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1.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 70(1)Jan-Mar. 2024.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1537408

ABSTRACT

A trombose representa um desafio no cenário do mieloma múltiplo. O avanço no arsenal terapêutico para o tratamento desse câncer trouxe aumento de sobrevida, mas paralelamente acarretou aumento na incidência dos eventos trombóticos, com impacto na morbidade e na mortalidade. Além disso, o perfil epidemiológico dessa população favorece a coexistência de doença cardiovascular, que compartilha com o câncer mecanismos fisiopatológicos trombogênicos. Assim, apesar do uso de anticoagulantes e antiagregantes plaquetários, a estratégia ideal para profilaxia permanece obscura e o desafio vai além da padronização do modelo de avaliação de risco e da terapia anticoagulante. Este trabalho buscou apresentar o estado da arte sobre o tema com o objetivo de discutir a tromboprofilaxia no mieloma múltiplo, enfatizando a abordagem da doença cardiovascular como parte integrante da estratégia.


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second main cause of death of cancer patients and can be the first manifestation of neoplasms or occur at any time point of the course of the disease1-3. Subgroups have different risks with higher rates observed in specific cancers, including pancreas, stomach and multiple myeloma (MM)1.Associated with higher risk of death, thrombotic events do have an important adverse impact as they may lead to treatment interruption, increased morbidity and economic burden4. In this scenario, MM is challenging, it is the second most common hematologic cancer with a risk of VTE nine-fold higher than in the general population1,5. The high-risk results from patient, treatment and disease-related factors. The epidemiologic profile of the patient with MM favors the coexistence of additional thromboembolic risks, nevertheless, advances of oncologic treatment increased global survival and thrombotic risk4. It is known that 10% of the population with MM will develop VTE at some time point of the disease's course4,6, with high incidence in the first six months post-diagnosis5.Inconsistencies in applying the current thromboprophylaxis recommendations have been found. Due to the lack of robust data and standardized models of risk stratification, many physicians tend to rely on their clinical experience7.The ideal thromboprophylaxis of MM remains unknown


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Primary Prevention , Thromboembolism
2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530146

ABSTRACT

Fig A) Radiografía de cráneo en proyección lateral: se observan múltiples lesiones radiolúcidas distribuidas en todo el cráneo. B) Acercamiento donde se evidencian múltiples lesiones en sacabocado, compatibles con mieloma múltiple(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 368-377, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449823

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increase in life expectancy of the world population has led to a concomitant increase in the prevalence of multiple myeloma (MM), a disease that usually affects the elderly population. Bone lesions are frequent in patients with this condition, demanding an early approach, from drug treatment, through radiotherapy to orthopedic surgery (prophylactic or therapeutic) with the objective of preventing or delaying the occurrence of fracture, or, when this event has already occurred, treat it through stabilization or replacement (lesions located in the appendicular skeleton) and/or promote stabilization and spinal cord decompression (lesions located in the axial skeleton), providing rapid pain relief, return to ambulation and resocialization, returning quality of life to patients. The aim of this review isto update the reader on the findings of pathophysiology, clinical, laboratory and imaging, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach of multiple myeloma multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD).


Resumo O aumento da expectativa devida da população mundial levou a incremento concomitante na prevalência de mieloma múltiplo (MM), patologia que geralmente afeta a população idosa. Lesões ósseas são frequentes nos portadores desta condição, demandando abordagem precoce, desde o tratamento medicamentoso, passando pela radioterapia até a cirurgia ortopédica (profilática ou terapêutica) com os objetivos de prevenir ou retardar a ocorrência de fratura, ou, quando este evento já ocorreu, tratá-la mediante estabilização ou substituição (lesões situadas no esqueleto apendicular) e/ou promover estabilização e descompressão medular (lesões situadas no esqueleto axial), proporcionando rápido alívio da dor, retorno à deambulação e ressocialização, devolvendo a qualidade de vida aos pacientes. O objetivo desta revisão é atualizar o leitor sobre a fisiopatologia, a clínica, exames laboratoriais e de imagem, diagnóstico diferencial e abordagem terapêutica da doença óssea no mieloma múltiplo (DOMM).


