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Clin. biomed. res ; 40(3): 161-166, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248278


Introduction: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder associated with mutations in the ATP-binding cassette sub-family D member1 (ABCD1) gene. Practically all male patients with X-ALD develop adrenocortical insufficiency during childhood and progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy in adulthood. However, some male patients develop a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease named cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Although the exact mechanisms underlying brain damage in X-ALD are still poorly elucidated, it is known that hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) accumulation represents a hallmark in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we examined whether an overload of C26:0 injected in Wistar rats was capable of causing behavioral changes in these animals. Methods: Egg lecithin in ethanol was dried under a nitrogen stream and mixed with C26:0 methyl ester. Male Wistar rats at 2-3 weeks of age were obtained from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), divided into 8 groups, and submitted to an open field test. We then analyzed line crossings (locomotion and exploration), rearing (orienting and investigatory responses), grooming (anxiety manifestation), and latency to move for each animal. Results: Animals subjected to C26:0 administration presented fewer crossings and rearing episodes and a higher latency to move 45 minutes after C26:0 injection. The present work yields experimental evidence that C26:0, the main accumulated metabolite in X-ALD, can cause behavioral alterations in rats such as the impairment of locomotion and exploratory capabilities, as well as a reduction in orienting and investigatory responses. Conclusion: Although our results are preliminary, they are extremely important for future studies that investigate C26:0 accumulation and locomotor impairment in patients with X-ALD. (AU)

Animals , Rats , Behavior , Rats, Wistar , Adrenoleukodystrophy , Cerebrum/drug effects , Fatty Acids , Motor Activity/drug effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 459-479, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008268


Neuronal cell damage is often caused by prolonged misuse of Methylphenidate (MPH). Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective properties but its assumed mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism against MPH-induced motor activity and related behavior disorder. Thus, we used domoic acid (DOM), bicuculline (BIC), Ketamine (KET), Yohimibine (YOH) and Haloperidole (HAL) as AMPA/kainite, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2 adrenergic and D2 of dopamine receptor antagonists respectively. Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to study motor activity, anxiety and depression level. TPM (100 and 120 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise and inhibited MPH-induced promotion in motor activity disturbance, anxiety and depression. Pretreatment of animals with KET, HAL, YOH and BIC inhibited TPM- improves anxiety and depression through the interacting with Dopaminergic, GABAA, NMDA and ɑ2-adrenergic receptors.

El daño a las células neuronales a menudo es causado por el uso prolongado de metilfenidato (MPH). El topiramato (TPM) tiene propiedades neuroprotectoras, pero su mecanismo de acción no es claro. El presente estudio evalúa el papel in vivo de varias dosis de TPM y su mecanismo contra la actividad motora inducida por MPH y el trastorno de comportamiento relacionado. Utilizamos ácido domoico (DOM), bicuculina (BIC), ketamina (KET), yohimbina (YOH) y haloperidol (HAL), así como antagonistas AMPA/kainato, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2-adrenérgico y D2 dopaminérgicos, respectivamente. Se utilizaron las pruebas de campo abierto (OFT), elevación de laberinto (EPM) y natación forzada (FST) para estudiar la actividad motora, la ansiedad y el nivel de depresión. El TPM (100 y 120 mg/kg) redujo el aumento inducido por MPH e inhibió la promoción inducida por MPH en la alteración de la actividad motora, la ansiedad y la depresión. El tratamiento previo de animales con KET, HAL, YOH y BIC inhibió el TPM, mejora la ansiedad y la depresión a través de la interacción con los receptores dopaminérgicos, GABAA, NMDA y ɑ2-adrenérgico.

Animals , Male , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Topiramate/pharmacology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Methylphenidate/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(2): 169-173, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959225


Objective: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial in psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit mesolimbic dopamine hyperfunction consequent to an endogenous sensitization process. This sensitization can be modeled in rodents by repeated exposure to psychostimulants, provoking an enduring amplified response at subsequent exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on amphetamine sensitization in mice. Methods: D-amphetamine was administered to C57BL/6 mice three times a week for 3 weeks; the dose was increased weekly from 1 to 3 mg/kg. NAC (60 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally before saline or amphetamine during the second and third weeks. After a 4-week washout period, latent inhibition (LI) and the locomotor response to amphetamine 2 mg/kg were assessed. Results: Sensitization disrupted LI and amplified the locomotor response; NAC disrupted LI in control mice. In sensitized animals, NAC attenuated the enhanced locomotion but failed to prevent LI disruption. Conclusion: NAC warrants consideration as a candidate for early intervention in ultra-high risk subjects due to its safety profile and the relevance of its mechanism of action. Supplementing this proposition, we report that NAC attenuates sensitization-induced locomotor enhancement in mice. The finding that NAC disrupted LI incites a cautionary note and requires clarification.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Amphetamine/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Mice, Inbred C57BL
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 239-245, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886915


ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity and motor activity changes in African-derived adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and imidacloprid. Mortality of bees was assessed to determine the ingestion and contact lethal dose for 24 h using probit analysis. Motor activities in bees exposed to lethal (LD50) and sublethal doses (1/500th of the lethal dose) of both insecticides were evaluated in a behavioral observation box at 1 and 4 h. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of fipronil were 0.2316 ? 0.0626 and 0.0080 ? 0.0021 μg/bee, respectively. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of imidacloprid were 0.1079 ? 0.0375 and 0.0308 ? 0.0218 μg/bee, respectively. Motor function of bees exposed to lethal doses of fipronil and imidacloprid was impaired; exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil but not imidacloprid impaired motor function. The insecticides evaluated in this study were highly toxic to African-derived A. mellifera and caused impaired motor function in these pollinators.

Animals , Pyrazoles/toxicity , Bees/drug effects , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Bees/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 71-77, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888359


ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effects of carvacrol on motor and memory deficits as well as hyperalgesia in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. The animals were subjected to unilateral microinjection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle and treated with carvacrol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) for six weeks after surgery. The 6-OHDA-lesioned rats showed contralateral rotations towards the lesion side, which was accompanied by learning and memory deficits in a passive avoidance test and a decrease in tail withdrawal latency in a tail flick test at the end of week 6. The results also showed that treatment with carvacrol at a dose of 25 mg/kg ameliorated memory deficits, with no effect on rotations and hyperalgesia in lesioned rats. In conclusion, carvacrol improves memory impairments in rats with Parkinson's disease; therefore, it may serve as an adjunct therapy for the alleviation of memory deficits in Parkinson's disease patients.

RESUMO O presente estudo investigou os efeitos do carvacrol nos déficits motores e de memória, bem como na hiperalgesia, em um modelo da doença de Parkinson (DP) em ratos com lesões 6-OHDA. Os animais foram submetidos a microinjeção unilateral de 6-OHDA no feixe mediano do prosencéfalo e tratados com carvacrol (25, 50 e 100 mg / kg, ip) durante 6 semanas após a cirurgia. Os ratos com lesões 6-OHDA mostraram rotações contralaterais para o lado da lesão, que foram acompanhadas de déficits de aprendizagem e de memória em um teste de evitação passiva, e de uma diminuição da latência de retirada da cauda em um teste de cauda no final da semana 6. Os resultados também mostraram que o tratamento crônico com carvacrol a uma dose de 25 mg / kg aliviou os déficits de memória, sem efeito sobre rotações e hiperalgesia em ratos lesados. Em conclusão, o carvacrol melhora a deficiência de memória em ratos com DP e, portanto, pode servir como uma terapia complementar para aliviar os déficits de memória em pacientes com DP.

Animals , Male , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Monoterpenes/therapeutic use , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Memory, Short-Term/drug effects , Antiparkinson Agents/therapeutic use , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Oxidopamine , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Cymenes , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Neuralgia/physiopathology , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiparkinson Agents/pharmacology
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1655-1669, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886724


ABSTRACT Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days) induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Swimming/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Ketamine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Dissociative/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Immobilization/physiology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Motor Activity/physiology
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 196-201, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904580


Abstract Introduction The rationale of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a novel therapeutic approach in certain neurodegenerative diseases is based on their ability to promote neurogenesis. Hippocampal atrophy has been related to bipolar disorder (BD) in preclinical, imaging and postmortem studies. Therefore, the development of new strategies to stimulate the neurogenesis process in BD is crucial. Objectives To investigate the behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by transplantation of MSCs in a model of mania-like behavior induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Methods Wistar rats (n=65) received one oral daily dose of LDX (10 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. On the 8th day of treatment, the animals additionally received intrahippocampal saline or MSC (1 µL containing 25,000 cells) or lithium (47.5 mg/kg) as an internal experimental control. Two hours after the last administration, behavioral and neurochemical analyses were performed. Results LDX-treated rats had increased locomotor activity compared to saline-saline rats (p=0.004), and lithium reversed LDX-related hyperactive behavior (p<0.001). In contrast, the administration of MSCs did not change hyperlocomotion, indicating no effects of this treatment on LDX-treated rats (p=0.979). We did not find differences between groups in BDNF levels (p>0.05) in the hippocampus of rats. Conclusion Even though these results suggest that a single intrahippocampal injection of MSCs was not helpful to treat hyperactivity induced by LDX and neither influenced BDNF secretion, we cannot rule out the possible therapeutic effects of MSCs. Further research is required to determine direct effects of LDX on brain structures as well as in other pathophysiological targets related to BD.

