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1.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1360-1364, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of umbilical moxibustion on phlegm damp constitution and intestinal flora, and explore the mechanism of umbilical moxibustion in improving phlegm damp constitution.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 subjects with phlegm damp constitution were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The control group was given TCM health guidance, such as diet and exercise; on the basis of the control group, umbilical moxibustion was applied in the observation group, 7 moxa cones each time, 2 times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after intervention, the indexes (transformation score of phlegm damp constitution, body mass, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, hip circumference, heart rate and blood pressure) related to phlegm damp constitution were recorded in the two groups. The intestinal flora was detected with 16S rDNA sequencing technology in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, the transformation score of phlegm damp constitution, body mass, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference were decreased compared before intervention in the observation group (@*CONCLUSION@#Umbilical moxibustion may reshape the intestinal flora by up-regulating the relative abundance of


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Moxibustion , Mucus
2.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1036-1042, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921005

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of academic history, the background and evolution of "Fenglong (ST 40) for phlegm" were systematically summarized. As a result, it was found that in the early period, Fenglong (ST 40) was used for "tangible phlegm" of respiratory tract, but in the later generations, due to the comprehensive effects of various factors, the phlegm treated by Fenglong (ST 40) was generalized. In modern clinical practice of acupuncture and moxibustion, Fenglong (ST 40) is widely used for phlegm-related diseases. In addition, the knowledge content represented by "Fenglong (ST 40) for phlegm" showed evolution and change in academic heritage of previous dynasties. It is necessary for modern acupuncture researchers to systematically sort out, test and discriminate the habitual knowledge in combination with the background of traditional Chinese medicine, so as to promote the contemporary inheritance and application of traditional acupuncture theory and knowledge.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Mucus , Respiratory System
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781770

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the epidemiologic characteristics of acupuncturists who are sensitive to stimulation of moxa smoke, which could provide further direction for safety protection of exerting moxibustion and to further verify the feasibility of internet survey.@*METHODS@#A self-made questionnaire regarding body response to moxa smoke was established, which was used to conduct a face-to-face survey among acupuncturists who had performed long-term moxibustion. The Logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting the stimulation response of acupuncturists and the epidemiological characteristics of acupuncturists was obtained.@*RESULTS@#A total of 733 valid data was obtained. The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the history of chronic respiratory disease was the main risk factor of stimulus response including cough, phlegm in the throat, asthma, dyspnea, shortness of breath and nasal dryness after exposure to moxa smoke (<0.05, <0.01). The risk of stimulus response such as cough, tearing and nasal dryness was higher in women than in men (<0.05, <0.01). The risk of dry eyes and eyes pain in smokers was higher than those in non-smokers (<0.05). The risk of shortness of breath in those who were exposed to second-hand smoke was higher than those who were not exposed to second-hand smoke (<0.05). The analysis of index trend line showed that the results of internet survey were similar to those of face-to-face survey.@*CONCLUSION@#The stimulus response of acupuncturist after long-term exposure to moxa smoke is related to the history of chronic respiratory disease, being female, smoking or exposure of second-hand smoke, therefore more attention should be paid to those populations. In addition, the internet survey can be used for the epidemiological investigation of safety of moxa smoke.


Subject(s)
Cough , Female , Humans , Male , Moxibustion , Mucus , Smoke , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180501, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132211

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts play important roles in bone formation. Achatina fulica mucus presented the property of osteoinduction. This study aimed to examine the effects of A. fulica mucus on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) and human fetal osteoblastic cell line (HFOB) differentiation. The integrated effects of A. fulica mucus and polycaprolactone (PCL) on the differentiation of hMSCs were tested. The cell viability of hMSCs treated with A. fulica mucus was investigated by the MTT assay. The cell mineralization was observed by Alizarin Red S staining, the gene expression was investigated using RT-PCR, and the PI3K activation was studied using flow cytometry. The results indicated that A. fulica mucus induced osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs and HFOBs by upregulation of the osteogenic markers; osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN). The results of the Alizarin Red S staining indicated that A. fulica mucus supported mineralization in both hMSCs and HFOBs. The hMSCs cultured on PCL supplemented with A. fulica mucus showed significantly increased RUNX2 and OPN expressions. A. fulica mucus was observed to increase PI3K activation in hMSCs. The findings of this study suggested that A. fulica mucus and biomaterials could be applied together for use in bone regeneration in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Osteogenesis/physiology , Bone Regeneration , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mollusca/chemistry , Mucus/chemistry , Toxicity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 667-677, oct 2019. fig, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025940

