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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 402-409, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350819

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: To study the efficacy and safety of single large volume leukapheresis by using generic G-CSF or G-CSF plus Plerixafor in achieving adequate stem cell yield and various factors influencing thereof in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplant . Method: This prospective study was undertaken among 55 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplant and aged between 18 and 75 years. Mobilization and harvesting of stem cells were performed by using GCSF or GCSF plus Plerixafor and large volume leukapheresis, respectively. A stem cell yield of ≥2 × 106 kg-1 and the number of apheresis procedures were primary efficacy endpoints, while the ideal stem cells yield >5 × 106 kg-1, the engraftment day and D100 response/graft sustainability were secondary endpoints. Result: The primary endpoint was achieved in all cases in both the groups by using a single LVL leukapheresis procedure. Fulfillment of all the secondary endpoints was satisfactory and comparable in both the groups. Age, pre-apheresis CD34+ count and number of interruptions during the LVL were significant factors influencing the stem cell yield (p < 0.05). Adverse drug reactions during the apheresis and post-ASCT period were manageable. Conclusion: The LVL is safe and cost-effective in attaining a minimum of CD34+ cells in a single procedure with manageable adverse reactions. Judicious intervention during the procedure may be helpful in ensuring the adequate yield.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stem Cell Transplantation , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Transplantation, Autologous , Leukapheresis , Receptors, CXCR4/antagonists & inhibitors
2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 437-442, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350817

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There have been significant improvements in therapeutic options for relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) over the past two decades, with many novel agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and more recently monoclonal antibodies demonstrating efficacy in this setting. However, there is a paucity of real-world data comparing outcomes seen in patients treated with novel agents as opposed to older agents. We report a historical single center cohort of patients diagnosed with myeloma between the years 1991-2012 in order to explore possible differences in outcomes. A total of 139 patients who underwent stem cell transplantation were included in our study. In our study, 88 patients were treated with cyclophosphamide and steroids alone at relapse whereas 51 patients were treated with Len-Dex. In the multivariate analysis, TTNT was shorter for patients who received Cyclo compared to Len-Dex (HR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.01-2.99; p = 0.04); however, we could not detect an overall survival benefit (HR = 1.20; 95% CI 0.63-2.29; p = 0.57). Adverse event rates were similar in the two groups. In this retrospective single center analysis, Len-Dex was associated with longer TTNT compared with Cyclo at first relapse following autoSCT in MM; however its effect on overall survival in this setting was less clear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Lenalidomide/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
3.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 417-423, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350799