Resumo Introdução Células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) têm emergido como um promissor tratamento em diversas doenças neurodegenerativas devido a sua plasticidade e capacidade de regenerar tecidos. Estudos pré-clínicos, clínicos e de neuroimagem têm demonstrado a presença de atrofia hipocampal no transtorno bipolar (TB). Portanto, o desenvolvimento de tratamentos capazes de regenerar tecido lesado e estimular a neurogênese poderia ser útil. Objetivos Investigar mudanças comportamentais e neuroquímicas induzidas pelo transplante de CTMs no hipocampo de ratos em um modelo animal de mania induzido por dimesilato de lisdexanfetamina (LDX). Métodos Ratos Wistar (n=65) receberam LDX (10 mg/kg) ou solução salina por via oral durante 14 dias. No oitavo dia, os animais foram transplantados com injeção de CTMs ou solução salina (1 µL contendo 25.000 células) ou lítio (47,5 mg/kg) como controle interno do experimento. Duas horas após a última dose, foram realizadas análises comportamentais e neuroquímicas. Resultados Animais que receberam LDX tiveram um aumento da atividade locomotora comparados ao grupo que recebeu solução salina (p=0,004); já o lítio reverteu a hiperatividade locomotora desses animais (p<0,001). Os animais que receberam CTMs não apresentaram alterações no comportamento, indicando ausência de efeitos sobre hiperatividade locomotora. Os níveis de BDNF hipocampais não diferiram entre os grupos (p>0.05). Conclusão Não foi possível demonstrar efeitos neuroprotetores das CTMs, administradas em dose única, em um modelo animal de mania induzido por LDX. No entanto, não se pode descartar os possíveis efeitos terapêuticos das CTMs. Mais estudos são necessários para determinar os efeitos das CTMs em estruturas cerebrais e outros alvos fisiopatológicos relacionados ao TB.

Animals , Male , Bipolar Disorder/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Bipolar Disorder/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Rats, Wistar , Lithium Compounds/pharmacology , Antimanic Agents/pharmacology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate , Proof of Concept Study , Hippocampus/surgery , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Motor Activity/drug effects , Motor Activity/physiology
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(4): 316-322, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876660


Introduction: Caffeinated drinks are used for improve performance. Animal models represent investigational strategy that circumvents most of the drawbacks of research in humans, including motivational factors and the placebo effect. No animal model that could test whether different forms of administering caffeine affect exercise propensity was found in the literature. Methods: An animal model of grouped voluntary exercise was tested. Two-month-old male C57/bl mice were housed in a cage fitted with one running wheel and a monitoring system. Six animals per cage were introduced individually. To assess the sensitivity of the model, the effect of different caffeinated drinks was observed in mice exercising ad libitum. During 2 days, the mice received: 1) pure anhydrous caffeine 0.125 mg/mL (PC), 2) cola drink (CC), and 3) caffeine-taurine-glucuronolactone drink (CTG), intercalating wash-out periods of 2 days, receiving pure water. Results: The distance run during the periods of water ingestion was significantly lower than during the periods of stimulant drinks ingestion: PC (5.6 ± 1.3 km; p = 0.02), of CC ingestion (7.6 ± 0.6 km; p = 0.001), and of CTG ingestion (8.3 ± 1.6 km; p = 0.009). The performances when ingesting the three caffeinated drinks do not follow a dose-response curve. Conclusions: The model described here was able to measure the effect of caffeine intake on voluntary exercise of mice. The sensitivity of the model to the effect of caffeine needs to be further validated. The action of each component of the drinks on exercise performance needs to be clarified in future research. The present model is adequate for such investigation (AU)

Animals , Male , Mice , Caffeine/pharmacology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Carbonated Beverages , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Energy Drinks , Models, Animal , Motivation/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology , Running/physiology , Volition
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (Supp. 10): 156-166
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-185704


Background: Depression is a threatening disease. Due to adverse effects of chemical antidepressant drugs, researcher's attention has been shifted toward natural drug

Objective: In this work, the antidepressant effect of Kombucha tea [KT] evaluated against reserpine induced depression in mice

Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 7 mice. Vehicle mice received normal saline [1 mg/kg, i.p.], negative and positive control groups received reserpine [5mg/kg, i.p.] and fluoxetine [20 mg/kg, i.p.] respectively and treatment groups received Kombucha tea at doses of 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg, 18 h after administration of reserpine. Mice were then tested with forced swimming and rotarod tests. At the end of behavioral tests, blood sample were collected and used to assess blood antioxidant capacity

Results: There was significant difference in the duration of immobility time between vehicle and reserpine treated groups [P<0.001]. Administration of Kombucha tea at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg into depressed mice significantly reduced the duration of immobility time. KT administration significantly improved blood antioxidant capacity of mice blood

Conclusion: These results provide support for the potential antidepressant effects of Kombucha tea against

Animals, Laboratory , Male , Motor Activity/drug effects , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Depression/drug therapy , Mice
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 15(2): 321-327, Abr.-Jun. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-974840


RESUMO Atualmente as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis são as principais causas de morte no mundo. Consideradas doenças multifatoriais, têm em comum fatores de riscos modificáveis tais como inatividade física, colesterol elevado, excesso de peso, tabagismo, consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas e alimentação não saudável. Com o objetivo de verificar o impacto por um programa de Gerenciamento de Doenças Crônicas, após dois anos de acompanhamento, surgiu esta pesquisa. Trata-se de programa desenvolvido com um grupo de clientes de uma autogestão localizada no estado de São Paulo. É um estudo transversal realizado durante os anos de 2014-2015 com dados de prontuário eletrônico que foram comparados parâmetros clínicos e hábitos de vida de 1.509 indivíduos participantes de um programa de gerenciamento de doenças em dois momentos: na entrada ao programa e após dois anos de participação. Observaram-se resultados satisfatórios na melhora de parâmetros clínicos relacionados aos níveis pressóricos e à dosagem de glicemia em jejum, assim como diminuição do sedentarismo em indivíduos abaixo dos 60 anos.

RESUMEN Actualmente las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles son las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Consideradas enfermedades multifactoriales, tienen en común factores de riesgo modificables, tales como inactividad física, colesterol alto, sobrepeso, tabaco, exceso de alcohol y alimentación poco sana. Con el objetivo de averiguar el impacto por un programa de Gestión de Enfermedades Crónicas, tras dos años de acompañamiento, se hizo esta investigación. Se trata de un programa desarrollado con un grupo de clientes de una autogestión ubicada en el estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Es un estudio transversal realizado durante los años de 2014-2015 con datos de registros médicos electrónicos, comparándose los parámetros clínicos y hábitos de vida de 1.509 personas que participan en un programa de gestión de enfermedades en dos ocasiones: cuando entran en el programa y después de dos años de participación. Se observaron resultados satisfactorios en la mejora de los parámetros clínicos relacionados con los niveles de presión arterial y a la dosificación de glucemia en ayunas, así como la disminución de la inactividad física en personas con edad abajo de 60 años.

ABSTRACT Currently, non-transmissible chronic diseases are leading causes of death worldwide. Considered as multifactorial diseases, they have common modifiable risk factors such as physical inactivity, high cholesterol, overweight, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and unhealthy diets. Aiming at verifying the impact of theChronic Disease Management program, this study arose after two years of follow-up. This is a program developed with a group of customers in a self-management platform in the state of São Paulo. This was a cross-sectional study carried out during 2014 and 2015 with electronic medical record data through the comparison ofthe clinical and lifestyle parameters of 1,509 individuals participating in a disease management program in two moments: at the program'sentry and two years after participation. Satisfactory results in the improvement of clinical parameters related to blood pressure and blood glucose levels in fasting were observed as well as decreased physical inactivity in individuals under 60 years of age.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Programs and Plans/standards , Chronic Disease/nursing , Prepaid Health Plans/standards , Health Promotion/standards , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Aging/drug effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Cholesterol/analysis , Cause of Death/trends , Glycemic Index/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/nursing , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/metabolism , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Noncommunicable Diseases/classification , Hypertension/nursing , Motor Activity/drug effects
Acta cir. bras ; 31(2): 133-137, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775559


PURPOSE: To investigate the role of adenosine A2A receptors on 6-OHDA-induced motor disorder in rat. METHODS: In order to induce experimental model of Parkinson's disease, 6-hydoxydopamine (8 μg/rat) was injected unilaterally into the SNc. After three weeks as a recovery period, 6-OHDA-induced bradykinesia and balance disturbances were assessed by using beam traversal test 10, 30 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal injections of the drugs (caffeine, SCH58261). RESULTS: The results showed that 6-OHDA (8 μg/rat, Intra-SNc) induced motor disorders of Parkinson's disease and increased elapsed time in the beam test (p<0.001). Injection of caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and SCH58261 (2 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated elapsed time on beam (p<0.01 and p<0.001). We showed that acute administration of caffeine and SCH 58261 can improve the 6-OHDA-induced bradykinesia and motor disturbance. CONCLUSION: Adenosine A2AR antagonists improve 6-OHDA-motor deficit and this effect seems to be mediated by the inhibition of A2A presynaptic receptors in substantia nigra pars compacta.