ABSTRACT

The authors present a clinical and farmacological evaluation of the effect and safety of N-acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive diseases. The N-actylcysteine (NAC) is a sulphorated amino acid employed as an mucolytic agent. The efficacy and tolerability of oral NAC as compared with other agents was determined, in the mucolytic treatment on mucus hypersecretion and in the management of respiratory tract fluids and sputums from cigarette smokers, and also as a bronchial mucus fluidifying agent. A sistematic review and analysis of the effect of NAC and its effectiveness. In the treatment of acute respiratory disorders in children was determined


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromhexine/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Mucus/drug effects
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 422-426, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Submandibular glands are exposed to many effects due to diseases and therapeutic interventions. A study evaluating the effect of submandibular gland dysfunction on the parotid gland has not been presented in the literature. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes in the parotid gland following submandibular gland failure. Methods: Three groups of seven randomly selected female New Zealand rabbits weighing 2500-3000 g were studied. Unilateral and bilateral submandibular glands were removed in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. No procedure was performed in Group III, the control group. The parotid glands were removed 30 days later. Histological parameters were evaluated and graded between 0 (none) and 3 (severe). Differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Mean mucus accumulation in acinar cells was 2.57 ± 0.53 and 1.71 ± 0.75 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p < 0.05). This value was 0.57 ± 0.53 in Group 3, which was significantly lower than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Mean dilatation of the intercalated ducts' lumen was 1.28 ± 0.48 and 1.57 ± 0.53 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05). This value was 0.28 ± 0.48 in Group 3, which was significantly lower than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Mean mucus accumulation in the intercalated ducts' lumen was 2.00 ± 0.81 and 1.00 ± 0.57 in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that only 1 month after submandibular gland failure, the parotid glands exhibit significant changes.


Resumo Introdução: As glândulas submandibulares estão expostas a muitos efeitos causados por doenças e intervenções terapêuticas. Estudos que avaliam o efeito da disfunção da glândula submandibular na glândula parótida ainda não foram reportados na literatura. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações histopatológicas na glândula parótida após insuficiência da glândula submandibular. Método: Três grupos de sete coelhas fêmeas da raça Nova Zelândia, selecionadas aleatoriamente, pesando entre 2.500 e 3.000 gramas foram estudadas. As glândulas submandibulares unilaterais e bilaterais foram removidas nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Nenhum procedimento foi realizado no Grupo III, o grupo controle. As glândulas parótidas foram removidas 30 dias depois. Os parâmetros histológicos foram avaliados e classificados entre 0 (nenhum) e 3 (grave). As diferenças entre os grupos foram comparadas usando o teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: O acúmulo médio de muco nas células acinares foi de 2,57 ± 0,53 e 1,71 ± 0,75 nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Esse valor foi de 0,57 ± 0,53 no Grupo 3, significativamente menor do que nos Grupos 1 e 2 (p < 0,05). A dilatação média do lúmen dos dutos intercalados foi de 1,28 ± 0,48 e 1,57 ± 0,53 nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente (p > 0,05). Esse valor foi de 0,28 ± 0,48 no Grupo 3, significativamente menor do que nos Grupos 1 e 2 (p < 0,05). O acúmulo médio de muco no lúmen dos dutos intercalados foi 2,00 ± 0,81 e 1,00 ± 0,57 nos Grupos 2 e 3, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo indicam que apenas um mês após a insuficiência da glândula submandibular as glândulas parótidas apresentam alterações significativas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Parotid Gland/pathology , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Parotid Gland/surgery , Models, Animal , Acinar Cells/pathology , Mucus
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 541-547, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002256