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy , Orthopedic Procedures , Diphosphonates , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures , Fractures, Spontaneous , Multiple Myeloma
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 361-367, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449818

ABSTRACT

Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by unregulated and clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow; these cells produce and secrete an anomalous monoclonal immunoglobulin, or a fragment of this, called M protein. The clinical manifestations of MM result from the proliferation of these plasmocytes, the excessive production of monoclonal immunoglobulin and the suppression of normal humoral immunity, leading to hypercalcemia, bone destruction, renal failure, suppression of hematopoiesis and humoral immunity, increasing the risk for the development of infections. The increase in life expectancy of the world population led to a concomitant increase in the prevalence of MM, a pathology that usually affects the elderly population. The aim of this review is to update the reader on epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis with other monoclonal gam-mopathies, systemic treatment and prognosis of MM.


Resumo O mieloma múltiplo (MM) constitui neoplasia maligna de origem hematológica caracterizada pela proliferação desregulada e clonal de plasmócitos na medula óssea; estas células produzem e secretam imunoglobulina monoclonal anômala, ou um fragmento desta, denominado proteína M. As manifestações clínicas do MM decorrem da proliferação destes plasmócitos, da produção excessiva de imunoglobulina monoclonal e da supressão da imunidade humoral normal, levando à hipercalcemia, destruição óssea, insuficiência renal, supressão da hematopoiese e da imunidade humoral,aumentandooriscoparaodesenvolvimento de infecções. O aumento na expectativa de vida da população mundial levou a concomitante incremento na prevalência do MM, patologia que habitualmente acomete a população idosa. O objetivo desta revisão é atualizar o leitor sobre a epidemiologia, critérios diagnósticos, diagnóstico diferencial com outras gamopatias monoclonais, tratamento sistêmico e prognóstico do MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthopedic Procedures , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures , Fractures, Spontaneous/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/radiotherapy
5.
Salud mil ; 42(1): e302, 05/05/2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531521

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el mieloma múltiple es un trastorno hematológico maligno y el segundo cáncer de la sangre más frecuente. El proceso de la angiogénesis tumoral es fundamental para el crecimiento y metástasis de muchos tipos de tumores, incluido en mieloma múltiple. Se sabe que la sobreexpresión del factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular se encuentra asociado a un mal pronóstico en esta patología, representando un blanco clave para la terapia anti-angiogénica en mieloma múltiple. El anticuerpo monoclonal Bevacizumab es capaz de unirse con gran afinidad al factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular bloqueando su acción. Objetivo: evaluar el Fab(Bevacizumab) marcado con 99mTc o Cy7 como potenciales agentes de imagen moleculares de la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular en mieloma múltiple. Material y métodos: la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular fue analizada mediante citometría de flujo en la línea celular huaman de mieloma múltiple, la MM1S. Fab(Bevacizumab) fue producido mediante digestión de Bevacizumab con papaína, conjugado a NHS-HYNIC-Tfa y radiomarcado con 99mTc. Se realizaron estudios de biodistribución y de tomografía computarizada por emisión del fotón simple. A su vez, Fab(Bevacizumab) fue marcado con Cy7 para obtener imágenes de fluorescencia in vivo hasta 96 horas. Resultados: el análisis por citometría de flujo en la línea celular MM1S reveló que la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular es predominantemente intracelular. Los estudios de biodistribución y SPECT/CT del complejo 99mTc-HYNIC-Fab(Bevacizumab) mostraron una rápida eliminación sanguínea y una significativa captación a nivel renal y tumoral. Las imágenes por fluorescencia empleando Cy7-Fab(Bevacizumab) permitieron la visualización tumoral hasta 96 h p.i. Conclusiones: logramos visualizar la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular in vivo en mieloma múltiple mediante el empleo del fragmento Fab del anticuerpo anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) marcado con 99mTc y Cy7. Estos nuevos agentes de imagen molecular podrían ser empleados potencialmente en el ámbito clínico para la estadificación y el seguimiento de pacientes con mieloma múltiple, mediante la visualización radioactiva in vivo de la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular en todo el cuerpo. La imagen óptica de estos trazadores mejoraría el muestreo tumoral y podría guiar la extirpación quirúrgica.


Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy and the second most common blood cancer. The process of tumor angiogenesis is central to the growth and metastasis of many types of tumors, including multiple myeloma. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor is known to be associated with poor prognosis in this pathology, representing a key target for anti-angiogenic therapy in multiple myeloma. The monoclonal antibody Bevacizumab is able to bind with high affinity to vascular endothelial growth factor blocking its action. Objective: to evaluate 99mTc- or Cy7-labeled Fab(Bevacizumab) as potential molecular imaging agents of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in multiple myeloma. Methods: Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was analyzed by flow cytometry in the multiple myeloma huaman cell line, MM1S. Fab(Bevacizumab) was produced by digestion of Bevacizumab with papain, conjugated to NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabeled with 99mTc. Biodistribution and single photon emission computed tomography studies were performed. In turn, Fab(Bevacizumab) was labeled with Cy7 to obtain in vivo fluorescence images up to 96 hours. Results: Flow cytometry analysis in the MM1S cell line revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor expression is predominantly intracellular. Biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies of the 99mTc-HYNIC-Fab(Bevacizumab) complex showed rapid blood clearance and significant renal and tumor uptake. Fluorescence imaging using Cy7-Fab(Bevacizumab) allowed tumor visualization up to 96 h p.i. Conclusions: we were able to visualize vascular endothelial growth factor expression in vivo in multiple myeloma using the Fab fragment of the anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) labeled with 99mTc and Cy7. These new molecular imaging agents could potentially be employed in the clinical setting for staging and monitoring of patients with multiple myeloma by in vivo radioactive visualization of vascular endothelial growth factor expression throughout the body. Optical imaging of these tracers would improve tumor sampling and could guide surgical excision.


Introdução: O mieloma múltiplo é uma malignidade hematológica e o segundo câncer de sangue mais comum. O processo de angiogênese tumoral é fundamental para o crescimento e a metástase de muitos tipos de tumores, incluindo o mieloma múltiplo. Sabe-se que a superexpressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular está associada a um prognóstico ruim no mieloma múltiplo, representando um alvo importante para a terapia antiangiogênica no mieloma múltiplo. O anticorpo monoclonal Bevacizumab é capaz de se ligar com alta afinidade ao fator de crescimento endotelial vascular e bloquear sua ação. Objetivo: avaliar o Fab(Bevacizumab) marcado com 99mTc ou Cy7 como possíveis agentes de imagem molecular da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular no mieloma múltiplo. Métodos: A expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular foi analisada por citometria de fluxo na linha celular de mieloma múltiplo MM1S. O Fab(Bevacizumab) foi produzido pela digestão do Bevacizumab com papaína, conjugado com NHS-HYNIC-Tfa e radiomarcado com 99mTc. Foram realizados estudos de biodistribuição e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único. Por sua vez, o Fab(Bevacizumab) foi marcado com Cy7 para geração de imagens de fluorescência in vivo por até 96 horas. Resultados: A análise de citometria de fluxo na linha celular MM1S revelou que a expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular é predominantemente intracelular. Os estudos de biodistribuição e SPECT/CT do complexo 99mTc-HYNIC-Fab(Bevacizumab) mostraram uma rápida depuração sanguínea e uma captação renal e tumoral significativa. A imagem de fluorescência usando Cy7-Fab(Bevacizumab) permitiu a visualização do tumor até 96 horas p.i. Conclusões: Conseguimos visualizar a expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular in vivo no mieloma múltiplo usando o fragmento Fab do anticorpo anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) marcado com 99mTc e Cy7. Esses novos agentes de imagem molecular poderiam ser usados no cenário clínico para o estadiamento e o monitoramento de pacientes com mieloma múltiplo, visualizando radioativamente a expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular in vivo em todo o corpo. A geração de imagens ópticas desses traçadores melhoraria a amostragem do tumor e poderia orientar a excisão cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Technetium/pharmacokinetics , Molecular Imaging/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Bevacizumab/pharmacokinetics , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Mice, Inbred BALB C
6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 266-274, Apr.-June 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448345

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is an emerging treatment option for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) that is a multi-step process involving various stakeholders. Appropriate education on the practical logistics is therefore paramount to ensure treatment success. Methods A group of key opinion leaders met to explore the key elements of setting up and running a CAR-T center in Brazil. For each step in the CAR-T cell therapy process, the experts agreed on basic requirements, gave their key recommendations from practical experience, and considered any remaining unanswered questions. Results This paper presents best-practice recommendations and advice on how to overcome common challenges for each step in the CAR-T cell therapy process, with a focus on the current situation in Brazil. Key themes throughout the process are collaboration within the multidisciplinary team and with the referring physician, along with communication and education for patients and their caregivers. Conclusion We believe that the expert insights presented in this paper, in particular on optimal patient selection and timing of CAR-T cell therapy, will deepen understanding of the CAR-T process and aid implementation of this novel therapy for patients with RRMM in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Multiple Myeloma , B-Cell Maturation Antigen , Immunotherapy
7.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 259-265, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448341

