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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251883, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350313

ABSTRACT

Abstract The lower lignin content in plants species with energy potential results in easier cellulose breakdown, making glucose available for ethanol generation. However, higher lignin levels can increase resistance to insect attack. The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of a bmr-6 biomass sorghum (a mutant genotype with a lower concentration of lignin) to important pests of energy sorghum, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate the development of these pests on the biomass sorghum bmr hybrids BR007, BR008, and TX635 and their respective conventional near-isogenic genotypes (without the bmr gene). The lignin content was higher in non-bmr hybrids, but the evaluated insect variables varied between treatments, not being consistent in just one hybrid or because it is bmr or not. The lowest survival of S. frugiperda was observed in the BR008 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr. The S. frugiperda injury scores on plants in the greenhouse were high (>7) in all treatments. For D. saccharalis, there was no difference in larval survival in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse, the BR007 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr, provided greater survival. Due the need to diversify the energy matrix and the fact that greater susceptibility of the bmr hybrids to either pests was not found in this study, these results hold promise for cultivation of these biomass sorghum hybrids for the production of biofuels.


Resumo O menor teor de lignina em espécies de plantas com potencial energético resulta na maior facilidade de quebra da celulose, disponibilizando glicose para geração de etanol. Porém, maiores teores de lignina representa um fator de resistência ao ataque de insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como importantes pragas do sorgo energia, Diatraea saccharalis e Spodoptera frugiperda, se comportam quanto à alimentação e desempenho em sorgo bmr-6, um genótipo mutante com menor concentração de lignina. Foram realizados experimentos em laboratório e casa de vegetação, avaliando o desenvolvimento destas pragas nos híbridos de sorgo biomassa bmr 007, 008, TX635 e seus respectivos genótipos isogênicos convencionais (sem o gene bmr). O teor de lignina foi maior nos híbridos não bmr, mas nos parâmetros avaliados nos insetos, houve variação entre os tratamentos, não sendo consistente em apenas um híbrido e nem por ser ou não bmr. A menor sobrevivência de S. frugiperda foi verificada no híbrido BR008 tanto bmr quanto não bmr. As notas de injúria por S. frugiperda no sorgo em casa de vegetação foram altas (>7) em todos os tratamentos. Para D. saccharalis, não houve diferença significativa para a sobrevivência larval em laboratório, mas em casa de vegetação o híbrido BR007 tanto bmr quanto não bmr proporcionaram maior sobrevivência. Diante da necessidade de diversificar a matriz energética e o fato de que não foi comprovada neste estudo maior suscetibilidade dos híbridos bmr a ambas as pragas, estes resultados são promissores para o cultivo desses híbridos de sorgo biomassa para produção de biocombustíveis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharum/genetics , Sorghum/genetics , Moths , Spodoptera , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.


Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Citrullus colocynthis , Insecticides , Moths , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ecosystem , Larva
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245273, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The possible interference of resistant pest's populations to insecticides in natural enemies in the action thas not been clarified yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) performance on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs with resistance frequency to the Metaflumizone over six generations of product exposure. Egg cards (2.0 x 7.0 cm) containing eggs from two populations of S. frugiperda, (resistant to Metaflumizone and the other susceptible), were exposed to T. pretiosum females for 24 hours in free-choice and no-choice testing in three generations (G1, G4, and G6). A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replications, each consisting of an egg card (experimental unit) containing 20 eggs. The parameters evaluated were: parasitism (%), emergence (%), sex ratio, number of emerged parasitoids per egg and males/females longevity. ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤ 0.05) were applied on the results. Results showed a reduction in parasitism [41.0% (G1) and 28.4% (G4)], egg emergence (17.5%) and parasitoids/egg [16.2 (G4) and 17.2 (G6)] in eggs originating from the population with resistance frequency. Females emerging from G6 populations eggs without exposure to Metaflumizone had greater longevity (3.5 days more) than the resistant population. The sex ratio and male longevity were not affected. The results indicate a reduction in T. pretiosum activity if S. frugiperda populations have some frequency of resistance to Metaflumizone.