ABSTRACT

The structural characteristics of the skin, types and distribution of mucous cells of Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) were studied at the light microscope level, stained with Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Alcian blue-periodie acid Schiff (ABPAS). The skin of both was composed of epidermis and dermis. The dermis was divided into stratum spongiosum and stratum compactum. The stained color of stratum compactum was stained more deeply than that of stratum spongiosum. The skin thickness displayed differences in the fish at different body positions. The thickest of epidermis layer was on the dorsal region for Yangtze sturgeon, reversely, the thinnest was the mandibular region; Stratum spongiosum on the mandibular region was the thickest, the stratum spongiosum of the maxillary region was not obvious. In summary, keratinized spines, a kind of keratin derivative, are widely distributed in the mandibular, ventral, dorsal, and caudal peduncle skin surface for Yangtze sturgeon, and some pit organs mainly present in the skin surface of the maxillary and ventral regions. In short, the small amount of mucous cells in the skin of Yangtze sturgeon and the type of mucous cell were main Type IV, nevertheless there was a distribution of a few Type III.


Se estudiaron las características estructurales de la piel, los tipos y la distribución de las células mucosas del esturión Yangtze (Acipenser dabryanus) con microscopio de luz, teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina (HE) y azul alcián-ácido de Schiff (AB-PAS). La piel estaba compuesta por epidermis y dermis. La dermis se dividía en estrato esponjoso y estrato compacto. El grosor de la piel mostró diferencias en los peces en diferentes posiciones del cuerpo. La capa más gruesa de la epidermis se observó en la región dorsal del esturión Yangtze; a la inversa, la más delgada en la región mandibular. El estrato esponjoso en la región mandibular era el más grueso, el estrato esponjoso de la región maxilar no era visualizado. En resumen, las espinas queratinizadas, un tipo derivado de la queratina, estaban ampliamente distribuidas en la superficie de la piel del pedúnculo mandibular, ventral, dorsal y caudal en el esturión Yangtze, y algunos órganos en fosas, presentes principalmente en la superficie de la piel de las regiones mandibular y ventral. En resumen, la pequeña cantidad de células mucosas en la piel del esturión Yangtze y el tipo de célula mucosa eran células principales tipo IV, sin embargo, se observaron algunas células tipo III.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skin/ultrastructure , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Mucous Membrane/ultrastructure , Dermis/ultrastructure , Epidermis/ultrastructure , Mucus/cytology
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(1): 97-102, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003845

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la incidencia de la miopatía inflamatoria idiopática es de 4 a 15 casos por millón de habitantes y su prevalencia es de 60 casos por cada millón de habitantes. Dada la identificación de formas clínicas es posible que estas cifras de incidencia y prevalencia aumenten en los próximos años. La colitis ulcerosa ha ido en aumento afectando al 2 % de la población mundial. Los síntomas están determinados por la extensión y gravedad de las lesiones, teniendo un curso crónico que puede evolucionar por brotes y no existe tratamiento médico curativo. La asociación de la dermatomiositis y la colitis ulcerativa es extremadamente infrecuente. Objetivo: Presentar un caso diagnosticado con la asociación de dermatomiositis y colitis ulcerosa. Caso clínico: Paciente de 70 años, femenina, blanca, ama de casa, sin antecedentes familiares de interés ni epidemiológicos. Refiere que a los 50 años presentó cuadros diarreicos acompañados de dolor abdominal, moco y pus. Desde hace 1 año aproximadamente ha estado presentando debilidad muscular a nivel de los hombros, lo que le dificultaba levantar los brazos. Se realizaron exámenes de laboratorio, imagenológicos e histopatológicos que mostraron la presencia de una dermatomiositis asociada con colitis ulcerativa. Se señalan las características clínicas, medios diagnósticos y la terapia empleada en nuestra paciente. Conclusiones: se presentó el caso de una paciente con manifestaciones clínicas de dermatomiositis y colitis ulcerativa. Esta asociación es muy infrecuente y debe ser tenida en cuenta por los médicos que reciben consultas de estos pacientes, debido a que ambas entidades tienen una base inmunológica y pueden expresarse de variadas formas.


