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3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200051, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134789

ABSTRACT

Abstract Proanthocyanidin has been shown to be efficient in inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases. Objective The aim of this in situ study was to evaluate the protective effect of Proanthocyanidin-based mouthrinses either with naturally acidic or with a neutral pH applied on dentin subjected to erosion. Methodology Eight volunteers wore one palatal device in two phases (7 days washout) with 16 samples per group (n=8). The groups under study were: First Phase/ G1 - 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 7.0, Experimental group 1 - Purified Grape Seeds Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins), G2 - 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 3.0, Experimental group 2 - Purified Grape Seeds Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins). Second Phase/ G3 - 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse (pH 7.0, Positive control group), G4 - no previous treatment (Negative control group). Each device was subjected to 3 erosive cycles (5 minutes) per day for 5 days. Treatments with different mouthrinses were applied once after the second erosive challenge (5 minutes). Profilometry was used to quantify dentin loss (µm). Results Data were analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Fisher's test (p<0.05). G1 (1.17±0.69) and G3 (1.22±0.25) showed significantly lower wear values with no statistical difference between them. G2 (2.99±1.15) and G4 (2.29±1.13) presented higher wear values with no significant differences between them. Conclusion The 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 7.0) could be a good strategy to reduce dentin wear progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proanthocyanidins/pharmacology , Dentin/drug effects , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190704, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132229

ABSTRACT

Abstract To the moment, there is no ideal substance for home-based denture disinfection. This study assessed in vitro the antimicrobial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora and the effect on the physical properties of denture polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from samples of saliva collected from denture wearers. The extracts were produced in three concentrations, according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. One hundred eighty-eight disc-shaped specimens of thermopolymerizable PMMA were prepared and randomly allocated to five treatment groups: sterile saline solution (0.85%; control); chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%); and hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora (0.2%, 0.8%, and 1.16%). The specimens were disinfected for 8 hours/day for 30 days. Adherence of microorganisms to the surface, PMMA surface roughness, and color stability were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed with one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey test, and Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-tests, at α=0.05. The extract of E. uniflora at 0.2% and 1.16% reduced the microbial load of K. oxytoca, while chlorhexidine digluconate significantly reduced microbial load of all microrganisms. Microbial adherence at day 10 was reduced by all experimental substances (p<0.001). Surface roughness was not affected by the disinfecting substances (p>0.05). Nevertheless, all experimental groups produced unacceptable color change at the end of the disinfection protocol (p<0.001). The non-adherent potential against microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity confirm the potential of use of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora as a denture disinfectant. Yet, unacceptable color changes may occur, regardless of extract concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dentures , Klebsiella oxytoca/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Polymethyl Methacrylate
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e25, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889489

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects, including surface morphological characteristics and chemical elemental properties, of different mouthwash formulations on enamel and dental restorative materials, simulating up to 6 months of daily use. Human enamel samples, hydroxyapatite, composite resin, and ceramic surfaces were exposed to 3 different mouthwashes according to label directions — Listerine® Cool Mint®, Listerine® Total Care, and Listerine® Whitening — versus control (hydroalcohol solution) to simulate daily use for up to 6 months. The samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectrophotometry (µ-Fourier transform infrared microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and color analysis before and after exposure. No relevant changes were observed in the morphological characteristics of the surfaces using SEM techniques. The physical and chemical aspects of the enamel surfaces were evaluated using mid-infrared spectroscopy, and EDX fluorescence was used to evaluate the elemental aspects of each surface. There was no variation in the relative concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in enamel, silicon and barium in composite resin, and silicon and aluminum in the ceramic material before and after treatment. No relevant changes were detected in the biochemical and color properties of any specimen, except with Listerine® Whitening mouthwash, which demonstrated a whitening effect on enamel surfaces. Long-term exposure to low pH, alcohol-containing, and peroxide-containing mouthwash formulations caused no ultra-structural or chemical elemental changes in human enamel or dental restorative materials in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ceramics , Composite Resins , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Durapatite , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Salicylates , Terpenes , Color , Colorimetry , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Immersion , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 11(3): 339-346, set. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893271