Resumo A possível interferência de populações de pragas resistentes na ação de inimigos naturais ainda não foi esclarecida. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) com frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona ao longo de seis gerações de exposição ao produto. Cartelas (2,0 x 7,0 cm) com ovos de duas populações de S. frugiperda, (resistente à Metaflumizona e outra suscetível), foram expostas às fêmeas de T. pretiosum por 24 horas em condições de livre escolha e sem chance de escolha por três gerações (G1, G4 e G6). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 25 repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por uma cartela (unidade experimental) contendo 20 ovos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: parasitismo (%), emergência (%), razão sexual, número de parasitoides emergidos por ovo e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P≤ 0,05) foram aplicados aos dados coletados. Os resultados mostraram redução do parasitismo [41,0% (G1) e 28,4% (G4)], emergência de ovos (17,5%) e parasitoides/ovo [16,2 (G4) e 17,2 (G6)] em ovos oriundos da população com frequência de resistência. As fêmeas emergidas de ovos da população G6 sem exposição à Metaflumizona, tiveram maior longevidade (3,5 dias a mais) do que a população exposta ao inseticida. A razão sexual e a longevidade de machos não foram afetadas. Os resultados indicam uma redução na atividade de T. pretiosum se as populações de S. frugiperda apresentarem alguma frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Wasps , Hymenoptera , Moths , Semicarbazones , Sex Ratio , Spodoptera
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 516-525, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), a superfamily of protease inhibitors, are known to be involved in several physiological processes, such as development, metamorphosis, and innate immunity. In our study, a full-length serpin cDNA, designated Haserpin1, was isolated from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. The cDNA sequence of Haserpin1 is 1176 nt long, with an open reading frame encoding 391 amino acids; there is one exon and no intron. The predicted molecular weight of Haserpin1 is 43.53 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 4.98. InterProScan was employed for Haserpin1 functional characterization, which revealed that Haserpin1 contains highly conserved signature motifs, including a reactive center loop (RCL) with a hinge region (E341-N350), the serpin signature, (F367-F375) and a predicted P1-P1′ cleavage site (L357-S358), which are useful for identifying serpins. Transcripts of Haserpin1 were constitutively expressed in the fat body, suggesting that it is the major site for serpin synthesis. During the developmental stages, a fluctuation in the expression level of Haserpin1 was observed, with low expression detected at the 5th-instar larval stage. In contrast, relatively high expression was detected at the prepupal stage, suggesting that Haserpin1 might play a critical role at the H. armigera wandering stage. Although the detailed function of this serpin (Haserpin1) needs to be elucidated, our study provides a perspective for the functional investigation of serine protease inhibitor genes.


Resumo Sabe-se que os inibidores de serina protease (serpinas), uma superfamília de inibidores de protease, estão envolvidos em vários processos fisiológicos, como desenvolvimento, metamorfose e imunidade inata. Neste estudo, um cDNA de serpina de comprimento total, denominado Haserpin1, foi isolado da lagarta Helicoverpa armigera na cultura de algodão. A sequência de ADNc de Haserpin1 tem 1.176 nt de comprimento, com uma grelha de leitura aberta que codifica 391 aminoácidos; existe um éxon, mas nenhum íntron. O peso molecular previsto de Haserpin1 é de 43,53 kDa, com um ponto isoelétrico de 4,98. O InterProScan foi empregado para a caracterização funcional do Haserpin1, que revelou que o Haserpin1 contém motivos de assinatura altamente conservados, incluindo um loop central reativo (RCL) com uma região de dobradiça (E341-N350), a assinatura da serpina (F367-F375) e um local de clivagem previsto de P1-P1' (L357-S358), que são úteis para identificar serpinas. As transcrições de Haserpin1 foram expressas constitutivamente no corpo gordo, sugerindo que é o principal local para a síntese de serpinas. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento, observou-se uma flutuação no nível de expressão de Haserpin1, com baixa expressão detectada no estágio larval do 5º ínstar. Por outro lado, detectou-se uma expressão relativamente alta no estágio pré-pupal, sugerindo que o Haserpin1 pode desempenhar um papel crítico no estágio errante de H. armigera. Embora a função detalhada dessa serpina (Haserpin1) precise ser elucidada, este estudo fornece uma perspectiva para a investigação funcional dos genes inibidores da serina protease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Serpins/genetics , Lepidoptera/genetics , Moths/genetics , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Larva/genetics
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 154-163, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153314