Abstract Introduction: The incidence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy ranges from 4 to 15 cases per million inhabitants while its prevalence is 60 cases per million inhabitants. Given the identification of clinical forms, it is possible that these figures will increase in the coming years. Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis have been increasing, and it now affects 2% of the world population. Symptoms are determined by the extent and severity of lesions. It is chronic with recurring outbreaks, and there is no medical cure. Dermatomyositis in association with ulcerative colitis occurs extremely infrequently. Objective: This study presents the case of a patient diagnosed with dermatomyositis associated with ulcerative colitis. Clinical Case: The patient was a 70 years white woman, a housewife with no family or epidemiological history of interest. She reported that she had had diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain, mucus and pus when she was fifty years old. About one year prior to diagnosis, she developed muscle weakness in her shoulders that made it difficult for her to lift her arms. Laboratory, imaging and histopathological tests showed dermatomyositis associated with ulcerative colitis. We point out clinical characteristics, diagnostic means and the therapy used to treat our patient. Conclusions: This case of a patient with clinical manifestations of the very infrequent combination of dermatomyositis and ulcerative colitis should be taken into account by doctors who care for these patients because both conditions have immunological bases and can be expressed in various ways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative , Dermatomyositis , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Abdominal Pain , Muscle Weakness , Diagnosis , Mucus
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A saccular cyst is defined as a dilated saccule of the larynx, filled with mucus, and is located between the false vocal cords and the thyroid cartilage. Although this uncommon laryngeal condition is benign in nature, it could lead to dyspnea, stridor, and airway obstruction, depending on its size and location. Furthermore, some saccular cysts have been associated with laryngeal carcinoma. This study aimed to characterize this rather uncommon laryngeal condition to aid in determining the proper management of this pathology. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed of all patients with saccular cysts diagnosed and treated between 2006 and 2017 at a tertiary otolaryngologic care center. RESULTS: Seven patients with saccular cysts were identified (male:female=2:5; mean age, 34.1 years); two were pediatric patients. Surgical intervention was performed in all patients by laryngo-microsurgery using CO2 laser. There was no recurrence after the initial surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: Saccular cysts can be managed endoscopically using CO2 laser, without requiring an external approach. Therefore, an endoscopic approach should be actively considered for an optimal treatment outcome.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Dyspnea , Humans , Larynx , Lasers, Gas , Medical Records , Mucus , Pathology , Recurrence , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , Saccule and Utricle , Thyroid Cartilage , Treatment Outcome , Vocal Cords
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: MUC5AC is one of the major secretory mucin genes in the human airway epithelium. MUC5AC expression is increased by a variety of inflammatory mediators. Protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the major active metabolites in ginseng, is known to have anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of PPD on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells still have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of PPD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In the mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells, the effect of PPD on MUC5AC expression was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay after treated with LPS. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and apocynin as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor were used to compare the inhibitory effect of PPD on LPS-induced ROS production in human NCI-H292 cells. RESULTS: LPS significantly increased MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production. LPS also increased ROS production. PPD inhibited LPS-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production as well as ROS production. In addition, NAC and apocynin inhibited LPS-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that PPD inhibits LPS-induced MUC5AC expression via ROS in human airway epithelial cells and the inhibitory effect of PPD was similar to that of NAC and apocynin. These findings indicate that PPD may be a therapeutic agent for control of mucus secretion and oxidative stress in human airway epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Methods , Mucins , Mucus , NADP , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Panax , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Among irritants causing gastric ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) might be pivotal, after which eradication became essential way in either inhibiting ulcerogenesis or preventing ulcer recurrence. Since threonine is essential in either mucus synthesis or cytoprotection, we hypothesized that the dietary threonine from Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) can mitigate the cytotoxicity of H. pylori infection.MATERIALS AND METHODS: RGM-1 cells were challenged with 100 multiplicity of infection H. pylori for 6 hours, during which threonine alone or combination with Corynebacterium sp. was administered and compared for anti-Helicobacter, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative, and cytoprotective actions.RESULTS: Threonine alone or combination of threonine and C. glutamicum yielded significant bacteriostatic outcomes. The increased expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, Cox-2, and iNOS mRNA after H. pylori infection were significantly decreased with either threonine alone or the combination of threonine and C. glutamicum. The elevated expressions of NF-kB, HIF-1a, and c-jun after H. pylori infection were all significantly decreased with the combination of threonine and broth from C. glutamicum (P < 0.05), leading to significant decreases in 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (P < 0.01). Tracing further host antioxidative response, the attenuated expression of heme oxygenase-1, Nrf2, and dehydrogenase quinone-1 after H. pylori infection was significantly preserved with combination of threonine and C. glutamicum. H. pylori infection led to significant increases in apoptosis accompanied with Bcl-2 decreases and Bax increases, while the combination of threonine and C. glutamicum significantly attenuated apoptosis, in which attenuated EGF, TGF-β, and VEGF were significantly regulated, while β-catenin did not change.CONCLUSIONS: Threonine synthesized from C. glutamicum significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of H. pylori in gastric epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Corynebacterium glutamicum , Corynebacterium , Cytoprotection , Epidermal Growth Factor , Epithelial Cells , Helicobacter pylori , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Irritants , Mucus , NF-kappa B , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Recurrence , RNA, Messenger , Stomach Ulcer , Thiram , Threonine , Ulcer , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813085

