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Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4576, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001897


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of red propolis and L-lysine on angiogenesis and tumor growth in a new model of hamster cheek pouch inoculated with Walker 256 tumor cells. Methods: The study consisted of two experiments with four groups each (total: 57 hamsters). In the experiment 1, the animals were inoculated with Walker tumor cells, followed by administration of test substances (red propolis 200mg/5mL/kg or L-lysine 150mg/kg) or control substances (gum arabic 5mL/kg or water 5mL/kg) for 10 days. The animals in the experiment 2 received red propolis, L-lysine, gum arabic or water at the same doses, for 33 days prior to inoculation of Walker tumor cells, followed by 10 days of treatment with the same substances. Based on single-plane images, angiogenesis was quantified (mean vascular area), in percentage, and tumor area (mm2) and perimeter (mm). Results: In the experiment 1, compared to animals receiving water, the mean vascular area expressed in percentage was significantly smaller in animal treated with propolis (p<0.05) and L-lysine (p<0.001). Conclusion: Both red propolis and L-lysine inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the new hamster cheek pouch model when administered after tumor inoculation.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da própolis vermelha e da L-lisina na angiogênese e no crescimento tumoral em novo modelo de bolsa jugal de hamster inoculada com células de tumor de Walker 256. Métodos: O estudo consistiu em dois experimentos com quatro grupos cada (total: 57 hamsters). No experimento 1, os animais foram inoculados com células de tumor de Walker, tendo em seguida administradas as substâncias teste (própolis vermelha 200mg/5mL/kg ou L-lisina 150mg/kg) ou controle (goma arábica 5mL/kg ou água 5mL/kg) por 10 dias. Os animais do experimento 2 receberam própolis vermelha, L-lisina, goma arábica ou água nas mesmas doses, por 33 dias antes do inóculo das células de tumor de Walker, seguido por 10 dias de tratamento com as mesmas substâncias. Baseado em imagens em plano único, foram quantificados a angiogênese (área vascular média), em termos percentuais, e a área (mm2) e o perímetro (mm) do tumor. Resultados: Comparada aos animais que receberam água, a área vascular média, expressa em percentagem, foi significativamente menor nos animais tratados com própolis (p<0,05) e com L-lisina (p<0,001). Conclusão: Tanto a própolis vermelha quanto a L-lisina inibiram a angiogênese no novo modelo de bolsa jugal de hamsters, quando administradas após a inoculação do tumor.

Propolis/therapeutic use , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lysine/therapeutic use , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/chemically induced , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma 256, Walker/blood supply , Weight Gain , Cheek , Cricetinae , Mesocricetus , Treatment Outcome , Models, Animal , Antioxidants
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(4): 385-390, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794975


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the lip and oral cavity differ in various aspects; therefore a clarification of the distinctions among these sites may help to better understand the biologic behavior of neoplasms occurring in these locations. OBJECTIVE: Considering that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are two major elements that can influence various aspects of tumor biology, we aimed to compare these factors between squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip and oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 84 primary squamous cell carcinomas including 45 oral and 39 lower lip tumors were selected and immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibody against D2-40 and CD105. Mean microvessel density was assessed in tumoral tissue, while lymphatic vessel density was calculated in both neoplastic tissue and invasion front. Data were statistically analyzed using t-test and p-values of <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: We found a mean microvessel density ± standard deviation of 31.94 ± 18.9 in oral cavity and 27.54 ± 20.8 in lower lip squamous cell carcinomas, with no significant difference (p = 0.32). Mean lymphatic vessel density ± standard deviation was 13.05 ± 8.2 and 16.57 ± 10.79 in of oral cavity and lower lip neoplastic tissue, respectively. The corresponding values were 9.94 ± 5.59 and 12.50 ± 7.8 in the invasive front. Significant differences were not observed in either of the lymphatic vessel density variables between the two sites. CONCLUSION: According to our results, it seems that the search for additional factors other than those related to the vasculature should continue, to help clarify the differences in biologic behavior between lower lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas.