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Daratumumab is a CD38-targeting monoclonal antibody with established efficacy and safety in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). We report results of an early access protocol (EAP) of daratumumab monotherapy for RRMM in a cohort of Brazilian patients. Methods: Patients with RRMM and ≥3 prior lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD), or who were double refractory to both a PI and IMiD received daratumumab, 16 mg/kg, intravenously weekly for 8 weeks, biweekly for 16 weeks, and every 4 weeks thereafter until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, loss of clinical benefit, or study conclusion or if daratumumab became available with reimbursement. Results: Forty-nine patients received ≥1 dose of daratumumab. The median (range) duration of treatment was 6.4 (0.3-11.8) months, with a median (range) of 8 (1-13) treatment cycles. Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 38.8% of patients, most frequently neutropenia and pneumonia (10.2% each). Seven (14.3%) patients discontinued treatment due to TEAEs; 3 patients discontinued due to daratumumab-related TEAEs. Serious TEAEs occurred in 38.8% of patients. Infusion-related reactions were reported in 25 (51.0%) patients, were primarily grade 1/2, and the majority (23 patients) occurred during the first infusion. Twenty (40.8%) patients achieved a partial response or better; median progression-free survival was 8.25 (95% confidence interval, 5.55-17.54) months. Conclusion: In this EAP, daratumumab monotherapy in Brazilian patients showed a safety and efficacy profile consistent with clinical studies of daratumumab monotherapy in patients with heavily pretreated RRMM. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02477891.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Clinical Protocols , Antibodies, Monoclonal
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical efficacy and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated by long-term maintenance lenalidomide treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 97 patients diagnosed as MM in the Department of Hematology of First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine from 2012 to 2019 were selected, and the basic clinical characteristics and laboratory indicators of the patients were tested and evaluated. After long-term maintenance lenalidomide treatment for patients with MM, the short-term and long-term clinical efficacy and the incidence of adverse reactions were evaluated, and factors affecting the prognosis of the patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Before maintenance treatment, 47.42% of the patients (46/97) did not achieve complete remission (CR), among 52.58% (51/97) of CR patients, there were 20.62% of the patients showed minimal residual leukemia (MRD) negative. After lenalidomide maintenance treatment, the patients who did not achieve CR were reduced to 24.74% (24/97), among 75.26% (73/97) of the patients with CR, there were 47.42% of the patients showed MRD negative, the difference showed statistically significant (P<0.001). After maintenance treatment, the median pro-gression-free survival of the patients was 58 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 89.69%. The incidence of adverse reactions was 40.21% (39/97), including neutropenia (31/39, 79.49%), fatigue (21/39, 53.85%), thrombocytopenia (17/39, 43.59%) and gastrointestinal reaction (15/39, 38.46%) were the most common. The discontinuation rate was 24.74% (24/97), and the median time for discontinuation was 21 months. The main reasons for discontinuation were neutropenia (12/24, 50.00%) , thrombocytopenia (8/24, 33.33%) and gastrointestinal reactions accounted for 8.33% (2/24). Old age and positive MRD were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of the patients. The adjusted OR was 1.43 (95% CI 1.03-1.76, P=0.034) and 3.78 (95% CI 2.56-9.56, P=0.037), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The long-term maintenance lenalidomide treatment shows a good clinical effect on patients with MM, and MRD detection can assist the cilinical judge the prognosis of the patients. During maintenance treatment, the clinical symptoms, especially blood system damage of the patients should be take care, so as to avoid serious adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lenalidomide/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the risk factors, distribution of pathogenic strains and tolerance of pulmonary infection in patients with multiple myeloma(MM) during bortezomib chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 85 patients with multiple myeloma treated by bortezomib in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2019 was analyzed. The patients were divided into infection group and control group according to whether they were infected. The tolerance, pathogen distribution, and related risk factors were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Pulmonary infection rate was 55.29% in 85 MM patients. The proportions of the patients with anemia, neutropenia, and ECOG score ≥2 points in the infection group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In this study, 30 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected, with gram-negative bacteria accounting for 60%, gram-positive bacteria for 33.33%, fungi for 3.3% and tuberculosis bacteria for 3.3%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus accounted showed the highest proportion. Most of MM patients with pulmonary infection showed a heterprognosis after two weeks antibiotic treatment, while 3 patients died. About 30 percent of early deaths were due to pulmonary infections.@*CONCLUSION@#Anemia, neutropenia, ECOG score ≥2 points are the major clinical characteristics of the multiple myeloma patients with pulmonary infections. Pulmonary infection is an important cause of early death in patients with multiple myeloma. Pathogenic bacteria are mainly composed of gram-negative bacteria. Beta-lacta/ beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations or Carbapenems are effective empiric treatment for controlling the progression of pulmonary infection.