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Numerosos estudios confirman la efectividad de los enjuagatorios orales sobre la viabilidad de los microorganismos que producen gingivitis y halitosis, pero poco se conoce sobre la influencia de los mismos en el medio ambiente oral. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo fue analizar In vivo e In vitro el efecto de enjuagatorios orales sobre la saliva total no estimulada. Se trabajó con saliva de individuos sanos. Para el estudio in vivo se recogieron las muestras antes y después del enjuague oral a diferentes tiempos (1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 y 60 minutos). Para el ensayo in vitro, se incubó la saliva con igual volumen de la solución enjuagatoria a 37 ºC con agitación a diferentes tiempos (1, 5, 10 y 15 minutos). Se determinó pH inmediatamente recogidas las muestras. Posteriormente fueron centrifugadas y determinados flujo salival y proteínas totales. La separación de proteínas por electroforesis en SDS-PAGE se realizó solo en el ensayo in vivo. Los resultados mostraron que los enjuagatorios fluorurados poco alteran la fisiología oral a través de flujo salival, pH y proteínas totales. La combinación fluoruro de sodio/xilitol produjo mayor estimulación del flujo salival. La mezcla de aceites esenciales provocó un incremento del flujo salival y de pH, redujo el contenido de proteínas totales, evidenciando por SDS-PAGE que las comprometidas fueron particularmente las de mediano y bajo peso molecular. Clorhexidina debido a su elevada sustantividad, incrementó significativamente flujo salival y pH in vivo. In vitro, fuera del medioambiente oral, los enjuagatorios estudiados ejercieron un efecto similar sobre proteínas totales. Los enjuagatorios de uso frecuente alteraron parámetros salivales, por lo que podría estudiarse la acción que ejercen sobre otros componentes de la saliva con actividad biológica importante en cavidad oral.


ABSTRACT: Numerous studies confirm the effectiveness of mouthwashes on the viability of microorganisms that produce gingivitis and halitosis, but little is known about their influence on the oral environment. The objective of the following work was to analyze In vivo and In vitro the effect of mouthwashes on total non-stimulated saliva. We worked with saliva from healthy individuals. For In vivo study, samples were collected before and after oral rinsing at different times (1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). For the In vitro assay, the saliva was incubated with equal volume of the rinse solution at 37 ° C with shaking at different times (1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes). PH was determined immediately collected samples. Subsequently they were centrifuged and determined salivary flow and total proteins. Separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was performed only in the In vivo assay. The results showed that fluoridated rinses hardly alter oral physiology through salivary flow, pH and total proteins. The combination of sodium fluoride / xylitol produced greater stimulation of salivary flow. The mixture of essential oils caused an increase in salivary flow and pH, reduced the total protein content, evidencing by SDS-PAGE that those involved were particularly those of medium and low molecular weight. Chlorhexidine due to its high substantivity, significantly increased salivary flow and pH In vivo. In vitro, outside the oral environment, the rinses studied had a similar effect on total proteins. Rinses used frequently altered salivary parameters, so that the action they exert on other components of saliva with important biological activity in the oral cavity could be studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/drug effects , Gingivitis , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Halitosis
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e32, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839525

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, different chlorhexidine formulations have been tested, including an alcohol-free alternative, but the effect of this solution on early biofilm formation is not clear. A crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two chlorhexidine solutions against supra- and subgingival biofilm formation (NCT#02656251). Thirty-five participants were randomized and asked to rinse twice daily with 15 ml of an alcohol-containing 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, an alcohol-free 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, or placebo. The study was conducted in three experimental periods of 4 days each, with a 10-day washout between the periods. All the experimental periods followed the same protocol, except that the solutions were switched. Biofilm distribution was evaluated every 24 hours by the Plaque-Free Zone Index, during 96 hours. Adverse events were self-reported and sensory evaluation was performed using a hedonic scale. Compared to the placebo, the chlorhexidine solutions resulted in a significantly higher number of surfaces free of plaque over 96 hours (p < 0.01), and were able to prevent subgingival biofilm formation (p < 0.01). The alcohol-free chlorhexidine solution was associated with a lower incidence of adverse events, compared with alcohol-containing chlorhexidine (p < 0.05); it also received better sensory evaluation and acceptance by trial participants, compared with the alcohol-containing chlorhexidine (p = 0.007), and had a similar inhibitory effect on the formation of supra- and subgingival biofilms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biofilms/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Cross-Over Studies , Dental Plaque Index , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/microbiology , Taste , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e30, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952070