Animals , Male , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/chemically induced , Caffeine/pharmacology , Oxidopamine/adverse effects , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Time and Motion Studies , Rats, Wistar , Hypokinesia/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Motor Disorders/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (2): 585-590
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176394


Methylphenidate, which inhibit dopamine transporter is effective in the treatment of ADHD [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder], but long term use of this drug is often associated with addiction and dependence. Locomotor sensitization development to psychostimulants like methylphenidate is an important contributor to drug abuse induced by psychostimulants. Different studies have shown that long term administration of drugs of abuse increases the effectiveness of 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT][-1A] somatodendritic receptors. Repeated buspirone administration reduces the effectiveness of 5-HT[1A] somatodendritic receptors. This study was designed to determine that buspirone coadministration may reduce methylphenidate-induced sensitization. The motor activity was compared by using familiar and novel environments after long-term administration of methylphenidate, buspirone and their co-administration. Long term oral administration of methylphenidate at a dose of 2.0mg/kg/day enhanced motor activity in home cage i.e activity of familiar environment monitored at alternate day. Locomotor enhancing effects of methylphenidate were augmented on 13[th] day of drug administration suggesting sensitization induced by the drug. The sensitization effects were significant in home cage monitored on alternate day and also in an open field monitored weekly. Buspirone co-administration at a dose of 10mg/kg/day prevented methylphenidate-induced sensitization. It is suggested that the sensitization development to methylphenidate may oppose by buspirone co-administration due to the reduction in the sensitivity of 5-HT[1A] somatodendritic receptors. These findings may help extend future therapeutics in ADHD

Animals, Laboratory , Buspirone , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Rats, Wistar , Motor Activity/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): e5009, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951646


Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/etiology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/physiopathology , Swimming/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Alcoholism , Physical Exertion/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1518-1524, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772347


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del compuesto fenólico polifuncional DM1 sobre el comportamiento motor, exploratório y ansiedad en ratas Wistar, analizadas en campo abierto (CA) y laberinto en cruz elevada (LCE). Se utilizaron 40 ratas Wistar adultas, divididas en 5 grupos (n= 8): Control (vehículo), DZP (Diazepam-2 mg/kg), DM1-150 mg/kg, DM1-300 mg/kg y DM1-450 mg/kg. Los animales fueron evaluados por un período de cinco minutos en CA y en el LCE, 30 min después de las administraciones (vía intraperitoneal). La evaluación en CA demostró reducción de la locomoción en los grupos DZP, DM1-300 y DM1-450 en relación al grupo control. Aumentó la locomoción en el grupo DM1-150 en relación al grupo DZP y disminuyó la locomoción en el grupo DM1-300 en relación al grupo DM1-150. Hubo disminución del levantar del grupo DZP en relación al grupo control. El grupo DM1-150 presentó aumento del levantar en relación al grupo DZP. Aumentó el tiempo estático (TE) en el grupo DZP y se redujo en el grupo DM1-300, ambos en relación al grupo control. El grupo DM1-150 presentó disminución del TE en relación al grupo DZP. La evaluación LCE presentó reducción del número de entradas en los brazos abiertos en el grupo DZP en relación al grupo control. Hubo reducción del número de entradas en los brazos cerrados en el grupo DZP en relación al grupo control y aumento de este parámetro en el grupo DM1-150 mg en relación al grupo DZP. Se redujó el número de cruzamientos entre los brazos cerrados en el grupo DZP en relación al grupo control. Los resultados en conjunto, sugieren que las dosis del compuesto fenólico polifuncional DM1 por sobre 150mg, tienen influencia en el estado emocional de los animales, indicando posible acción sedativa con probable inducción de relajamiento muscular.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of polyfunctional phenolic compound DM1 on the motor behavior, exploratory and anxiety in Wistar rats tested in open field (OF) and in elevated plus-maze (EPM). We used 40 adult Wistar rats divided in 5 groups (n= 8): Control (vehicle), DZP (diazepam-2 mg/kg), DM1-150 mg/kg, DM1-300 mg/kg and DM1-450 mg/kg. The animals were evaluated for a period of five minutes in the OF and EPM, 30 min after administrations (intraperitoneally). The evaluation in OF showed reduction in the locomotion in the DZP, DM1-300 and DM1-450 groups relative to the control group. It increased locomotion in DM1-150 group relative to the DZP group and decreased locomotion in DM1-300 group relative to the group DM1-150. There was decrease of the lifting action in the DZP group relative to the control group. The DM1-150 group presented increase of the lifting action compared to DZP group. It increased the static time (ST) in the DZP group and decreased in the DM1-300 group, both in relation to the control group. The DM1-150 group presented decrease of the ST compared to DZP group. The EPM evaluation presented reducing the number of entries into the open arms in the DZP group relative to the control group. There was reduction in the number of entries into the closed arms in the DZP group relative to the control and increase of this parameter in the DM1-150 group in relation to DZP group. The number of crossings between the closed arms in the DZP group relative to the control group decreased. The overall results suggest that the dose of polyfunctional phenolic compound DM1 above 150 mg have influence on the emotional state of the animals, indicating possible sedative action likely induction of muscle relaxation.