Subject(s)
Bortezomib , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the risk factors, prognosis and curative effect of elderly patients with MM renal damage.@*METHODS@#118 patients with primary elderly MM treated in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2018, were enrolled analyzed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of renal function impairment group (RI group) and normal renal function group (non-RI group) were compared. The difference of renal efficacy and survival benefit between the patients treated with bortezomib, thalidomide (combination group) and chemotherapy regimen containing only one of them (single drug group) in RI group was compared.@*RESULTS@#Univariate analysis showed that DS stage, pulmonary infection, uric acid, β @*CONCLUSION@#The prognosis of elderly MM patients with impaired renal function is poor. The prognosis of these patients can be improved by selecting chemotherapy regimen containing bortezomib and thalidomide at the same time, and monitoring, controlling all kinds of risk factors actively.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of generic bortezomib in the treatment of Chinese patients with multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 62 MM patients (median age of 62 years) who had accepted at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy based on generic bortezomib in our center from December 2017 to July 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including 47 newly diagnosed patients and 15 with disease recurrence or progression.@*RESULTS@#Anemia, renal dysfunction, hypoproteinemia and high level of β @*CONCLUSION@#The disease severity can be rapidly alleviated after generic bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and a favorable short-term efficacy and survival have been observed with a generally acceptable toxicity profile. However, the long-term outcomes will be examined through further follow-up.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy, survival and adverse effects of non-transplanted multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated with bortezomib maintenance.@*METHODS@#A total of 25 newly diagnosed/relapsed non-transplanted MM patients treated in West District of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from June 2004 to November 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients received PD regimen (bortezomib and dexamethasone), including bortezomib at a dose of 1.3 mg/m@*RESULTS@#Till November 1, 2017, 5 patients achieved stringent complete response (sCR), 8 patients achieved complete response (CR), 7 patients achieved very good partial response (VGPR), 4 patients achieved partial reponse (PR), while 1 patient achieved stable disease (SD). After maintenance therapy, 21 patients maintained the efficacy above PR, of which 1 patient was improved from CR to sCR; 4 patients adjusted chemotherapy after disease progressed. Median maintenance therapy was 9 cycles (range from 6 to 31), and the median maintenance time was 27 months (range from 18 to 97). Median follow-up time was 73 months (range from 25 to 171). Median progress-free survival (PFS) time was 30 months (range from 9 to 105) and overall survival (OS) time was 57 months (range from 27 to 160). Till November 1, 2019, 3-year survival rate was 84% (21/25), and 5-year survival rate was 72% (13/18). The most common adverse events were transient leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and peripheral neuropathy, which the patients could tolerate after the prevention and treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Bortezomib-based maintenance therapy for non-transplanted MM patients can be an option in consideration of its safety and efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(2): e278, jul.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156600

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El mieloma múltiple constituye una proliferación maligna de las células plasmáticas derivadas de un solo clon. El tumor, sus productos y la respuesta del paciente ocasionan diversos trastornos funcionales orgánicos y síntomas como dolores óseos o fracturas, insuficiencia renal, predisposición a infecciones, anemia, hipercalcemia y, en ocasiones, trastornos de la coagulación, síntomas neurológicos y manifestaciones vasculares de hiperviscosidad. Objetivo: Presentar un caso infrecuente teniendo en cuenta que la infección aguda como forma de presentación inicial de mieloma es poco usual. Presentación del caso: Se presenta un caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad, ingresado en el servicio de ortopedia en tres ocasiones diferentes y operado de artritis séptica de la rodilla izquierda en estas tres oportunidades. Se mantuvieron los elementos inflamatorios locales a nivel de la articulación, fiebre recurrente, anemia y eritrosedimentación acelerada. Conclusiones: Los estudios hematológicos específicos confirmaron el diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple. Se comenzó tratamiento de inducción a la remisión para esta enfermedad con melfalán y prednisona; se logró mejoría del cuadro infeccioso al concluir el primer ciclo de esta intervención terapéutica(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Multiple myeloma constitutes a malignant proliferation of plasma cells derived from a single clone. The tumor, its products, and the patient's response cause various organic functional disorders and symptoms such as bone pain or fractures, kidney failure, predisposition to infections, anemia, hypercalcemia, and sometimes coagulation disorders, neurological symptoms, and vascular manifestations of hyperviscosity. Objective: To present a rare case, taking into account that acute infection as the initial presentation of myeloma is unusual. Case report: We report a case of a 61-year-old patient, admitted to the orthopedic service on three different occasions and operated on for septic arthritis of the left knee, in every occasions. The local inflammatory elements at the joint level, recurrent fever, anemia and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation were still present. Conclusions: Specific hematological studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Induction-to-remission treatment for this disease was started with melphalan and prednisone; improvement of the infection was achieved at the conclusion of the first cycle of this therapeutic intervention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Infectious/surgery , Knee , Melphalan/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1972-1976, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore and analyze the risk factors of herpes zoster in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) during the chemotherapy with bortezomib.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 85 MM patients treated with bontizomib from January 2015 to January 2019 were selected and divided into case group and control group accroding to the occurred of herpes zoster. The clinical characteristic, treatment outcome and related factor of herpes zoster were retrospective analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Twenty of the 85 patients with MM treated with bortezomib developed herpes zoster occurred (23.5%). Single-factor analysis showed that age≥65 years, lymphocytopenia occurred before treatment, neutropenia occurred before treatment, ECOG score≥2, application of cyclophosphamide, absence of preventive antiviral therapy were associated with the genesis of herpes zoster (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lymphocytopenia occurred before treatment, the application of cyclophosphamide and the absence of preventive antiviral therapy were the independent risk factors for herpes zoster (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of herpes zoster is high in the multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib. Lymphocytopenia occurred before treatment, the application of cyclophosphamide, and the absence of prophylactic antiviral therapy are the important risk factors for herpes zoster, for which the clinicians should attach great importance.