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Multiple myeloma is characterized by proliferation of clonal plasma cells. The identification of prognostics factors to identify patient's risk is important. Among the studied factors, it was identified of relevant importance the lactic dehydrogenase. Objectives To evaluate the impact of the value of DHL in combination with the score ISS in the medium patients overall survival (OS). Methods It is a retrospective cohort with 252 patients with MM recently-diagnosed that attendance in the institution of the study. Results To evaluate the association between DHL and ISS, we found 6 new groups to be analyzed: ISS I and normal DHL with medium overall survival not reached, and with DHL loud with medium OS of 69,8 months, ISS II and normal DHL with medium overall survival of 78,8 months and with DHL loud with medium OS of 73,9 months, ISS III and normal DHL with medium overall survival of 46,7 months and with DHL loud with medium OS of 45,5 months. Conclusion Through the association of ISS I and normal DHL, ISS III and high DHL and others combinations, we build a new score with superior impact prognostic in our population treated in real life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Multiple Myeloma , Prognosis , Injury Severity Score , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 512-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981299

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma(MM)is a systemic malignancy of plasma cells.Nowadays,the basic research on MM is flourishing with the continuous optimization and innovation of mouse models of MM.Heterologous mouse models of MM established with human-derived cells and immunodeficient mice have been applied in assessing drug efficacy,exploring drug resistance mechanisms,and observing tumor-bone marrow microenvironment interactions.In the last decades,the homologous mouse models of MM established with murine-derived cells or gene-editing technologies have been widely used in the research on the pathogenesis and drug development.Additionally,the stable modeling of targeted organ injury will be a key problem to be tackled in this field.This review summarizes the characteristics and application progress of mouse models of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 290-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981266

ABSTRACT

Although the development of novel drugs has significantly improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) over the past decades,the lack of effective therapeutic options for relapsed and refractory MM results in poor prognosis.The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has achieved considerable progress in relapsed and refractory MM.Nevertheless,this therapy still has limitations such as cytokine release syndrome,neurotoxicity,and off-target effects.Natural killer (NK) cells,as a critical component of the innate immune system,play an essential role in tumor immunosurveillance.Therefore,CAR-modified NK (CAR-NK) cells are put forward as a therapeutic option for MM.The available studies have suggested that multiple targets can be used as specific therapeutic targets for CAR-NK cell therapy and confirmed their antitumor effects in MM cell lines and animal models.This review summarizes the anti-tumor mechanisms,biological characteristics,and dysfunction of NK cells in the MM tumor microenvironment,as well as the basic and clinical research progress of CAR-NK cells in treating MM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 819-825, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985992

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the stem cell collection rate and efficacy and safety of patients aged 70 and below with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) treated with the VRD (bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone) regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Methods: Retrospective case series study. The clinical data of 123 patients with newly diagnosed MM from August 1, 2018, to June 30, 2020, at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and Suzhou Hopes Hematology Hospital, who were eligible for VRD regimen sequential ASCT, were collected. The clinical characteristics, efficacy after induction therapy, mobilization regimen of autologous stem cells, autologous stem cell collection rate, and side effects and efficacy of ASCT were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 123 patients, 67 were males. The median patient age was 56 (range: 31-70) years. Patients with IgG, IgA, IgD, and light-chain types accounted for 47.2% (58/123), 23.6% (29/123), 3.2% (4/123), and 26.0% (32/123) of patients, respectively. In addition, 25.2% (31/123) of patients had renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance rate<40 ml/min). Patients with Revised-International Staging System (R-ISS) Ⅲ accounted for 18.2% (22/121) of patients. After induction therapy, the rates of partial response and above, very-good partial response (VGPR) and above, and complete response (CR)+stringent CR were 82.1% (101/123), 75.6% (93/123), and 45.5% (56/123), respectively. Overall, 90.3% (84/93) of patients were mobilized with cyclophosphamide+granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and 8 patients with G-CSF or G-CSF+plerixafor due to creatinine clearance rate<30 ml/min and one of them was mobilized with DECP (cisplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone)+G-CSF for progressive disease. The rate of autologous stem cell collection (CD34+cells≥2×106/kg) after four courses of VRD regimen was 89.1% (82/92), and the rate of collection (CD34+cells≥5×106/kg) was 56.5% (52/92). Seventy-seven patients treated with the VRD regimen sequential ASCT. All patients had grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Among the nonhematologic adverse events during ASCT, the highest incidence was observed for gastrointestinal reactions (76.6%, 59/77), followed by oral mucositis (46.8%, 36/77), elevated aminotransferases (44.2%, 34/77), fever (37.7%, 29/77), infection (16.9%, 13/77) and heart-related adverse events (11.7%, 9/77). Among the adverse events, grade 3 adverse events included nausea (6.5%, 5/77), oral mucositis (5.2%, 4/77), vomiting (3.9%, 3/77), infection (2.6%, 2/77), elevated blood pressure after infusion (2.6%, 2/77), elevated alanine transaminase (1.3%, 1/77), and perianal mucositis (1.3%, 1/77); there were no grade 4 or above nonhematologic adverse events. The proportion of patients who achieved VGPR and above after VRD sequential ASCT was 100% (75/75), and the proportion of patients who were minimal residual disease-negative (<10-4 level) was 82.7% (62/75). Conclusion: In patients aged 70 and below with newly diagnosed MM treated with VRD induction therapy, the collection rate of autologous stem cells was good, and good efficacy and tolerability were noted after follow-up ASCT.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Creatinine , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization , Transplantation, Autologous , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Heterocyclic Compounds/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Stomatitis/etiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 673-680, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985973