Animals , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Anxiety , Maze Learning , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(4): 690-696, jul.-ago. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761096


RESUMOInsuficiência cardíaca (IC) é causa frequente de internação exigindo do enfermeiro precisão na conduta clínica e adequado julgamento dos diagnósticos de enfermagem.Objetivo:verificar acurácia na determinação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem fadiga, intolerância à atividade e débito cardíaco diminuído em paciente com IC hospitalizados.Método:estudo descritivo aplicado aos enfermeiros experientes em diagnósticos de enfermagem NANDA-I e/ou IC. Avaliação da acurácia foi realizada a partir do cálculo das medidas: eficácia (E), falso negativo (FN), falso positivo (FP) e tendência (T). Foram aptos os enfermeiros com inspeção aceitável para dois diagnósticos.Resultados:o diagnóstico de enfermagem fadiga foi o mais erroneamente identificado pelos enfermeiros avaliadores.Discussão:a busca pelo aperfeiçoamento da acurácia diagnóstica reafirma a necessidade de treinamento contínuo e específico para a melhora da capacidade diagnosticadora do enfermeiro.Conclusão:o treinamento permitiu o exercício do raciocínio clínico e melhor acurácia dos enfermeiros.

RESUMENInsuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es causa frecuente de ingresos hospitalarios exigindo del enfermero precisión en la conducta clínica y adecuado juzgamiento de los diagnósticos de enfermería.Objetivo:verificar la precisión en la determinación de los diagnósticos de enfermería fatiga, disminuición del gasto cardíaco e intolerancia a la actividad en pacientes con IC ingresos en hospitales.Método:estudio observacional, con enfermeros docentes y experientes en diagnósticos de enfermería NANDA-I y/o IC. Evaluación y precisión fueron realizadas por através del cálculo: eficacia (E), falso negativo (FN), falso positivo (FP) y tendecia (T). Fueron aptos los enfermeros con inspección aceptable para dos diagnósticos.Resultados:el diagnóstico de enfermería fatiga fue identificado erróneamente como por evaluadores enfermeras.Discusión:la búsqueda de la mejora de la precisión diagnóstica reafirma la necesidad de una formación continua y específica a la mejora de la capacidad del diagnosticador enfermera.Conclusión:la capacitación permitió el ejercicio del raciocínio y mejor precisión de los enfermeros.

ABSTRACTHeart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalization and requires accuracy in clinical judgment and appropriate nursing diagnoses.Objective:to determine the accuracy of nursing diagnoses of fatigue, intolerance to activity and decreased cardiac output in hospitalized HF patients.Method:descriptive study applied to nurses with experience in NANDA-I and/or HF nursing diagnoses. Evaluation and accuracy were determined by calculating effi cacy (E), false negative (FN), false positive (FP) and trend (T) measures. Nurses who showed acceptable inspection for two diagnoses were selected.Results:the nursing diagnosis of fatigue was the most commonly mistaken diagnosis identifi ed by the nursing evaluators.Discussion:the search for improving diagnostic accuracy reaffi rms the need for continuous and specifi c training to improve the diagnosis capability of nurses.Conclusion:the training allowed the exercise of clinical judgment and better accuracy of nurses.