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding the ecological and toxicological relationship between genetically modified cultivars (GM) and biological control agents is of great importance for discussions related to the compatability of GM cultivars and integrated management strategies for pest resistance. The present study evaluated the search behavior and predatory capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) on eggs and caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistant or not to the protein Cry1F expressed in Bt corn. To determine the search time, a stopwatch was run until the capture of the first prey, predation capacity was evaluated by counting the prey remaining after 24 hours of infestation. The injuries of S. frugiperda in genetically modified and conventional corn in the presence and absence of predators was also evaluated. The predators were not able to distinguish between resistant and susceptible prey (eggs or caterpillars), given the predatory behaviour observed. There was no difference in searching time or predatory capacity between the predators for eggs and caterpillars of either resistant or susceptible S. frugiperda. In the presence of predators, the injury scores for resistant S. frugiperda on the Bt corn plants were lower. It was concluded that O. insidiosus and D. luteipes did not notice the presence of the protein Cry1F in the prey S. frugiperda, which may facilitate the combined use of GM corn and biological control in integrated management programs and for management of pest resistance.


Resumo O entendimento de relações ecológicas e toxicológicas envolvendo culturas geneticamente modificadas (GM) e agentes de controle biológico é de grande importância para discussões relativas à compatibilidade de culturas GM com estratégias de manejo integrado e manejo de resistência de pragas. Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento de busca e a capacidade predatória de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) e Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) sobre ovos e lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistente ou não à proteína Cry1F expressa em milho Bt. Para determinar o tempo de busca foi utilizado um cronômetro que foi disparado até a captura da primeira presa; a capacidade de predação foi avaliada através da contagem das presas remanescentes 24 h após infestação. Também foram avaliadas as injúrias de S. frugiperda em milho transgênico e milho convencional na presença ou ausência dos predadores. Os predadores não foram capazes de distinguir entre presas (ovos ou lagartas) resistentes e suscetíveis, considerando os comportamentos predatórios avaliados. Não houve diferença no tempo de busca e capacidade predatória sobre ovos e lagartas de S. frugiperda resistente ou suscetível entre os predadores. Na presença dos predadores, as notas de injúria de S. frugiperda resistente nas plantas de milho Bt foram menores. Conclui-se que O. insidiosus e D. luteipes não percebem a presença da proteína Cry1F na presa S. frugiperda, o que pode contribuir para o uso integrado de milho GM e controle biológico em programas de manejo integrado e manejo de resistência de pragas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins , Moths , Predatory Behavior , Spodoptera , Zea mays/genetics , Larva
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 406-410, 2021. ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153373

ABSTRACT

The adaptation of native lepidopteran species to eucalyptus plantations reduces the productivity of this crop in Brazil. Oxydia vesulia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a secondary pest, frequently reported in eucalyptus plantations with population outbreaks and economic damages. Methods of biological control of this pest may include the use of the exotic pupae endoparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi Olliff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), reported as efficient to controlling lepidopteran pests. The parasitism of O. vesulia caterpillars and pupae by T. howardi was evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 ºC, 60 ± 20% humidity and 12:12 h L:D). Each O. vesulia caterpillar or pupae was individually placed in a flat-bottom tube with 10 and 15 females of T. howardi for 48h, respectively. The parasitoids were removed after that period, the caterpillars were fed and the pupae were maintained until emergence of the parasitoid or formation of pupae and emergence of adults of this pest. The fourth-instar caterpillars of O. vesulia, after the parasitism period, were kept in pots with Eucalyptus urophylla leaves, changed daily until the end of the experiment. A total of 40% of the caterpillars died before the pre-pupae stage, 40% reached the pupae stage and died due to inadequate adult formation and 20% generated moths, but none adult parasitoid emerged from the caterpillars. All pupae of O. vesulia were parasitized and showed emergence of parasitoids. The parasitism of O. vesulia caterpillars and pupae by T. howardi shows the potential of this natural enemy for the integrated management of this defoliator pest in eucalyptus plantations.