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants is a way to restore esthetics and masticatory function in edentulous patients, but bacterial colonization around the implants may lead to mucositis or peri-implantitis and consequent implant loss. Peri-implantitis is the main complication of oral rehabilitation with dental implants and, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the potential effects of antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (CHX), chloramine T (CHT), triclosan (TRI), and essential oils (EO) on bacterial adhesion and on biofilm formation. To assess the action of these substances, we used the microcosm technique, in which the oral environment and periodontal conditions are simulated in vitro on titanium discs with different surface treatments (smooth surface - SS, acid-etched smooth surface - AESS, sand-blasted surface - SBS, and sand-blasted and acid-etched surface - SBAES). Roughness measurements yielded the following results: SS: 0.47 µm, AESS: 0.43 µm, SB: 0.79 µm, and SBAES: 0.72 µm. There was statistical difference only between SBS and AESS. There was no statistical difference among antiseptic treatments. However, EO and CHT showed lower bacterial counts compared with the saline solution treatment (control group). Thus, the current gold standard (CHX) did not outperform CHT and EO, which were efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass compared with saline solution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Tosyl Compounds/pharmacology , Tosyl Compounds/chemistry , Triclosan/pharmacology , Triclosan/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chloramines/pharmacology , Chloramines/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Bacterial Load , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , Mouthwashes/chemistry
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(5): 523-528, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-764154

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the microbial contamination of pacifiers by Mutans Streptococci(MS) and the efficacy of different methods for their disinfection.Methods Twenty-eight children were assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a 1-week interval. In each stage, children received a new pacifier and the parents were instructed to maintain their normal habits for 1 week. After this time, the pacifiers were subjected to the following 4 disinfection methods: spraying with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, Brushtox® or sterile tap water, and immersion in boiling tap water for 15 minutes. Microbiological culture for MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed. The results were analyzed statistically by Friedman’s non-parametric test (a=0.05).Results The 0.12% chlorhexidine spray was statistically similar to the boiling water (p>0.05) and more effective than the Brushtox®spray and control (p<0.05). The analysis of SEM showed the formation of a cariogenic biofilm in all groups with positive culture.Conclusions Pacifiers become contaminated by MS after their use by children and should be disinfected routinely. Spraying with a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution and immersion in boiling water promoted better disinfection of the pacifiers compared with a commercial antiseptic toothbrush cleanser (Brushtox®).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Pacifiers/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Water/chemistry , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Immersion , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Statistics, Nonparametric , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
10.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 28(2): 180-184, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768623

ABSTRACT

Mouthwashes are used as an adjunct to tooth brushing for improving breath and preventing oral diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) of 3 mouthwashes with different active ingredients against mutans streptococci (MS). The products analyzed were Periogard, Cepacol and Plax Fresh Mint. Theirantibacterial activity was assessed in duplicate in 96-well microtiter plates against 36 clinical isolates of MS. Each mouthwash was submitted to a serial two-fold dilution (1/2.5 to 1/5120) using double concentration of Tryptose Soy Broth with 1.0% yeast extract. The final volume in each well was 100mL plus 5 mL of a bacterial suspension, equivalent to 107 CFU/mL. They were incubated microaerobically at 37ºC for48 hours and the MIDs determined. MID was 1/320 forPeriogard and Cepacol, and 1/20 for Plax. Statisticalanalysis revealed that the MID of Periogard MID did not differ from that of Cepacol (p>0.05), and was higher than that of Plax (p<0.05). In conclusion, the antiseptic mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine (Periogard) and cetylpyridinium chloride (Cepacol) had higher in vitroantibacterial activity(MID) against MS than the antiseptic mouthwash containing triclosan (Plax), according to microbiological method employed.