Animals , Female , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chickens/injuries , Fractures, Bone/veterinary , Motor Activity/drug effects , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(4): 321-329, 04/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745753


The present study investigates the influence of bromazepam while executing a motor task. Specifically, we intend to analyze the changes in alpha absolute power under two experimental conditions, bromazepam and placebo. We also included analyses of theta and beta frequencies. We collected electroencephalographic data before, during, and after motor task execution. We used a Two Way ANOVA to investigate the condition (PL × Br6 mg) and moment (pre and post) variables for the following electrodes: Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, C3, CZ and C4. We found a main effect for condition on the electrodes FP1, F7, F3, Fz, F4, C3 and CZ, for alpha and beta bands. For beta band we also found a main effect for condition on the electrodes Fp2, F8 and C4; for theta band we identified a main effect for condition on C3, Cz and C4 electrodes. This finding suggests that the motor task did not have any influence on the electrocortical activity in alpha, and that the existing modifications were a consequence due merely to the drug use. Despite its anxiolytic and sedative action, bromazepam did not show any significant changes when the individuals executed a finger extension motor task.

O presente estudo investiga a influência do bromazepam durante a execução de uma tarefa motora. Especificamente, pretende-se analisar as mudanças na potência absoluta de alfa sob duas condições experimentais, bromazepam e placebo. Nós também incluímos as analises das frequências teta e beta. Foram coletados dados eletroencefalográficos antes, durante e depois da execução da tarefa motora. Usamos uma Anova de 2 fatores para investigar a condição (PL × Br6 mg) e variáveis no momento (pré e pós) para os seguintes eletrodos: Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, C3, C4 e CZ. Encontramos um efeito principal para a condição e eletrodos FP1, F7, F3, Fz, F4, C3 e CZ para alfa e beta. Para beta também foi encontrado um efeito principal para condição nos eletrodos Fp2, F8 e C4; para theta nós identificamos um efeito principal para condition em C3, Cz e C4. Este achado sugere que a tarefa motora não tem qualquer influência sobre a atividade eletrocortical alfa e que as modificações existentes foram uma consequência devido o uso de drogas. Apesar de sua ação ansiolítica e sedativa, o bromazepam não apresentou mudança significativa quando os indivíduos executaram uma tarefa motora.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Bromazepam/pharmacology , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Motor Skills/drug effects , Somatosensory Cortex/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Brain Waves/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Electroencephalography/drug effects , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Reference Values , Somatosensory Cortex/physiology , Task Performance and Analysis , Time Factors
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(2): 147-157, feb. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742565


Background: There is a gap between the number of patients requiring a renal allograft and the number of potential deceased donors (DD). One alternative is using allografts from non-related living donors (NRLD). Aim: To compare survival and complications of renal allograft recipients from DD, related living donors (RLD) and NRLD. Material and Methods: Observational study of a cohort of renal allograft recipients. Of 253 transplants performed in a Chilean region between 1981 and 2003, 20 patients received and allograft from a NRLD. Graft and patient survival of these patients were compared with those of 93 patients receiving an allograft from a related living donor and 140 receiving it from a DD. Patients were followed for 10 years or until death or dialysis requirement. Results: No significant differences between groups in graft and patient survival, deaths with a functioning graft or return to dialysis were observed. Receptors of DD had more hospital admissions during the first years after receiving the graft, usually due to infections. Also a delayed graft function was more common among them. Glomerular filtration rate ten years after the graft was similar among the three groups. Conclusions: No differences in graft or patient survival was observed between patients receiving a renal allograft from NRLD, RLD or DD.

Animals , Female , Mice , Rats , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Amides/pharmacology , Carrageenan , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Edema/drug therapy , Formaldehyde , Hot Temperature , Isomerism , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Picolinic Acids/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Postural Balance/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1186-1194
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153810


Mikania scandens, a twining herb that grows as a weed in India and Bangladesh is used as vegetables and is a good source of vitamin A, C, B complex, mikanin, sesquiterpenes, betasitosterin, stigmasterol and friedelin. The present communication reports CNS depressant activities with special emphasis to brain biogenic amines in mice. Ethanol extract of leaves of M. scandens (EEMS) was prepared by Soxhalation and analyzed chemically. EEMS potentiated sleeping time induced by pentobarbitone, diazepam and meprobamate and showed significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches. EEMS caused significant protection against pentylene tetrazole-induced convulsion and increased catecholamines and brain amino acids level significantly. Results showed that EEMS produced good CNS depressant effects in mice.