Resumo Introdução: Os tumores de lábio e da cavidade oral diferem em vários aspectos; portanto, o conhecimento das diferenças entre eles pode ajudar na melhor compreensão do comportamento biológico das neoplasias que ocorrem nesses locais. Objetivo: Considerando que a angiogênese e a linfangiogênese são dois elementos importantes que podem influenciar diversos aspectos da biologia dos tumores, objetivamos comparar esses fatores entre o carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) de lábio inferior e da cavidade oral. Método: No total, foram selecionados 84 CCEs primários (45 tumores da cavidade oral e 39 tumores de lábio). Esses tumores foram corados por processo imunohistoquímico com anticorpo monoclonal anti-D2-40 e CD105. Avaliamos a densidade média de microvasos (DMV) no tecido tumoral, enquanto que a densidade vascular linfática (DVL) foi calculada tanto no tecido neoplásico como no front de invasão. Os dados foram estatisticamente analisados com o uso do teste t e valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significantes. Resultados: Chegamos a uma média para DMV ± DP de 31,94 ± 18,9 para CCEs na cavidade oral e de 27,54 ± 20,8 no lábio inferior, sem diferença significante (p = 0,32). As médias para DVL ± DP foram de 13,05 ± 8,2 e 16,57 ± 10,79 no tecido neoplásico da cavidade oral e lábio inferior, respectivamente. Os valores correspondentes foram 9,94 ± 5,59 e 12,50 ± 7,8 no front invasivo. Não foram observadas diferenças significantes nas duas variáveis DVL entre os dois locais. Conclusão: De acordo com os nossos resultados, a pesquisa por fatores adicionais, além daqueles relacionados à vasculatura, deve ter continuidade, para auxiliar no esclarecimento das diferenças do comportamento biológico entre CCEs no lábio inferior e na cavidade oral.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Lymphangiogenesis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Lip Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Retrospective Studies , Lymphatic Vessels , Microvessels , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158239


Context: Like normal tissues, tumors require an adequate supply of oxygen, metabolites and an effective way to remove waste products. This is achieved by angiogenesis, which is defined as the process by which new blood vessels are produced by sprouting from preexisting vasculature. There is a large spectrum of physiological and pathological processes in which angiogenesis occur, ranging from tissue hypertrophy, wound healing, and inflammation to tumors. Aims: The present study was designed to morphometrically evaluate the angiogenesis in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) under light microscope by the use of H and E stained sections and to assess that whether the parameters of vascularity like mean vascular density (MVD), mean vascular area (MVA), and total vascular area (TVA) can be used to histologically grade the tumors. Subjects and Methods: A total of 10 cases each of well‑, moderately‑ and poorly‑differentiated SCC cases were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology and were morphometrically analyzed for mean vascular density (MVD), MVA, and TVA. Ten cases of normal oral mucosa were taken as Control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19.0 version (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) software for windows. Group mean for MVD, TVA and MVA were calculated for 10 cases of each group. “Student’s t‑test” was applied to assess the intergroup variation of mean values of MVD, TVA, and MVA. Results: Our results showed significant differences between all the three parameters, that is, MVD, MVA and TVA when poorly differentiated OSCC was compared with the normal mucosa, well‑ and moderately‑differentiated OSCC. However, when comparison was made between the well‑ and moderately‑differentiated OSCC, the differences in the three parameters were present but not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was an increased MVD, MVA and TVA in poorly differentiated OSCC, which could be used as an additional criterion to histologically grade the tumor.

Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology , Blood Vessels/growth & development , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/anatomy & histology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/anatomy & histology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Neovascularization, Pathologic/analysis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/anatomy & histology
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 194-199, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681863


Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are the main cellular component in stroma of many tumors and participate in tumor angiogenesis. The aim of present study was to compare the microvascular density (MVD) and infiltrating macrophage density (IMD) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) with different histological grades. A histomorphometric analysis was performed after immunohistochemistry using antibodies such as von-Willebrand factor and CD68. A significant difference in MVD was found between well and moderately differentiated OSCCs (p<0.05). TAM were largely present in all studied tumors and the IMD was not different among OSCCs with different histological grades (p=0.381). Significant correlation between MVD and IMD was not observed (p=0.870). In conclusion, these results suggest that TAM and angiogenesis have an influence at different histological grades of OSCC. However, the lack of correlation between MVD and IMD could suggest that angiogenesis does not depend on the number of macrophages present in OSCC, but their predominant phenotype. Further studies involving distinct phenotypes of macrophages should be done to better understand the influence of TAM on the tumor angiogenesis.

Macrófagos associados a tumores (MAT) representam o componente principal do estroma de muitos tumores, além de participar da angiogênese tumoral. Este estudo comparou a microdensidade vascular (MDV) e densidade de macrófagos infiltrando o tumor (DMIT) em carcinoma escamocelular da boca (CEC) com diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade. Análise histomorfométrica foi empregada após técnica imuno-histoquímica para os anticorpos fator von-Willebrand e CD68. Uma diferença significante entre MDV e carcinomas bem e moderadamente diferenciados foi observada (p<0,05). MAT estavam fortemente presentes em todos os tumores estudados e a DMIT não foi diferente entre os diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade do CEC (p=0,381). Correlação significante entre MDV e DMIT não foi observada (p=0,870). Em conclusão, os resultados desse estudo sugerem a influência de MAT e angiogênese nos diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade do CEC. Entretanto, a ausência de correlação entre MDV e DMIT sugere que a angiogênese não depende do número de macrófagos presentes neste tipo de câncer, mas do fenótipo predominante. Outros estudos devem ser realizados a fim de contribuir para melhor compreensão da participação de MAT na angiogênese tumoral.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Microvessels/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Cell Count , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Gingival Neoplasms/blood supply , Gingival Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Mouth Floor/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasm Grading , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Phenotype , Tongue Neoplasms/blood supply , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
Braz. dent. j ; 24(1): 3-9, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671347