Os antissépticos bucais são utilizados mundialmente como adjuvantes da escovação para melhoria do hálito e prevenção de doenças bucais infeciosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar in vitro a Diluição Inibitória Máxima (DIM) de 3 antissépticos bucais com diferentes princípios ativos contra estreptococos do grupo mutans (EGM). Os produtos analisados foram Periogard, Cepacol e Plax FreshMint. A atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada em duplicata em placasde microtilulação de 96 poços contra 36 isolados clínicos de EGM. Cada antisséptico bucal foi submetido a diluição dupla seriada (1/2,5 a 1/5120) com o emprego de concentração dupla de TryptoseSoyBrothwith adicionado de 1,0% de extrato de levedura. O volume final em cada poço foi de 100 mL mais 5mL da suspensão bacteriana equivalente a 10 UFC/mL. A incubação foi realizada em microaerofilia a 37ºC por 48 horas e a DIM deteminada. Periogard e Cepacol apresentaram DIM de 1/320, e Plax de 1/20. Os resultados submetidos asanálises estatísticas revelaram que a DIM do Periogard não foi diferente do Cepacol(p>0,05) sendo maior que do Plax (p<0,05). Em conclusão, os antissépticos bucais contendo clorexidina (Periogard) e cloreto de cetilpiridínio (Cepacol) demonstraram maior atividade antibacteriana in vitro (DIM)contra os EGM do que o antisséptico bucal contendo triclosan (Plax) de acordo com o método microbiológico utilizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Streptococcus mutans , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Culture Media , In Vitro Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Triclosan/pharmacology
11.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(4): 851-858, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741338

ABSTRACT

Rosmarinus officinalis, which belongs to the Lamiaceae family, is a species of medicinal flora with therapeutic properties. In order to exploit the benefits of these properties, a mouthwash formulation was developed, with careful selection of raw materials to meet pharmacotechnical requirements. Extracts of the plant were incorporated into a mouthwash, which was shown to have inhibitory action in vitro against the micro-organisms commonly found in periodontics. Controls for assessing the quality of the drugs were carried out, quantifying phenols and flavonoids as chemical markers. Mouthwash solutions were formulated containing 0.1, 5 and 10% ethanol extract of R. officinalis; and 0.05, 5 and 10% of the hexane fraction of R. officinalis. In order to evaluate synergism, ethanol extract and hexane fraction were also added to formulations containing 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. These formulations were assessed for inhibitory effect against the specific microorganisms involved in the process of bacterial plaque formation, S. mutans (ATCC25175) and C. albicans(ATCC 10231), frequently found in cases of oral infections. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of extracts and formulations. All mouthwash solutions displayed inhibitory activity having higher sensitivity to S. mutans for the 5% ethanol extract+0.05% sodium fluoride, and greater sensitivity to C. albicans for the 10% hexane fraction. Results were characterized by the appearance of a growth inhibition halo, justifying the utilization and association of extracts of R. officinalis.


Rosmarinus officinalis, pertencente à família Lamiaceae, é um exemplar da flora medicinal que possui propriedades terapêuticas. No intuito de usufruir destes benefícios, desenvolveu-se uma formulação de enxaguatório bucal com seleção criteriosa de matérias-primas que atendessem os requisitos farmacotécnicos. Incorporaram-se extratos dessa planta e verificou-se a capacidade inibitória in vitro frente a micro-organismos frequentemente encontrados em periodontias. Controles foram efetuados para a avaliação da qualidade dos fármacos, quantificando-se como marcadores químicos, os fenóis e os flavonóides. Formulações de enxaguatórios contendo 0,1, 5 e 10% de extrato etanólico de R. officinalis; e 0,05, 5 e 10% da fração hexânica de R. officinalis foram preparadas. Para avaliar o sinergismo, o extrato e a fração hexânica também foram adicionados às formulações que continham fluoreto de sódio 0,05% e diguclonato de clorexidina 0,12%. Nessas formulações avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória frente a micro-organismos específicos do processo de formação de placa bacteriana, S. mutans (ATCC 25175) e C. albicans (ATCC 10231), frequentemente encontrada em quadros de infecções orais. Foi empregado o método de difusão em ágar para a avaliação da atividade inibitória dos extratos e das formulações. Todos os enxaguatórios demonstraram atividade inibitória, verificando-se maior sensibilidade a S. mutans, quando se utilizou extrato etanólico 5% + fluoreto de sódio 0,05% e sensibilidade maior a C. albicans, quando se utilizou fração hexânica a 10%. Os resultados foram caracterizados pelo aparecimento de halo de inibição de crescimento, justificando a utilização e associação dos extratos de R. officinalis.