Subject(s)
Boronic Acids , Bortezomib , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Patients , Pyrazines , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1374-1381, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094166

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Renal failure (RF) is a common complication in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Aim To evaluate the frequency of RF in NDMM patients, and the prognostic impact of its reversibility. Material and Methods A retrospective study evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics of 154 consecutive patients with NDMM was carried out. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated at the beginning and at the end of the induction therapy. In addition, we evaluated renal responses (RR) according to the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria. The induction regimen was based on thalidomide in all cases. Results Fifty-three patients had RF (34.4%). Complete renal response (RR) was achieved in 51%. Three years overall survival in patients without RF, with RF and complete RR, and patients with RF and any other RR, was 66, 47 and 13%, respectively. Median survival was 53, 27 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, RF and hypercalcemia were independent predictors of a worse outcome. Conclusions Achieving a complete RR in patients with NDMM, is associated with a better survival.


Antecedentes La falla renal (FR) es una complicación frecuente en pacientes con mieloma múltiple (MM). Objetivo Evaluar la frecuencia de FR en pacientes con reciente diagnóstico de MM y determinar la importancia pronóstica de su reversibilidad. Material y Métodos Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 154 pacientes consecutivos con MM. La función renal se evaluó mediante la tasa estimada de filtración glomerular al inicio y final de la terapia de inducción. Además, evaluamos las respuestas renales (RR) de acuerdo con los criterios del International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG). El régimen de inducción se basó en talidomida en todos los casos. Resultados Cincuenta y tres pacientes presentaron FR (34,4%) al diagnóstico. La RR completa se logró en 51%. La sobrevida global (SG) a 3 años en pacientes sin FR, con FR y RR completa, y pacientes con FR y cualquier otra RR, fue de 66, 47 y 13%, respectivamente. La SG media fue de 53, 27 y 6 meses (p < 0,01), respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, la FR y la hipercalcemia fueron factores independientes de menor sobrevida. Conclusiones Lograr una RR completa en pacientes con MM recién diagnosticado se asocia con una mejor sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3783-3792, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039475

ABSTRACT

Abstract In April 2017, the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA-Brazil) approved lenalidomide (LEN) for multiple myeloma (MM) and myelodysplastic syndrome. ANVISA had rejected the first application in 2010, and denied a request for reconsideration in 2012. The reason for rejection was the lack of comparative effectiveness studies proving that LEN was more effective than thalidomide (THAL), a strictly controlled drug regulated by Federal law 10.651/2003 and dispensed to patients (at no costs) through public health system units and hospitals. ANVISA unexplained retreat on the LEN approval for marketing was an unquestionable triumph of the lobbying that ensued the denial, at the forefront of which were politicians, Congress members, patient organizations and medical societies. Two randomized (phase III) trials and three observational (case-control and population-based cohort) compared the effectiveness of THAL- versus LEN-based therapies in MM. Overall, these studies showed no difference in efficacy between LEN- and THAL-based therapies. LEN caused less neuropathy, and more severe hematologic adverse effects. It is much costlier than THAL, and substitution of THAL by LEN shall raise considerably public healthcare costs in Brazil.