ABSTRACT

To explore the role of cortical actin-binding protein (cortactin) in shear stress-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC secretion in human airway epithelial cells and the effect of phosphorylation of cortactin at different sites.
 Methods: HBE16 airway epithelial cells were cultured, and then transfected with mutation carrier, such as pEGFP-N1-cortactin (Cort), pEGFP-N1-Cort-Y421A, pEGFP-N1-Cort-Y470A and pEGFP-N1-Cort-Y486A. The cells were divided into a normal control group, a shear stress group, a shear stress + pEGFP-N1 group, a shear stress + PEGFP-N1-Cort group, a shear stress + pEGFP-N1-Cort-Y421A group, a shear stress + pEGFP-N1-Cort-Y470A group, and a shear stress + pEGFP-N1-Cort-Y486A group. The shear stress were set at 4 dynes/cm2. The levels of MUC5AC protein and mRNA in cells and culture supernatant were assayed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR. The cortactin and phosphorylated cortactin were detected by Western blot. F-actin was stained by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin.
 Results: There was an obvious increase of phosphorylated cortactin in cells exposed to 4 dynes/cm2 of shear stress for 30 min, which reached climax at 2 hours concomitant with elevation of MUC5AC protein production and mRNA expression in the different experiment groups (all P0.05).
 Conclusion: Cortactin is involved in shear stress-mediated MUC5AC secretion in human airway epithelial cells, and the phosphorylated site of Tyr421 and Tyr470 may play an important role in it.


Subject(s)
Cortactin , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Mucin 5AC , Mucus , Phosphorylation
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762160

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a common disorder of the airways characterized by airway inflammation and by decline in lung function and airway remodeling in a subset of asthmatics. Airway remodeling is characterized by structural changes which include airway smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis due to thickening of the reticular basement membrane, mucus metaplasia of the epithelium, and angiogenesis. Epidemiologic studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to decline in lung function and airway remodeling in a subset of asthmatics. Environmental factors include respiratory viral infection-triggered asthma exacerbations, and tobacco smoke. There is also evidence that several asthma candidate genes may contribute to decline in lung function, including ADAM33, PLAUR, VEGF, IL13, CHI3L1, TSLP, GSDMB, TGFB1, POSTN, ESR1 and ARG2. In addition, mediators or cytokines, including cysteinyl leukotrienes, matrix metallopeptidase-9, interleukin-33 and eosinophil expression of transforming growth factor-β, may contribute to airway remodeling in asthma. Although increased airway smooth muscle is associated with reduced lung function (i.e. forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in asthma, there have been few long-term studies to determine how individual pathologic features of airway remodeling contribute to decline in lung function in asthma. Clinical studies with inhibitors of individual gene products, cytokines or mediators are needed in asthmatic patients to identify their individual role in decline in lung function and/or airway remodeling.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Asthma , Basement Membrane , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Epidemiologic Studies , Epithelium , Fibrosis , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Leukotrienes , Lung , Metaplasia , Mucus , Muscle, Smooth , Respiratory Function Tests , Smoke , Tobacco , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761581