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and prognosis of orthopedic surgical resection surgery in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Methods: This retrospective cohort study collected clinical data of patients with NDMM who underwent surgery due to spinal cord compression or pathological long-bone fractures at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2021. Patients who received biopsy or vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty were excluded and patients with the same degree of bone disease and who did not undergo any surgical intervention were selected as controls. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and physical status (ECOG) scores, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared. Statistical analysis included the χ2-test, t-test, and Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: Baseline data were compared between the surgical group (n=40 with 43 interventions) and the non-surgical group (n=80), and included sex, age, paraprotein type, International Staging System (ISS), number of lytic lesions, cytogenetic abnormalities, first-line treatment, and the proportion of patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) (all P>0.05). Serum M protein levels in the surgical group were significantly lower than those of the non-surgical group [(21.95±16.44) g/L vs. (36.18±20.85) g/L, P=0.005]. The surgical lesions involved the axial skeleton (79.1%, 34/43) or the extremities (20.9%, 9/43). VAS and ECOG scores improved significantly after surgery (VAS: 2.30±0.80 vs. 6.60±1.50, P<0.001; ECOG: 2.09±0.59 vs. 3.09±0.73, P<0.001). The median follow-up time was 51 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that the median PFS (25 vs. 29 months) and OS (46 vs. 60 months) were comparable between the surgical and non-surgical intervention groups (both P>0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that among patients with ISS Ⅰ or those who had received ASCT, PFS in the surgical group was similar to that of the non-surgical intervention group (both P>0.05), while OS was worse (P=0.005, 0.017). Patients with ISS Ⅱ/Ⅲ scores or without ASCT had similar PFS and OS between the surgical and non-surgical intervention groups (all P>0.05). Cox multivariate analysis suggested that ISS and ASCT were independent prognostic factors for OS (ISS: HR=0.42, 95%CI 0.19-0.93, P=0.031; ASCT: HR=0.41, 95%CI 0.18-0.97, P=0.041), while orthopedic surgery did not influence survival (P=0.233). Conclusion: For patients with NDMM, orthopedic surgical resection decreased bone-related complications and improved quality of life, but did not affect survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Transplantation, Autologous , Orthopedic Procedures , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 127-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of Guizhi Fuling Capsule (GZFLC) on myeloma cells and explore the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#MM1S and RPMI 8226 cells were co-cultured with different concentrations of serum and the cell experiments were divided into negative (10%, 20% and 40%) groups, GZFLC (10%, 20%, and 40%) groups and a control group. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and flow cytometry were used to detect the viability and apoptosis levels of myeloma cells. The effects on mitochondria were examined by reactive oxygen specie (ROS) and tetrechloro-tetraethylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) assays. Western blot was used to detect the expression of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, -9, cytochrome C (Cytc) and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1). RPMI 8226 cells (2 × 107) were subcutaneously inoculated into 48 nude mice to study the in vivo antitumor effects of GZFLC. The mice were randomly divided into four groups using a completely randomized design, the high-, medium-, or low-dose GZFLC (840, 420, or 210 mg/kg per day, respectively) or an equal volume of distilled water, administered daily for 15 days. The tumor volume changes in and survival times of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups and a control group were observed. Cytc and Apaf-1 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#GZFLC drug serum decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis of myeloam cells (P<0.05). In addition, this drug increased the ROS levels and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01). Western blot showed that the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were decreased in the GZFLC drug serum-treated groups, whereas the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, -9, Cytc and Apaf-1 were increased (all P<0.01). Over time, the myeloma tumor volumes of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups decreased, and survival time of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups were longer than that of the mice in the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups revealed that the Cytc and Apaf-1 expression levels were increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#GZFLC promoted apoptosis of myeloma cells through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and significantly reduced the tumor volumes in mice with myeloma, which prolonged the survival times of the mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Wolfiporia , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Apoptosis , Mitochondria/metabolism
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 297-300, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971140