A adaptação de espécies nativas de lepidópteros a plantios de eucalipto reduz a produtividade dessa cultura no Brasil. Oxydia vesulia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) é praga-secundária, frequentemente, relatada em plantios de eucalipto com surtos populacionais e danos econômicos. Métodos de controle biológico, dessa praga, podem incluir o uso do endoparasitoide exótico de pupas Tetrastichus howardi Olliff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) relatado como eficiente para o controle de lepidópteros-pragas. O parasitismo de lagartas e pupas de O. vesulia por T. howardi foi avaliado em condições controladas (25 ± 1º C, 60 ± 20% umidade e 12h fotoperíodo). Cada lagarta ou pupa de O. vesulia foi colocada individualmente em tubos de fundo chato com 10 e 15 fêmeas de T. howardi por 48h, respectivamente e, após esse período, os parasitoides foram removidos, as lagartas alimentadas e as pupas mantidas até a emergência do parasitoide ou formação de pupas ou de adultos dessa praga. As lagartas de quarto ínstar de O. vesulia, após o período de parasitismo, foram mantidas em potes com folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla trocadas, diariamente, até o fim do experimento. Um total de 40% das lagartas de O. vesulia morreu antes da fase de pré-pupa, 40% atingiram o estágio de pupa e morreram devido à má formação ou problemas e 20% originaram mariposas, porém nenhum parasitoide adulto emergiu das lagartas. Todas as pupas de O. vesulia foram parasitadas e tiveram emergência de parasitoides. O parasitismo de lagartas e pupas de O. vesulia por T. howardi mostra o potencial desse inimigo natural para o manejo integrado desse desfolhador em cultivos de eucalipto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Eucalyptus , Hymenoptera , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Moths , Pupa , Brazil
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 248-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989445

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of GMO expressing Bt toxin in soybean production has increased significantly in the last years in Brazil in order to manage the damage caused by lepidopteran pests. In this study, we compared the richness and abundance of owlet moths (Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non-Bt soybean. We determined the temporal variations as a function of phenology, and correlated the population variations of the most common species with meteorological variables. The research was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados. The collection method used was differentiated being suppressive and absolute. A total of 13 species were collected, of which eight occurred on Bt soybeans. The most representative taxa were Chrysodeixis includens (72.87%), Anticarsia gemmatalis (18.17%) and Spodoptera spp (5.22%). The number of larvae belonging to species targeted by the Bt technology was 10 times lower on Bt than on non-Bt soybeans. Utetheisa ornatrix and Elaphria deltoides were recorded on soybean for the first time, observing larvae of both species in non-Bt soybean and those of U. ornatrix also in Bt soybean. Only A. gemmatalis larvae correlated (p <0.05) negatively with precipitation. This study provided field information on the abundance and species richness of owlet moths on non-Bt soybeans, associated with the effects of Bt soybean. When considering the different levels of infestation between cultivars as a criterion, larvae monitoring is of substantial importance in order to develop the lost control program.


Resumo O uso de OGM que expressam toxina Bt na produção de soja tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e são utilizados para conter os danos causados ​​pelos lepidópteros pragas. Neste estudo comparamos a riqueza e a abundância de Noctuoides (Noctuoidea) associados à soja Bt e não-Bt. Determinamos as variações temporais em função da fenologia e correlacionamos às variações populacionais das espécies mais comuns com variáveis ​​meteorológicas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados. O método de coleta utilizado foi diferenciado sendo supressivo e absoluto. Um total de 13 espécies foram coletadas, das quais oito ocorreram em soja Bt. Os taxa mais representativos foram Chrysodeixis includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis e Spodoptera spp. O número de larvas pertencentes às espécies alvo da tecnologia Bt foram 10 vezes menores na soja Bt do que em soja não-Bt . Utetheisa ornatrix e Elaphria deltoides foram registradas na soja pela primeira vez, observando-se larvas de ambas espécies na soja não-Bt e as de U. ornatrix também na soja Bt. Somente as larvas de A. gemmatalis se correlacionaram (p <0,05) negativamente com a precipitação. Este estudo forneceu informações em campo sobre a abundância e riqueza de espécies na soja não- Bt, associada aos efeitos da soja Bt. A importância do monitoramento das lagartas é substancial, a fim de tomar a melhor decisão de controle, considerando-se os diferentes níveis de infestação entre cultivares como critério.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Larva/drug effects , Moths/drug effects
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1511-1519, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771778