ABSTRACT

Estimating the risk of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric cancer during endoscopic examination is important. Owing to recent advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy, the gross appearance of the background gastric mucosa has enabled discrimination of subjects with active, chronic, and past H. pylori infection from those with no history of infection. To provide subjective criteria for H. pylori infection-related endoscopic findings with increased risk of gastric cancer, the Kyoto classification of gastritis was proposed at the 85th annual meeting of the Japanese Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in May 2013 in Kyoto. The main contents focus on determining the gastric cancer risk by scoring the endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa from 0 to 8. These important findings are not described in the Kyoto Global Consensus Conference proceedings published in English. To better estimate the gastric cancer risk during screening endoscopy in an H. pylori-prevalent population, knowledge of the Japanese version of the Kyoto classification is important. This new classification emphasizes the discrimination of subjects with H. pylori infection by assessing 19 endoscopic findings (presence of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, diffuse redness, spotty redness, mucosal swelling, enlarged folds, sticky mucus, chicken skin-like nodularity, foveolar-hyperplastic polyp, xanthoma, depressed erosion, regular arrangement of collecting venules, fundic gland polyp, linear red streak, raised erosion, hematin deposit, multiple white and flat-elevated lesions, patchy redness, and map-like redness). In this review, the validity of the Kyoto classification is summarized in conjunction with several suggestions to resolve emerging H. pylori infection-related problems in Korea.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atrophy , Chickens , Classification , Consensus , Discrimination, Psychological , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Hemin , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Metaplasia , Mucus , Polyps , Stomach Neoplasms , Venules , Xanthomatosis
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761580

ABSTRACT

Several studies have conclusively established an association between upper gastrointestinal diseases such as gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection; thus, it is important to assess H. pylori infection based on endoscopic findings. The Kyoto classification of gastritis is a classification that comprehensively describes the association between an individual's H. pylori infection status and endoscopic findings. Characteristic endoscopic findings in uninfected individuals include a regular arrangement of collecting venules, fundic gland polyps, and red streaks, among other such features. Characteristic endoscopic findings in patients with current H. pylori infection include diffuse and spotty mucosal erythema, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged or tortuous folds, secretion of sticky mucus, mucosal nodularity, foveolar hyperplastic polyps, and/or xanthomas. Characteristic endoscopic findings in previously infected individuals include patchy and map-like mucosal erythema. This classification can reflect the risk of gastric cancer and can benefit primary care physicians, as well as expert endoscopists owing to its easy applicability in routine clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Classification , Erythema , Gastritis , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Metaplasia , Mucus , Physicians, Primary Care , Polyps , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms , Venules , Xanthomatosis
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mucin is an important component of mucus that performs the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens and particles, lubrication of organs, and protection of airway. It is hyper-secreted in inflammatory airway diseases and is associated with morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Resolvin, an autacoid of a specific lipid structure, exhibits anti-inflammatory property against inflammatory airway diseases although its effects on mucin secretion by human airway epithelial cells have not yet been demonstrated. In this regard, we investigated the effects of Resolvin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucin expression in human airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In mucin-producing human NCI-H292 epithelial cells, the effects and brief signaling pathways of Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and Resolvin E1 (RvE1) on the LPS-induced MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC5B expression were investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: RvD1 attenuated LPS-induced MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC5B mRNA expression and protein production in human NCI-H292 cells while RvE1 did not. RvD1 significantly blocked LPS-induced activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) while RvE1 did not. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that RvD1 attenuates LPS-induced MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC5B expressions via ERK1/2 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, RvD1 may modulate the control of mucus-hypersecretion in inflammatory airway diseases.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lubrication , Methods , Mortality , Mucins , Mucus , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger
19.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 103-110, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760557