Resumo A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) aprovou em abril de 2017 a lenalidomida (LEN) para o mieloma múltiplo (MM) e síndrome mielodisplásica. A ANVISA havia negado o registro em 2010, e indeferido um recurso apresentado em 2012. O motivo do indeferimento foi a falta de estudos comparativos de efetividade demonstrando que LEN era mais eficaz do que a talidomida (TAL), um medicamento rigorosamente controlado pela lei federal 10.651/2003 e dispensado gratuitamente a pacientes através de unidades de saúde e hospitais públicos. O recuo não explicado da ANVISA em relação ao registro da LEN foi um inquestionável triunfo do lobby que sucedeu a recusa inicial do registro, a frente do qual estavam políticos, membros do Congresso, associações de pacientes e sociedades médicas. Dois ensaios randomizados (fase III) e três estudos observacionais (caso-controle e coorte de base populacional) compararam a efetividade de terapias para o MM com TAL- e com LEN. Em conjunto, esses estudos mostraram que não havia diferenças quanto a eficácia de tratamentos com LEN- e aqueles com TAL. A LEN causou menos neuropatias, e efeitos adversos hematológicos mais graves. Ela é muito mais cara do que a TAL, e a substituição da TAL pela LEN aumentará muito os custos da assistência pública à saúde no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Drug and Narcotic Control , Lenalidomide/administration & dosage , Thalidomide/economics , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/economics , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Brazil , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Costs , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Lenalidomide/economics , Lenalidomide/adverse effects , Multiple Myeloma/economics , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
13.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(4): 341-344, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058282

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El 50% de los tumores de pared torácica son malignos, dentro de los que destaca el plasmocitoma de costilla. Objetivo: Presentar un caso clínico que debutó inicialmente como un plasmocitoma de costilla, y que terminó presentándose como mieloma múltiple. Materiales y Método: Registro clínico de un paciente sometido a resección de tumor de parrilla costal. Resultados: Paciente masculino de 58 años, con un año de dolor costal, asociado a aumento de volumen a nivel de la octava costilla derecha en línea media axilar, indurada. TC de tórax que demuestra imagen sugerente de plasmocitoma de 79 × 44 mm. Se realiza resección quirúrgica, con instalación de malla de prolene en el defecto. Biopsia diferida con compromiso neoplásico por lesión monoclonal de células plasmáticas. Se complementa estudio con biopsia de médula ósea confirmando mieloma múltiple. Se inicia tratamiento con quimioterapia adyuvante. Conclusiones: El plasmocitoma óseo solitario es una entidad de baja frecuencia, que se asocia a la presencia de mieloma múltiple. Es por esto que al momento de la sospecha se hace necesario descartar su presencia, con el fin de mejorar el pronóstico del paciente.


Introduction: Up to 50% of chest wall tumors are malignant; among which rib plasmocytoma stand out. Aim: Showcase a clinical case that debuted as a rib plasmacytoma, and that ended up presenting as Multiple Myeloma. Materials and Method: Records of a patient with resection of chest wall tumor. Results: Male patient of 58 years, with one year of costal pain, associated with an indurated increase in volume at the level of the eighth right rib in the mid-axillary line. Chest CT scan demonstrated a suggestive image of plasmacytoma of 79 × 44 mm. Surgical resection was performed, with prolene mesh installation in the defect. Biopsy showed neoplastic compromise due to monoclonal lesion of plasma cells. Study is complemented with bone marrow biopsy confirming multiple myeloma. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: Solitary bone plasmacytoma is a low frequency entity, which is associated with the presence of multiple myeloma. At the moment of suspicion, it is necessary to rule out their presence, in order to improve the patient's prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmacytoma/surgery , Plasmacytoma/diagnostic imaging , Ribs/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/surgery , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Plasmacytoma/physiopathology , Biopsy , Bone Neoplasms/physiopathology , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Multiple Myeloma/physiopathology , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1444-1451, dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991355

ABSTRACT

Thalidomide changed the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, however, its effectiveness has been compromised due to its side effects. New strategies are needed to specifically target the challenges of multiple myeloma through innovative, more effective, and less toxic therapy. The new immunomodulatory (IMiDs) compounds are structural and functional analogs of thalidomide, which were designed to improve the immunomodulatory and anticancer properties and tolerability profiles. We review the development of second generation IMiDs, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, their immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects, their mechanisms of action, as well as the influence of dexamethasone on their effect and pharmacological resistance. In conclusion, lenalidomide and pomalidomide demonstrate a powerful activity and they are highly effective and well-tolerated treatment options for patients with myeloma, used alone or in combination with dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Immunomodulation , Lenalidomide/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1351-1355, nov. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985710

