de correspondencias múltiples para variables categóricas a fin de hallar los clústers de productores; posteriormente, una prueba Chi-cuadrado comparó los resultados de cada clúster y verificó las diferencias significativas que podían existir dentro de los mismos. Resultados y conclusión. Con base en la presencia de insectos por cada etapa fenológica del cultivo se encontraron cinco clústers de agricultores. Los moricultores del departamento reportaron como organismos presentes en el sistema productivo insectos de las familias Thripidae, Chrysomelidae, Melolonthidae y Aphididae, y de las especies Atta sp., Hepialus sp., Monalonion sp., Prodiplosis sp., Eurhizococcus colombianus, y moluscos como babosas (Orden: Pulmonata); sin embargo, los trips y el barrenador de tallo (Hepialus sp.) fueron los insectos fitófagos más prevalentes. Asimismo, una prueba Chi-cuadrado determinó que, según la percepción del agricultor, los trips son los insectos más prevalentes durante todas las etapas fenológicas del cultivo.

Objective: Using the participatory workshop model, the characterization of the non-thorn blackberry subsystem pests was carried out in the Department of Risaralda with farmers from the different associations. Methodology: Multivariate analysis was used, using the multiple correspondence technique for categorical variables to find producer clusters. Subsequently, a Chi-square test compared the results of each cluster and verified the significant differences that could exist within them. Results and conclusion: Based on the presence of insects for each phenological stage of the crop, five farmer clusters were found. Blackberry growers of the Department reported insects of the families Thripidae, Chrysomelidae, Melolonthidae and Aphididae, and of the species Atta sp., Hepialus sp., Monalonion sp., Prodiplosis sp.,, Eurhizococcus colombianus, and mollusks as slugs (Order: Pulmonata), as organisms present in the productive system. However, thrips and the stem borers (Hepialus sp.) were the most prevalent phytophagous insects. Likewise, a Chi-square test determined that, according to the farmer's perception, thrips are the most prevalent insects during all the phenological stages of the crop.

Humans , Agricultural Cultivation , Ecosystem , Agricultural Pests , Morus
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 9-14, nov. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047978


Background: Flavonoids are a kind of important secondary metabolite and are commonly considered to provide protection to plants against stress and UV-B for a long time. Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), which encodes a dioxygenase in the flavonoid pathway, catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidins to anthocyanidins, but there is no direct evidence indicating that it provides tolerance to stress in plants. Results: To investigate whether ANS can increase tolerance to abiotic stress, MaANS was isolated from mulberry fruits and transformed into tobacco. Our results suggested that the bacterially expressed MaANS protein can convert dihydroquercetin to quercetin. Overexpression of MaANS remarkably increased the accumulation of total flavonoids in transgenic lines and anthocyanins in corollas of flowers. Transgenic lines showed higher tolerance to NaCl and mannitol stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that MaANS participates in various dioxygenase activities, and it can protect plants against abiotic stress by improving the ROS-scavenging ability. Thus, this alternative approach in crop breeding can be considered in the improvement of stress tolerance by enriching flavonoid production in plants

Oxygenases/metabolism , Tobacco , Morus/enzymology , Oxygenases/genetics , Quercetin , Stress, Physiological , Bacteria , Flavonoids/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Ectopic Gene Expression
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4): 363-371, jul. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915487


Genetic diversity of thirty mulberry accessions was determined by using the eleven different phenotypic characters. The study was conducted in field areas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The main objective of this study was to find out the diversity in morphological characters of Mulberry accessions found in Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan. The results showed that there is a significant difference in quantitative parameters among the thirty accessions (p≤0.001). The cluster analysis showed that the data is divided into two main groups at near 80 dissimilarity level. This study suggests that the Morus germplasm is quite diverse.

Se determinó la diversidad genética de treinta accesiones de mora utilizando once caracteres fenotípicos diferentes. El estudio se realizó en áreas de campo de Azad Jammu y Cachemira. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue conocer la diversidad en los caracteres morfológicos de lss accesiones de mora encontrados en Azad Jammu, Cachemira y Pakistán. Los resultados mostraron que hay una diferencia significativa en los parámetros cuantitativos entre las treinta accesiones de mora (p≤0.001). El análisis de conglomerados mostró que los datos se dividen en dos grupos principales a un nivel de disimilitud cercano a 80. Este estudio sugiere que el germoplasma de Morus es muy diverso.