The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and CD31/microvascular density in squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth and to correlate the results with demographic, survival, clinical (TNM staging) and histopathological variables (tumor grade, perineural invasion, embolization and bone invasion). Data from medical records and diagnoses of 41 patients were reviewed. Histological sections were subjected to immunostaining using primary antibodies for human MMP-2, MMP-9 and CD31 and streptavidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase system. Histomorphometric analyses quantified positivity for MMPs (20 fields per slide, 100 points grade, ×200) and for CD31 (microvessels <50 µm in the area of the highest vascularization, 5 fields per slide, 100 points grade, ×400). Statistical design was composed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (investigating the association between numerical variables and immunostainings), chi-square frequency test (in contingency tables), Fisher's exact test (when at least one expected frequency was less than 5 in 2×2 tables), Kaplan-Meier method (estimated probabilities of overall survival) and Iogrank test (comparison of survival curves), all with a significance level of 5%. There was a statistically significant correlation between immunostaining for MMP-2 and lymph node metastasis. Factors associated negatively with survival were N stage, histopathological grade, perineural invasion and immunostaining for MMP-9. There was no significant association between immunoexpression of CD31 and the other variables. The intensity of immunostaining for MMP-2 can be indicative of metastasis in lymph nodes and for MMP-9 of a lower probability of survival.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a imunoexpressão de MMP-2, MMP-9 e CD31/densidade microvascular em carcinomas espinocelulares de soalho bucal e correlacionar os resultados com variáveis demográficas, de sobrevida, clínicas (estadiamento TNM) e histopatológicas (grau de diferenciação tumoral, invasão perineural, embolização e invasão óssea). Dados de prontuários e de diagnósticos de 41 pacientes foram revisados. Cortes histológicos foram submetidos à imunomarcação usando anticorpos primários para MMP-2, MMP-9 e CD31 humanos e sistema streptoavidina-biotina-imunoperoxidase. Análise histomorfométrica quantificou a positividade para MMPs (20 campos, grade de 100 pontos por lâmina, ×200) e para CD31 (microvasos <50 µm na área de maior vascularização, 5 campos, grade de 100 pontos por lâmina, ×400). O planejamento estatístico foi composto pelo teste não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney (verificação da associação entre variáveis numéricas e imunomarcações), teste de frequências do qui-quadrado (em tabelas de contingência), teste exato de Fisher (quando pelo menos uma frequência esperada foi menor do que 5 em tabelas 2×2), método de Kaplan-Meier (estimativa de probabilidades de sobrevida global) e teste de Iogrank (comparação das curvas de sobrevida), todos com nível de significância de 5%. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre imunomarcação para MMP-2 e metástase em linfonodo. Os fatores relacionados negativamente com a sobrevida foram estadiamento N, gradação histopatológica, invasão perineural e imunomarcação de MMP-9. Não houve associação significativa entre imunoexpressão de CD31 e as demais variáveis. A intensidade de imunomarcação para MMP-2 pode ser indicativa de metástase em linfonodo e para MMP-9 de uma menor probabilidade de sobrevida.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/enzymology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , /metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/enzymology , /analysis , Chi-Square Distribution , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphatic Metastasis , Microvessels , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , /analysis , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Mouth Floor/enzymology , Mouth Floor/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139859


Objectives : Angiogenesis is a complex event mediated by angiogenic factors released from cancer cells and immune cells. It has been reported to be associated with progression, aggressiveness and metastases of various malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Similarly, mast cells have also been reported to play a role in tumor progression and metastases by promoting angiogenesis. The present study aims at comparison of microvascular density (MVD) and mast cell density (MCD) in normal oral mucosa (NM) and among various grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods : MVD was assessed immunohistochemically using anti-Factor VIII related von Willebrand factor, and MCD using anti-mast cell tryptase in a study sample of 30 cases of OSCC and 10 cases of clinically normal oral mucosa. Results : The mast cells in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma strongly expressed mast cell tryptase. The density of mast cells and micro vessels were significantly higher in OSCC compared to normal oral mucosa. The MCD and MVD were higher in moderately differentiated OSCC than in well differentiated OSCC ( P > 0.05) and normal oral mucosa ( P < 0.05). Pearson's correlation revealed a positive correlation between MCD and MVD ( r=0.33; P=0.077). Conclusion : These findings indicate that mast cells may play a role in up regulation of tumor angiogenesis in OSCC probably through mast cell tryptase.

Analysis of Variance , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cell Count , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mast Cells/enzymology , Mast Cells/pathology , Mast Cells/physiology , Microvessels/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/blood supply , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tryptases/analysis