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of transgenic technology, the safety of genetically modified products has received extensive attention. Certified reference materials for the detection of genetically modified organisms play important roles in ensuring comparability and traceability of the qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified products. However, the development of protein reference materials is relatively slow, and one of the difficulties is the preparation of protein candidates with high purity. The cry1Ah1 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the development of transgenic insect-resistant crops because of its excellent insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests such as Asian corn borer, and has obtained transgenic lines with good insect resistance traits. In order to develop Cry1Ah protein certified reference material, it is urgent to establish a preparation and purification system. In this study, a system for preparing Cry1Ah protein by Bt expression system was optimized, and a high-purity Cry1Ah protein (size exclusion chromatography purity: 99.6%) was obtained by ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography stepwise purification. The results of biological activity assay showed that there was no significant difference in the insecticidal activity of purified Cry1Ah protein and protoxin against diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella). Finally, the amino acid sequence of the activated Cry1Ah protein was determined using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. In summary, the obtained Cry1Ah pure protein can be used for the development of protein reference materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins , Cryptochromes , Metabolism , Endotoxins , Hemolysin Proteins , Moths , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0812018, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1024603

ABSTRACT

Detritivoria and parasitism are dietary habits already registered for the phorids of the genus Megaselia Rondani. The results of this study confirm the parasitic habit of Megaselia larvae. This is the first Pachylia ficus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) adult record as a host of Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) and Megaselia sp. (Diptera: Phoridae).(AU)


Detritivoria e parasitismo são hábitos alimentares já registrados para os forídeos do gênero Megaselia Rondani. Os resultados do presente estudo confirmam o hábito parasitário das larvas de Megaselia. Este é o primeiro registro de adulto de Pachylia ficus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) como hospedeiro de Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) e Megaselia sp. (Diptera: Phoridae).(AU)


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Diptera , Larva , Moths
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170516, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039122

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the first known infestation of mangroves by the invasive moth Hyblaea puera in Paraná, Southern Brazil. The infestation caused massive defoliation of Avicennia schaueriana trees, affecting approximately 20,000 hectares of mangroves. We discuss the implications for conservation and management, focusing on protected areas, the ecology of mangroves, and local livelihoods.


Subject(s)
Quarantine/methods , Ecosystem , Plants , Brazil , Moths
17.
Mycobiology ; : 440-447, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729731

ABSTRACT

Dual biocontrol of both insects and plant pathogens has been reported for certain fungal entomopathogens, including Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillum spp. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the dual biocontrol potential of two fungal isolates identified by morphological and phylogenetic analyses as Isaria javanica. Both these isolates caused mortality in the greater wax moth, and hence can be considered entomopathogens. Spores of the isolates were also pathogenic to nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), with an LC₅₀ value of 10⁷ spores/mL 4 days after inoculation and an LT₅₀ of 4.2 days with a dose of 10⁸ spores/mL. In vitro antifungal assays also demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of two fungi that are pathogenic to peppers, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Phytophthora capsici. These results indicate that I. javanica isolates could be used as novel biocontrol agents for the simultaneous control of aphids and fungal diseases, such as anthracnose and Phytophthora blight, in an integrated pest management framework for red pepper.