Subject(s)
Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/analysis , Periodontics/classification , Plant Extracts
12.
Perionews ; 8(5): 470-474, set.-out. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-736738

ABSTRACT

Introdução: os enxaguatórios bucais consistem em uma mistura de componentes com a inclusão de agentes antimicrobianos farmacologicamente ativos. Dentre os ingredientes ativos, os mais frequentemente utilizados são: clorexidina, cloreto de cetilpiridínio, triclosan e óleos essenciais. Objetivo: investigar o grau de reconhecimento de cirurgiões-dentistas e acadêmicos de Odontologia entre os ingredientes ativos presentes nos enxaguatórios bucais e seus respectivos produtos comerciais. Material e métodos: foi aplicado um questionário para 380 cirurgiões-dentistas e 300 estudantes de Odontologia, contendo perguntas, como: gênero, idade, situação profissional (acadêmico ou graduado) e principal especialidade (para graduados). No questionário foram expostos oito produtos comerciais (Cepacol Plus Revitalizante; Listerine Zero; PerioTherapy; Plax Classic; PerioGard; Oral-B Pró-Saúde; Plax Fresh Mint; e Listerine Cuidado Total) para que os avaliados indicassem seus respectivos ingredientes ativos (clorexidina, cloreto de cetilpiridínio, triclosan e óleos essenciais). Resultados: PerioGard e PerioTherapy foram os produtos nos quais os dois grupos mais acertaram a composição. Oral-B Pró-Saúde e Plax Classic foram os produtos nos quais ocorreram mais erros, igualmente nos dois grupos. Entre os outros quatro produtos, ocorreu uma inversão na ordem do reconhecimento dos avaliados. Em ambos os grupos, somente PerioGard e PerioTherapy tiveram acertos acima de 50%. Conclusão: pôde-se concluir que o reconhecimento acerca dos ingredientes ativos presentes nos enxaguatórios bucais mais presentes no mercado é limitado, tanto por parte de profi ssionais quanto de acadêmicos, o que pode levar a indicações errôneas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Dental Plaque , Mouthwashes , Oral Hygiene
13.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 27(2): 66-71, Sept.2014. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761851

ABSTRACT

Etários de adultos voluntarios sanos, para analizar el efecto de dos colutorios sobre el pH salival y relacionarlo con la edad la capacidad buffer y el flujo salival. Se utilizaron dos marcascomerciales de colutorios (MW), ListerineCoolMint® (MWa) y eriobacter® (MWb). Primero se caracterizó la saliva sin estimular de cada individuo, se le midió el volumen minuto, el pH y la capacidad buffer. El pH salival se evaluó antes del buche con cada MW, inmediatamente después del enjuague bucal, 5 minutos después y luego cada 10 minutos (a los 15,25, 35 min) hasta que el pH inicial se recuperó. Para el análisis estadístico de los datos se utilizaron: ANOVA en bloque,test t apareado y el test de correlación de Pearson. Al caracterizar la saliva, se obtuvieron los siguientes valores promedio: 0.63 mL/min, 7.06 y 0.87 de volumen minuto,pH, y capacidadbuffer. Luego del enjuague se observó un incremento inmediato y significativo del pH salival alcanzando valores de 7.24 (MWb) y 7.30 (MWa) para descender a un valor estable luegode 15 minutos. El importante incremento del pH salival luego del uso del colutorio, muestra que la saliva es un sistema dinámico y que el organismo es capaz de responder a estímulos con cambios en su composición. Se hace evidente que el pH del agente externo, no es un buen indicador de su potencialerosivo sobre los elementos dentarios ya que los sistemas biológicos tienden a neutralizarlo. Los presentes resultadosponen de manifiesto la importancia de las mediciones en vivo y refuerzan el concepto de la función protectora de la saliva...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/diagnosis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Saliva/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Risk Factors
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174873