ABSTRACT

We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Pyunkang-tang extract (PGT), a complex herbal extract based on traditional Chinese medicine that is used in Korea for controlling diverse pulmonary diseases, on cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary pathology in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The constituents of PGT were Lonicerae japonica, Liriope platyphylla, Adenophora triphilla, Xantium strumarinum, Selaginella tamariscina and Rehmannia glutinosa. Rats were exposed by inhalation to a mixture of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and sulfur dioxide for three weeks to induce COPD-like pulmonary inflammation. PGT was administered orally to rats and pathological changes to the pulmonary system were examined in each group of animals through measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 21 days post-CSE treatment. The effect of PGT on the hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin in rats was assessed by quantification of the amount of mucus secreted and by examining histopathologic changes in tracheal epithelium. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with PGT for 30 min and then stimulated with CSE plus PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production of MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by ELISA. The results were as follows: (1) PGT inhibited CSE-induced pulmonary inflammation as shown by decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in BALF; (2) PGT inhibited the hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin and normalized the increased amount of mucosubstances in goblet cells of the CSE-induced COPD rat model; (3) PGT inhibited CSE-induced MUC5AC mucin production and gene expression in vitro in NCI-H292 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line. These results suggest that PGT might regulate the inflammatory aspects of COPD in a rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Campanulaceae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Gene Expression , Goblet Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inhalation , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Lonicera , Lung Diseases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Animal , Mucins , Mucus , Necrosis , Pathology , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Rats , Rehmannia , Selaginellaceae , Smoke , Sulfur Dioxide , Tobacco Products
20.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(3): 311-317, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951825

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. Objective: To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. Methods: The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. Results: There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (<97.37% of predicted), women presented mucociliary transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar.


Resumo Introdução: Mulheres tabagistas apresentam maior susceptibilidade à diversas doenças quando comparadas ao sexo masculino. No entanto, não há estudos mostrando diferenças no comportamento do transporte mucociliar nasal entre tabagistas do sexo masculino e feminino. Objetivo: Comparar a transportabilidade mucociliar nasal em homens e mulheres fumantes e não fumantes, levando em consideração idade, dados antropométricos, carga tabágica e função pulmonar. Método: A análise incluiu 139 indivíduos (33 homens e 37 mulheres fumantes e 32 homens e 37 mulheres não fumantes). Todos os participantes responderam a uma entrevista inicial para a obtenção de dados pessoais e a carga tabágica. Dados antropométricos e monóxido de carbono no ar expirado foram avaliados. Os indivíduos também fizeram teste de função pulmonar e o teste de trânsito de sacarina. Para comparar os valores do teste de trânsito de sacarina entre homens e mulheres, fumantes e não fumantes, foi feita a estratificação de todas as variáveis independentes (variáveis sociodemográficas, tabágicas e respiratórias) em duas categorias: abaixo e acima dos valores médios. Resultados: Não houve diferenças entre homens e mulheres, fumantes e não fumantes, em relação à transportabilidade mucociliar nasal. Diferenças significativas foram observadas apenas entre não fumantes. Entre os que apresentaram valores menores de capacidade vital forçada (< 97,37% do previsto), as mulheres apresentaram transporte mucociliar mais rápido do que os homens. Além disso, observou-se influência do IMC e COex (mulheres fumantes), CVF e VEF1 (homens não fumantes) e FEF25%-75% (mulheres não fumantes) sobre os valores do teste de trânsito de sacarina. Conclusão: Com base nos achados deste estudo, o transporte mucociliar nasal em tabagistas masculinos e femininos adultos, aparentemente saudáveis, são semelhantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saccharin/pharmacokinetics , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Smokers , Mucus/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism
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