ABSTRACT

The multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematologic malignancy, is malignant proliferative disease of plasma cells. Although the application of many targeted drugs has significantly prolonged the survival time of MM patients, it is still an incurable disease. In recent years, the immunosuppression caused by interaction between tumor microenvironment(TME) and tumor cells has attracted people's attention gradually. As a kind of immunosuppressive cells in TME, regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the progress of MM. Treg is related to the proliferation and metastasis of tumors, and can lead to the progress of MM by promoting the angiogenesis and generating immunosuppressive TME. In this review, we briefly summarized the latest research progress on the impact of Treg on the pathogenesis of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Plasma Cells/pathology , Immunosuppression Therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 170-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in myeloma bone disease (MBD) and its effect on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs.@*METHODS@#BMSCs were isolated from bone marrow of five patients with multiple myeloma (MM) (MM group) and five with iron deficiency anemia (control group) for culture and identification. The expression of PKM2 protein were compared between the two groups. The differences between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and oil red O staining, and detecting marker genes of osteogenesis and adipogenesis. The effect of MM cell line (RPMI-8226) and BMSCs co-culture on the expression of PKM2 was explored. Functional analysis was performed to investigate the correlations of PKM2 expression of MM-derived BMSCs with osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation by employing PKM2 activator and inhibitor. The role of orlistat was explored in regulating PKM2 expression, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MM-derived BMSCs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control, MM-originated BMSCs possessed the ability of increased adipogenic and decreased osteogenic differentiation, and higher level of PKM2 protein. Co-culture of MM cells with BMSCs markedly up-regulated the expression of PKM2 of BMSCs. Up-regulation of PKM2 expression could promote adipogenic differentiation and inhibit osteogenic differentiation of MM-derived BMSCs, while down-regulation of PKM2 showed opposite effect. Orlistat significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation in MM-derived BMSCs via inhibiting the expression of PKM2.@*CONCLUSION@#The overexpression of PKM2 can induce the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in MBD. Orlistat can promote the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via inhibiting the expression of PKM2, indicating a potential novel agent of anti-MBD therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipogenesis , Bone Diseases/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Orlistat/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/genetics
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 162-169, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen the prognostic biomarkers of metabolic genes in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and construct a prognostic model of metabolic genes.@*METHODS@#The histological database related to MM patients was searched. Data from MM patients and healthy controls with complete clinical information were selected for analysis.The second generation sequencing data and clinical information of bone marrow tissue of MM patients and healthy controls were collected from human protein atlas (HPA) and multiple myeloma research foundation (MMRF) databases. The gene set of metabolism-related pathways was extracted from Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) by Perl language. The biomarkers related to MM metabolism were screened by difference analysis, univariate Cox risk regression analysis and LASSO regression analysis, and the risk prognostic model and Nomogram were constructed. Risk curve and survival curve were used to verify the grouping effect of the model. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to study the difference of biological pathway enrichment between high risk group and low risk group. Multivariate Cox risk regression analysis was used to verify the independent prognostic ability of risk score.@*RESULTS@#A total of 8 mRNAs which were significantly related to the survival and prognosis of MM patients were obtained (P<0.01). As molecular markers, MM patients could be divided into high-risk group and low-risk group. Survival curve and risk curve showed that the overall survival time of patients in the low-risk group was significantly better than that in the high risk group (P<0.001). GSEA results showed that signal pathways related to basic metabolism, cell differentiation and cell cycle were significantly enriched in the high-risk group, while ribosome and N polysaccharide biosynthesis signaling pathway were more enriched in the low-risk group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the risk score composed of the eight metabolism-related genes could be used as an independent risk factor for the prognosis of MM patients, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed that the molecular signatures of metabolism-related genes had the best predictive effect.@*CONCLUSION@#Metabolism-related pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of patients with MM. The clinical significance of the risk assessment model for patients with MM constructed based on eight metabolism-related core genes needs to be confirmed by further clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Cycle , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 154-161, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of adipocytes in the bone marrow microenvironment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) on the pathogenesis of MM.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow adipocytes (BMA) in bone marrow smears of health donors (HD) and newly diagnosed MM (ND-MM) patients were evaluated with oil red O staining. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from HD and ND-MM patients were isolated, and in vitro co-culture assay was used to explore the effects of MM cells on the adipogenic differentiation of MSC and the role of BMA in the survival and drug resistance of MM cells. The expression of adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation-related genes PPAR-γ, DLK1, DGAT1, FABP4, FASN and ALP both in MSC and MSC-derived adipocytes was determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The Western blot was employed to detect the expression levels of IL-6, IL-10, SDF-1α, TNF-α and IGF-1 in the supernatant with or without PPAR-γ inhibitor.@*RESULTS@#The results of oil red O staining of bone marrow smears showed that BMA increased significantly in patients of ND-MM compared with the normal control group, and the BMA content was related to the disease status. The content of BMA decreased in the patients with effective chemotherapy. MM cells up-regulated the expression of MSC adipogenic differentiation-related genes PPAR-γ, DLK1, DGAT1, FABP4 and FASN, but the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related gene ALP was significantly down-regulated. This means that the direct consequence of the interaction between MM cells and MSC in the bone marrow microenvironment is to promote the differentiation of MSC into adipocytes at the expense of osteoblasts, and the cytokines detected in supernatant changed. PPAR-γ inhibitor G3335 could partially reverse the release of cytokines by BMA. Those results confirmed that BMA regulated the release of cytokines via PPAR-γ signal, and PPAR-γ inhibitor G3335 could distort PPAR-γ mediated BMA maturation and cytokines release. The increased BMA and related cytokines effectively promoted the proliferation, migration and drug resistance of MM cells.@*CONCLUSION@#The BMA and its associated cytokines are the promoting factors in the survival, proliferation and migration of MM cells. BMA can protect MM cells from drug-induced apoptosis and plays an important role in MM treatment failure and disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Adipogenesis , Cytokines/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , PPAR gamma/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 148-153, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the influece of early relapse in the era of novel drugs on the prognosis of the patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma(NDMM) and risk factors, and to provide the basis for the early identification of the high-risk patients and guiding the treatment.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of the patients with NDMM admitted to our hospital from November 2011 to May 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether the progression free survival(PFS) was more than 12 months, they were divided into early relapse group(≤12 months) and late relapse group(>12 months). The high-risk factors of the patients in two groups were analyzed, including age, anemia, renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, increasing of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) level, Extramedullary disease (EMD), International Staging System(ISS) stage, Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) stage, cytogenetic abnormalities(CA) detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH), and treatment efficacy. The meaningful clinical indicators were screened, and multivariate analysis was used to explore the high-risk factors of early relapse.@*RESULTS@#170 patients with NDMM were collected, including 25 cases in early relapse group and 145 cases in late relapse group. The median OS time of the patients in early death group was 20 months, and 140 months in late relapse group by the end of follow-up, there was significant difference in OS of the patients between two groups(P<0.001). Fifteen patients(56.0%)in early relapse group obtained ≥VGPR, and 113(77.9%) patients in late relapse group, the difference was statistically significant(P=0.011). Survival outcomes remained poor among early relapse patients irrespective of depth of response to initial therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that the EMD and high-risk CA predicted early relapse.@*CONCLUSION@#The prognosis of patients with early relapse in NDMM is poor. EMD and high-risk CA is an independent prognostic factor of early relapse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Prognosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Risk Factors
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of daratumumab in treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal impairment (RI).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 15 MM patients with RI who received daratumumab-based regimen from January 2021 to March 2022 in three centers were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with daratumumab or daratumumab combined with dexamethasone or daratumumab combined with bortezomib and dexamethasone and the curative effect and survival were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The median age of 15 patients was 64 (ranged 54-82) years old. Six patients were IgG-MM, 2 were IgA-MM,1 was IgD-MM and 6 were light chain MM. Median estinated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 22.48 ml/(min·1.73 M2). Overall response rate of 11 patients with MM was 91% (≥MR), including 1 case of stringent complete response (sCR), 2 cases of very good partial response (VGPR), 3 cases of partial response (PR) and 4 cases of minor response (MR). The rate of renal response was 60%(9/15), including 4 cases of complete response (CR), 1 case of PR and 4 cases of MR. A median time of optimal renal response was 21 (ranged 7-56) days. With a median follow-up of 3 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival of all patients were not reached. After treatment with daratumumab-based regimen, grade 1-2 neutropenia was the most common hematological adverse reaction. Non-hematological adverse reactions were mainly infusion-related adverse reactions and infections.@*CONCLUSION@#Daratumumab-based regimens have good short-term efficacy and safety in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
19.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 48-54, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969707