Analgesics/isolation & purification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Anticonvulsants/isolation & purification , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Biogenic Amines/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Central Nervous System Depressants/isolation & purification , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ethanol/chemistry , Female , Male , Mice , Mikania/chemistry , Motor Activity/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Reflex/drug effects , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/prevention & control , Tetrazoles , Toxicity Tests, Acute
Invest. clín ; 55(4): 352-364, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783089


We investigated the effect of melatonin (MEL) in the activities of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase as well as in the levels of H2O2 and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) in paraquat-intoxicated Drosophila melanogaster. Paraquat (40 mM) was administrated for 36 h. Three groups of flies intoxicated with paraquat were used: PQ (exposed during 36h to paraquat), PQ-MEL (exposed during 36h to paraquat and then treated with MEL [0.43 mM] for 12 days) and PQ-Control (maintained in standard corn meal for 12 days). Two additional groups without pre-intoxication with PQ were added: Control (maintained in standard corn meal) and MEL (treated with MEL for 12 days). Immediately after PQ intoxication the concentration of MDA (17.240 ± 0.554 nmoles MDA/mg protein) and H2O2 (3.313 ± 0.086 nmol hydrogen peroxide/mg protein) and the activities of SOD and catalase (419.667 ± 0.731 and 0.216 ± 0.009 Units/mg of protein, respectively) in the PQ group were significantly increased with respect to Control. After 12 days of intoxication with PQ, the PQ-Control flies showed increases in H2O2 (4.336 ± 0.108) and MDA levels (8.620 ± 0.156), and in the activities of SOD and catalase (692.570 ± 0.433 and 0.327 ± 0.003, respectively) as compared to PQ-MEL (p<0.001). Treatment with MEL extended the life span of the groups PQ-MEL and MEL when compared to their corresponding controls. Motor activity decreased significantly in PQ-Control and PQ-MEL flies, suggesting that the damage caused by PQ affected the nervous system of flies. Our findings showed that oxidative damage caused by paraquat was observed even after 12 days and that melatonin mitigates this damage.

Investigamos el efecto de la melatonina (MEL) en la actividad de la superóxido dismutasa citosólica (SOD) y la catalasa, así como en las concentraciones del H2O2 y del malondialdehido mitocondrial (MDA) en la toxicidad inducida por paraquat (PQ) en Drosophila melanogaster. El paraquat (40 mM) fue administrado durante 36h. Tres grupos de moscas se utilizaron después de la intoxicación con paraquat: PQ (expuestas a paraquat durante 36 h), PQ-MEL (expuestas durante 36 horas a PQ y luego tratadas con MEL [0,43 mM] por 12 días) y PQ-Control (mantenidas en medio estándar por 12 días). Se incluyeron dos grupos adicionales sin pre-intoxicación con PQ: Control (mantenido en medio estándar) y MEL (tratado con MEL por 12 días). Inmediatamente después de la intoxicación con PQ, las concentraciones de MDA (17,240 ± 0,554 nmol de MDA/mg de proteína), H2O2 (3,313 ± 0,086 nmol de H2O2/mg de proteína) y las actividades de la SOD y catalasa (419,667 ± 0,731 y 0,216 ± 0,009 unidades/mg de proteína, respectivamente) se incrementaron significativamente con respecto al Control. Doce días después de la intoxicación con PQ, las moscas PQ-Control mostraron un aumento en la concentración de H2O2 (4,336 ± 0,108), de los niveles de MDA (8,620 ± 0,156) y en las actividades de la SOD y la catalasa (692,570 ± 0,433 y 0,327 ± 0,003, respectivamente) en comparación con el grupo PQ-MEL (p<0,001). El tratamiento con MEL extendió el tiempo de vida de los grupos PQ-MEL y MEL en comparación con sus correspondientes controles. La actividad motora disminuyó significativamente en las moscas de los grupos PQ-Control y PQ-MEL, lo que sugiere que el PQ afectó el sistema nervioso de las moscas. Nuestros hallazgos demostraron que el daño oxidativo causado por paraquat en las moscas fue observado aún después de 12 días de intoxicadas y que la melatonina logró mitigar este daño.

Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Herbicides/antagonists & inhibitors , Melatonin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Paraquat/antagonists & inhibitors , Catalase/analysis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drosophila Proteins/analysis , Drosophila melanogaster/physiology , Herbicides/toxicity , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mitochondria/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Paraquat/toxicity
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Aug; 52(8): 799-807
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153762


Punarnavine (20 and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) per se administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased immobility periods of both unstressed and stressed mice in forced swim test. These drugs also significantly decreased sucrose preference in both stressed and unstressed mice as compared to their respective controls, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The alkaloid also significantly decreased monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) activity, malondialdehyde levels in both unstressed and stressed mice; and significantly reversed the stress-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase activity. It also significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels. Thus, punarnavine showed antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-A activity, decrease in plasma nitrite levels and due to its antioxidant activity. In addition, punarnavine also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice possibly through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.

Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Alkaloids/chemistry , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/chemistry , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/pathology , Humans , Mice , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nyctaginaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Stress, Psychological