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was done to examine the effects of 4% hypertonic saline solution mouthwash and tooth brushing education on the oral health of elders living in long term care facilities. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, the participants were assigned to a 2% experimental group (n=20), a 4% experimental group (n=20), and a control group (n=20). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, Fisher exact test, Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple response analysis with the SAS program. RESULTS: Regular tooth brushing and use of 4% hypertonic saline solution mouthwash by elders provided better oral health by decreasing xerostomia, oral tongue plaque, halitosis, and the number of oral bacteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that regular tooth brushing with continuous 4% hypertonic saline solution mouth washing education promotes oral health for elders in long term care facilities, thus the dental care described in this study is recommended for elders in long term facilities.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteria/drug effects , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Female , Halitosis/prevention & control , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Male , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Oral Health , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Toothbrushing , Xerostomia/prevention & control
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(4): 361-367, ago. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-690524

ABSTRACT

Background:Accumulation of bacteria in the pharynx is one of the risk factors of pneumonia due to ventilation. One of the methods of prevention from accumulation of bacteria in the pharynx is the use of oral solutions. Chlorhexidine is considered as the gold standard, but it has various side effects. Aim:Present study was aimed to determine and compare anti-bacterial effects of the chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, herbal mouthwash of Matrica® (chamomile extracts) 10%, PersicaTM 10% and normal saline in intensive care unit patients. Methods:In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 80 patients who were admitted in ICU divided into four groups of 20 patients each one. Researchers applied PersicaTM to group one, chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash 0.2% to group two and third group received Matrica, finally in the control group, normal saline were used. In order to culturing of Staphylococcus aureusand S. pneumoniae,salivary samples were obtained without any stimulation after six minimums oral rinsing. The data were processed in SPSS17 software and analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Results:Decreased rate of bacterial colonies after intervention in the whole four groups was significant (p < 0.001). The mouth wash of chlorhexidine (p < 0.001), PersicaTM (p: 0.008) and Matrica (p: 0.01) had a significant antibacterial effect on S. aureusand S. pneumoniae(p < 0.001). Conclusion:Herbal oral mouthwash of persica and matrica has the effect on S. pneumoniae and S. aureusof oropharynx area in mechanically ventilated patients. However, there is a need for further research to be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine for prevention of VALP in ICU patients.


Introducción:La presencia y acumulación de bacterias en la cavidad oral es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica. Uno de los métodos para prevenir esta acumulación en la faringe es el uso de soluciones orales. Al respecto, clorhexidina es considerada el estándar de oro, pero tiene varios efectos colaterales. Objetivo:Determinar y comparar el efecto antibacteriano de gluconato de chorhexidina al 0,2%, aseo bucal con preparado en base a hierba matrica (extracto de chamomile) al 10%, Persica® al 10% y solución salina fisiológica (NaCl 9%0) en pacientes de la unidad de cuidados intensivos ingresados para ventilación mecánica. Métodos:Ensayo doble ciego, randomizado, sobre 80 pacientes ingresados en UCI, divididos en cuatro grupos de 20 miembros cada uno. El grupo I recibió Persica®, el grupo II aseo bucal con gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,2%, el grupo III recibió matrica y, finalmente, el grupo IV-control recibió solución salina fisiológica. Con la finalidad de cultivar Staphylococcus aureus yS. pneumoniae,se obtuvieron muestras de saliva sin efectuar estímulo alguno tras un mínimo de seis lavados bucales. Los datos fueron procesados en el software SPSS17 y analizados por tests estadísticos apropiados. Resultados:La disminución en el recuento de colonias bacterianas, después de la intervención, fue significativa en los cuatro grupos (p < 0,001). El aseo bucal con clorhexidina (p < 0,001), Persica® (p: 0,008) y matrica (p: 0,01) tuvo un significativo efecto antibacteriano sobre las especies S. aureusy S. pneumoniae(p < 0,001). Conclusión:El aseo bucal con solución en base a hierbas de Persica® y matrica tiene un efecto sobre S. pneumoniae y S. aureusde la cavidad oral en pacientes en régimen de ventilación mecánica. No obstante, se requiere de mayores estudios para considerarlo una alternativa a clorhexidina para la prevención de neumonías en pacientes de UCI.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Prunus/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Double-Blind Method , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/growth & development , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(6): 620-627, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660632