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) admitted at Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. We compared the clinical characteristics and prognoses among patients with non-extramedullary disease (EMD), bone-related extramedullary (EM-B) disease, and extraosseous extramedullary (EM-E) disease and further explored the effects of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for EMD. Methods: From January 2015 to January 2022, data of 114 patients (22%) with EMD out of 515 patients with NDMM were retrospectively analyzed; 91 (18%) and 23 (4%) patients comprised the EM-B and EM-E groups, respectively. The clinical characteristics of patients in all groups were compared with the Chi-square test. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent prognostic factors were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, ISS stage, light chain, creatinine clearance, cytogenetic risk, 17p deletion, ASCT, and induction regimens among the three groups. Overall, 13% of EM-E patients had IgD-type M protein, which was significantly higher than that in EM-B patients (P=0.021). The median PFS of patients in the non-EMD, EM-B, and EM-E groups was 27.4, 23.1, and 14.0 months; the median OS was not reached, 76.8 months, and 25.6 months, respectively. The PFS (vs non-EMD, P=0.004; vs EM-B, P=0.036) and OS (vs non-EMD, P<0.001; vs EM-B, P=0.002) were significantly worse in patients with EM-E, while those were not significantly different between patients with EM-B and those with non-EMD. In the multivariate analysis, EM-E was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with NDMM (HR=8.779, P<0.001) and negatively impacted PFS (HR=1.874, P=0.050). In those who did not undergo ASCT, patients with EM-B had significantly worse OS than those with non-EMD (median 76.8 months vs. not reached, P=0.029). However, no significant difference was observed in the PFS and OS of patients with EM-B and those with non-EMD who underwent ASCT. Conclusions: Compared to patients with either non-EMD or EM-B, those with EM-E had the worst prognosis. EM-E was an independent risk factor for OS in patients with NDMM. ASCT can overcome the poor prognosis of EM-B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Retrospective Studies , China , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Prognosis , Transplantation, Autologous
20.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969690

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causative factors of renal function in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal inadequacy. Methods: 181 MM patients with renal impairment from August 2007 to October 2021 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited, whose baseline chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage was 3-5. Statistical analysis was performed based on laboratory tests, treatment regimens, hematological responses, and survival among various renal function efficacy groups. A logistic regression model was employed in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 181 patients were recruited, and 277 patients with CKD stages 1-2 were chosen as controls. The majority choose the BCD and VRD regimens. The progression-free survival (PFS) (14.0 months vs 24.8 months, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (49.2 months vs 79.7 months, P<0.001) of patients with renal impairment was considerably shorter. Hypercalcemia (P=0.013, OR=5.654) , 1q21 amplification (P=0.018, OR=2.876) , and hematological response over a partial response (P=0.001, OR=4.999) were independent predictive factors for renal function response. After treatment, those with improvement in renal function had a longer PFS than those without (15.6 months vs 10.2 months, P=0.074) , but there was no disparity in OS (56.5 months vs 47.3 months, P=0.665) . Conclusion: Hypercalcemia, 1q21 amplification, and hematologic response were independent predictors of the response of renal function in NDMM patients with renal impairment. MM patients with CKD 3-5 at baseline still have worse survival. Improvement in renal function after treatment is attributed to the improvement in PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Hypercalcemia , Prognosis , Chromosome Aberrations , Kidney/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
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