Subject(s)
Aphids , Beauveria , Capsicum , Colletotrichum , Fungi , Hemiptera , In Vitro Techniques , Insecta , Mortality , Moths , Nymph , Pest Control , Phytophthora , Plants , Prunus persica , Spores
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 703-709, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888815

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0) and mean generation time (T) were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o desenvolvimento e reprodução do zoofitófago Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em couve, brócolis e repolho. Ninfas e adultos deste predador foram alimentados com lagartas de Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) como presa e receberam folhas de couve, repolho ou brócolis. Durante o período ninfal, a duração do período e o consumo de presas foram semelhantes com as diferentes cultivares de brassicácea. Porém, a viabilidade ninfal foi maior para predadores com folhas de brócolis. O peso de ninfas de quinto instar e de fêmeas recém-emergidas e a razão sexual de P. nigrispinus foram semelhantes entre as cultivares de brassicáceas, enquanto que o peso de machos recém-emergidos foi maior com folhas de couve e brócolis. Folhas de brócolis proporcionaram maiores número de oviposições, ovos por postura e longevidade de machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus. Além disso, o consumo de lagartas de P. xylostella por adultos desse predador fora maiores com esta cultivar. A taxa líquida de reprodução (R0) e o tempo médio de geração (T) foram maiores para predadores com presa e folhas de brócolis. Podisus nigrispinus alimentados com lagartas de P. xylostella e folhas de brócolis apresentaram melhores parâmetros reprodutivos, podendo ser uma alternativa para a criação deste predador em laboratório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Predatory Behavior , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Heteroptera/physiology , Moths/chemistry , Nymph/physiology , Heteroptera/growth & development , Food Chain , Larva/growth & development , Larva/chemistry , Moths/growth & development , Nymph/growth & development
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 522-529, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is the alternative biocontrol agent exploited against major economic crop pests. Pieris brassicae L. is an emerging pest of the Brassicaceae family. Therefore, in the present study, fungal isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. MTCC 2028, MTCC 4495, MTCC 6291, and NBAII-11, were evaluated for their virulence against third instar larvae of P. brassicae. Among all these fungal isolates, maximum mortality (86.66%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 at higher concentration of spores (109 conidia/ml), and the minimum mortality (30.00%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291 at a lower concentration (107 conidia/ml) after ten days of treatment. The extracellular cuticle-degrading enzyme activities of fungal isolates were measured. Variability was observed both in the pattern of enzyme secretion and the level of enzyme activities among various fungal isolates. B. bassiana MTCC 4495 recorded the maximum mean chitinase (0.51 U/ml), protease (1.12 U/ml), and lipase activities (1.36 U/ml). The minimum mean chitinase and protease activities (0.37 and 0.91 U/ml, respectively) were recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291. The minimum mean lipase activity (1.04 U/ml) was recorded in B. bassiana NBAII-11. Our studies revealed B. bassiana MTCC 4495 as the most pathogenic isolate against P. brassicae, which also recorded maximum extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting the possible roles of extracellular enzymes in the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against P. brassicae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beauveria/enzymology , Beauveria/pathogenicity , Brassica/parasitology , Chitinases/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Moths/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Beauveria/genetics , Chitinases/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Larva/microbiology , Larva/physiology , Moths/physiology , Virulence
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 597-602, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study, the cry1Ab gene of previously characterized and Lepidoptera-, Diptera-, and Coleoptera-active Bacillus thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and individually tested on Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. pET-cry1Ab plasmids were constructed by ligating the cry1Ab into pET28a (+) expression vector. Constructed plasmids were transferred to an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain rendered competent with CaCl2. Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside was used to induce the expression of cry1Ab in E. coli BL21(DE3), and consequently, ∼130 kDa of Cry1Ab was obtained. Bioassay results indicated that recombinant Cry1Ab at a dose of 1000 µg g-1 caused 40% and 64% mortality on P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella larvae, respectively. However, the mortality rates of Bt SY49-1 strains' spore-crystal mixture at the same dose were observed to be 70% on P. interpunctella and 90% on E. kuehniella larvae. The results indicated that cry1Ab may be considered as a good candidate in transgenic crop production and as an alternative biocontrol agent in controlling stored product moths.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression , Insect Control , Endotoxins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Bacillus thuringiensis/ultrastructure , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/toxicity , Insect Control/methods , Cloning, Molecular , Endotoxins/metabolism , Endotoxins/toxicity , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/toxicity , Insecticides , Larva , Moths/drug effects
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