ABSTRACT

Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. OBJECTIVES: The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan). The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC) and pH values (pH 5-8), and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. RESULTS: The effect of the pH variation (5-8) on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91%) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, the alcohol-free mouthwash exhibited no cytotoxicity and no oral stinging. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to combine in vitro and in vivo investigations to analyze the antibacterial properties of water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that water-soluble chitosan may be a viable alternative to commercial mouthwashes in the future.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Lactobacillus brevis/drug effects , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Time Factors , Toxicity Tests, Acute
18.
Braz. oral res ; 26(3): 269-274, May-June 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622944

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleaching effect of two mouth rinses containing hydrogen peroxide. Thirty premolars were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15): Listerine Whitening (LW) and Colgate Plax Whitening (PW). The teeth were fixed on a wax plate and with acrylic resin, at a distance of 5 mm between each other, exposing the buccal surfaces. All teeth were stored in artificial saliva for 45 days, being removed twice a day to be immersed for 1 min in each mouthwash, followed by 10-second washing in tap water. The pH of each product was measured. Digital images of each tooth were captured under standardized conditions. These images were cut in areas previously demarcated and analyzed in Adobe Photoshop 7.0 using the CIEL*a*b* color space system. Data were statistically analyzed by a paired t test and an independent samples t test (p < 0.05). The pH values were 5.6 and 3.4 for LW and PW, respectively. Both treatment groups showed a decrease in the b* parameter (p < 0.01), but a decrease of a* was observed only for PW (p < 0.01). While the LW group showed an improvement in lightness (L*) (p = 0.03), the PW group had a decrease in the L* parameter (p = 0.02). Within the limitations of this study, it is possible to conclude that both products caused some degree of whitening; however, extreme care should be taken when using Colgate Plax Whitening, since its decline in luminosity might be due to its lower pH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Tooth Bleaching Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Color , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva, Artificial , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Tooth Discoloration/therapy
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(2): 200-205, Mar.-Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mouth rinse solutions on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of two composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty test specimens of each composite (Filtek Z250 and Z350; 3M ESPE) were made using a teflon matrix (12x2 mm). Color, surface roughness and Knoop microhardness baseline measurements of each specimen were made and specimens (n=10) were immersed in 5 mouth rinse solutions: G1: distilled water (control), G2: Plax Classic, G3: Plax alcohol-free; G4: Periogard, and G5: Listerine. Final measurements of color, roughness and microhardness were performed and the results submitted to statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni ’s test; p<0.05). RESULTS: The most significant color change was observed for Z250 when immersed in Listerine (p<0.05). Z350 showed greater color change when immersed in Plax alcohol-free (p<0.05), but with no significant difference for Listerine (p>0.05). With regard to roughness, both composites showed significant changes when immersed in Listerine in comparison with Plax alcohol-free (p<0.05). Microhardness of Z350 was shown to be significantly changed when the composite was immersed in Plax alcohol-free (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Composite changes depended on the material itself rather than the mouth rinse solution used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Color , Composite Resins , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Prosthesis Coloring , Analysis of Variance , Hardness Tests , Immersion , Materials Testing , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 19(5): 476-482, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12 percent chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12 percent chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Calendula , Camellia sinensis , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Sutures/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida/drug effects , Molar, Third/surgery , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Time Factors , Tooth Extraction
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