Genetic Variation , Morus/anatomy & histology , Pakistan , Cluster Analysis , Principal Component Analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 248-254, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888871


Abstract This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts of Morus nigra L. HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract (Mn-EtOH). The antibacterial effect was assessed through the method of microdilution. The cytotoxicity was tested against human tumour cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed through the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods. The presence of phenolic compounds in Mn-EtOH was confirmed using HPLC. The extracts showed activity against most microorganisms tested. The extracts did not show any expressive antiproliferative effect in the assessment of cytotoxicity. The most significant total phenolic content was 153.00 ± 11.34 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g to the ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt). The total flavonoid content was 292.50 ± 70.34 mg of catechin equivalent/g to the AcOEt extract, which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 50.40 ± 1.16 μg/mL) for DPPH scavenging. We can conclude that this species shows strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as weak cytotoxic effects.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar as atividades antibacteriana, citotóxica e antioxidante de extratos de Morus nigra L. HPLC foi utilizado para determinar o perfil de compostos fenólicos do extrato etanólico bruto (Mn-EtOH). O efeito antibacteriano foi avaliado através do método de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi testada contra linhagens celulares de tumores humanos utilizando o ensaio do brometo de 3-(4,5-dimetil-2-tiazolil)-2,5-difenil-2H-tetrazólio (MTT). O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides também foi avaliado por meio dos métodos de Folin-Ciocalteu e cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi avaliada por meio do sequestro do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) e co-oxidação do sistema β-caroteno-ácido linoleico. A presença de compostos fenólicos em Mn-EtOH foi confirmada utilizando HPLC. Os extratos mostraram atividade contra a maioria dos microrganismos testados. Os extratos não mostraram qualquer efeito antiproliferativo expressivo na avaliação da citotoxicidade. O conteúdo fenólico total mais significativo foi de 153,00 ± 11,34 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g para o extrato acetato de etila (AcOEt). O conteúdo de flavonoides totais foi de 292,50 ± 70,34 mg de equivalente de catequina/g para o extrato AcOEt, que apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante (IC50 50,40 ± 1,16 mg/mL) para o sequestro do DPPH. Podemos concluir que esta espécie apresenta forte atividade antibacteriana e antioxidante, bem como fraca atividade citotóxica.

Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Morus/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Picrates/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/toxicity , Antioxidants/chemistry
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 288-294, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718838


A few clues about correlation between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mulberry (Morus alba) leaves were investigated in only the experimental autoimmune myocarditis and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To investigate whether a novel extract of mulberry leaves fermented with Cordyceps militaris (EMfC) could suppress ER in fatty liver, alterations in the key parameters for ER stress response were measured in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57L/6 mice treated with EMfC for 12 weeks. The area of adipocytes in the liver section were significantly decreased in the HFD+EMfC treated group as compared to the HFD+Vehicle treated group, while their level was higher in HFD+Vehicle treated group than No treated group. The level of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 beta (IRE1α) phosphorylation and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) expression were remarkably enhanced in the HFD+Vehicle treated group. However, their levels were restored in the HFD+EMfC treated group, although some differences were detected in the decrease rate. Similar recovery was observed on the ER stress-induced apoptosis. The level of Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were decreased in the HFD+EMfC and HFD+orlistat (OT) treated group compared to the HFD+Vehicle treated group. The results of the present study therefore provide first evidence that EMfC with the anti-obesity effects can be suppressed ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in the hepatic steatosis of HFD-induced obesity model.

Adipocytes , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins , Cordyceps , Diet, High-Fat , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 , Fatty Liver , Liver , Mice , Morus , Myocarditis , Obesity , Phosphorylation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718590


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mulberry leaf (ML) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, which may be related to its deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content. This study was conducted to investigate the hypoglycemic and dyslipidemic effects of rice coated with ML rich in DNJ in a type 2 diabetes mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: The mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each): non-diabetic normal control (NC); diabetic control (DM-C), fed with 10% polished rice powder (DM-R); and fed with 10% polished rice powder coated with DNJ-rich ML (DM-DNJR). RESULTS: Supplementation with DNJR for six weeks decreased levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and blood glycosylated hemoglobin; conversely, levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol showed an increase in the same treatment. In addition, weights of mesenteric, epididymal, and total adipose tissues decreased with DNJR supplementation, when compared with diabetic control db/db mice, while maltase, lactase, and sucrase activity in the small intestine were inhibited. The anti-diabetic effects were marginally greater in the DM-DNJR group than in the DM-R group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rice coated with ML rich in DNJ can reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in db/db mice, and may prove useful for individuals with diabetes.

Animals , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hyperglycemia , Hyperlipidemias , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Intestine, Small , Lactase , Mice , Morus , Plasma , Sucrase , Triglycerides , Weights and Measures