ABSTRACT

Multiple Myeloma is a myeloproliferative disorder of plasma cells, which may be complicated with secondary amyloidosis. We report a 48 year old woman consulting to primary care for weight loss and malaise. An initial laboratory study revealed a hypogammaglobulinemia with a monoclonal component and lambda light chains. These results motivated her derivation to hematology: her serum calcium was 11.8 mg/dl, immunofluorescence showed a monoclonal component of lambda chains and urine Bence-Jones protein was positive. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed plasma cell infiltration. A Congo-red stain of a rectal biopsy was positive. The patient was treated with thalidomide, bortezomid and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , Biopsy , Family Health , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains/blood , Early Diagnosis , Amyloidosis/complications , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(7): 869-875, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961473

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the most common malignancies found in hematology. Aim: To describe the features of patients with MM and perform a survival analysis according to the different treatment protocols used between 2000 and 2016. Material and Methods: Analysis of the database of the Chilean national anti-neoplastic drug program. Information was obtained from 1,103 patients, with a median age of 64.5 years (range 27-95) and a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Results: The mean overall survival (OS) of patients receiving or not receiving Thalidomide was 46 and 30 months, respectively (p < 0.01). The mean OS of patients treated before 2007 (treated with melphalan and prednisone) and between 2007 and 2012 (treated with thalidomide and dexamethasone) was 36 and 48 months respectively. In the group starting in 2013 (treated with cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone) the median survival had not been reached at 20 months of follow up (p = 0.01 for all comparisons). Autologous transplantation (AT) was carried out in only 18% of the eligible patients. The median OS of the patients who receive an AT had not been reached at 48 month compared with 36 month among those who did not received the procedure (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Even though overall survival has improved with time, new drugs must be introduced in our protocols to obtain similar results to those obtained worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/classification , Survival Analysis , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Multiple Myeloma/mortality
17.
Medwave ; 18(3): e7220, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-911670

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: El mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de las células plasmáticas de la medula ósea. Las terapias disponibles no son curativas y la mayoría de los pacientes se vuelve refractario al tratamiento. Agentes como lenalidomida y bortezomib han demostrado su eficacia en el tratamien-to en segunda línea de estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-efectividad de la combinación lenalidomida/dexametasona frente a bortezomib/dexametasona en pacientes con mieloma múltiple, no candidatos a trasplante, previamente tratados con bortezomib, desde la perspectiva del sistema nacional de salud chileno. METODOLOGÍA: Se empleó un modelo de Markov que simula la evolución de una cohorte de pacientes a través de cuatro estados de salud (preprogresión en tratamiento, preprogresión sin tratamiento, progresión o muerte) en un horizonte temporal de 25 años. Los datos de eficacia, uso de recursos y frecuencia de efectos adversos fueron extraídos de los ensayos sobre mieloma múltiple MM-009 y MM-010 y de un estudio retrospectivo de retratamiento con bortezomib. Todos los parámetros fueron validados por expertos. Se aplicó una tasa de descuento en costos y beneficios de 3%. La robustez de los resultados fue evaluada mediante un análisis de sensibilidad univariante y probabilístico. RESULTADOS: El tratamiento con lenalidomida/dexametasona proporciona 1,41 años de vida y 0,83 años de vida ajustados por calidad incrementales respecto a bortezomib/dexametasona, con un costo incremental de 11 864 597,86 pesos chilenos (19 589,86 dólares). La ratio de cos-to-efectividad y costo-utilidad incremental se cifró en 8 410 266,92 pesos chilenos (13 886,35 dólares) por año de vida ganado y 14 271 896,16 pesos chilenos (23 564,59 dólares) por año de vida ajustado por calidad respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La lenalidomida/dexametasona representa una alternativa potencialmente costo-efectiva, desde la perspectiva del sistema nacional de salud chileno, para el tratamiento en segunda línea de pacientes con mieloma múltiple no candidatos a trasplante.


BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy affecting bone marrow derived plasma cells. Current therapies are not able to eradicate the disease and most patients become refractory to the treatment. Lenalidomide and bortezomib have proved effective in the second-line treatment of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone compared to bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma previously treated with bortezomib, from the perspective of the Chilean National Health Service. METHODOLOGY: A four-state Markov model (preprogression on treatment; preprogression off treatment, progression and death) was used to simulate the evolution of a cohort of multiple myeloma patients over a 25-year time horizon. Efficacy data, resource use and frequency of adverse events were extracted from MM009/010 studies and a retrospective analysis of retreatment with bortezomib. All inputs were validated by experts. A 3% annual discount rate was used for costs and health outcomes. The robustness of the results was evaluated through univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone treatment provided 1.41 incremental life years and 0.83 incremental quality-adjusted life years in comparison with bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone, with an incremental cost of 11 864 597.86 CLP (19 589.86 US$). The incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio were estimated at 8 410 266.92 CLP (13 886,35 US$) / incremental life year and 14 271 896.16 CLP (23 564,59 US$)/incremental quality-adjusted life years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone represents a potentially cost-effective alternative for the second-line treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who are not eligible for transplantation, from the perspective of the Chilean National Health Service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Markov Chains , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Progression , Bortezomib/administration & dosage , Lenalidomide/administration & dosage , Multiple Myeloma/economics , Multiple Myeloma/pathology
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 222-226, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894461

ABSTRACT

Los estudios de secuenciación masiva realizados recientemente en un gran número de pacientes con mieloma múltiple han permitido profundizar el conocimiento genómico de la enfermedad. La identificación de mutaciones driver como potenciales dianas terapéuticas ofrece una oportunidad para explorar estrategias de tratamiento dirigido a nivel molecular en el mieloma. Por ello, nos encontramos a las puertas de la medicina personalizada, cuyo objetivo fundamental es administrar el tratamiento adecuado a cada paciente según las características concretas de su enfermedad. Este cambio de paradigma es prometedor, aunque a la par surgen nuevos desafíos. A lo largo de esta revisión se describirán los retos fundamentales a afrontar al aplicar la medicina personalizada en mieloma. Además se mencionarán los resultados más relevantes de estudios tanto preclínicos como clínicos con terapias dirigidas en mieloma. Finalmente, se destacará la necesidad de llevar a cabo estudios prospectivos aleatorizados con el fin de evaluar la eficacia de las nuevas terapias dirigidas, así como validar biomarcadores de respuesta que permitan seleccionar los candidatos idóneos para recibir dichos tratamientos, todo ello con el fin de mejorar la supervivencia y calidad de vida de los pacientes con mieloma.


In the last few years, next-generation sequencing studies have provided insights into the mutational landscape of multiple myeloma. The identification of actionable mutations might give a precious opportunity for exploring new targeted therapies. Thus, the implementation of promising precision medicine strategies seems to be closer than ever. Throughout this review we describe the main challenges that should to be dealt with in this new era, in order to achieve the main goal of precision medicine, namely matching patients with their right drug. In addition, we provide a review of the most significant preclinical and clinical studies supporting the implementation of precision medicine nowadays. Finally, we highlight the need of clinical trials to evaluate the security and efficacy of these targeted therapies, as well as to validate predictive biomarkers that may allow an appropriate best-candidate selection and improvement of myeloma patients' survival and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Precision Medicine , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Mutation , Biomarkers, Tumor , Drug Therapy, Combination , Multiple Myeloma/classification
19.
Santiago; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2017. tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-882388

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El mieloma múltiple (MM) se caracteriza por la proliferación neoplásica de células plasmáticas que producen una inmunoglobulina monoclonal, estas células plasmáticas proliferan en la médula ósea y, frecuentemente, dan como resultado una extensa destrucción esquelética con lesiones osteolíticas, osteopenia y / o fracturas patológicas. La sospecha diagnóstica se inicia, generalmente debido a la presencia de dolor óseo con lesiones líticas, aumento de la concentración sérica total de proteínas o presencia de una proteína monoclonal en orina o suero, signos o síntomas sistémicos sugestivos de malignidad como anemia inexplicada, hipercalcemia, insuficiencia renal aguda con un urinálisis suave o raramente el síndrome nefrótico debido a la amiloidosis de cadena ligera de inmunoglobulina concurrente, pudiendo presentarse de forma copulativa. Es importante distinguir MM tanto de otras causas de las presentaciones clínicas anteriores, como de otras discrasias de células plasmáticas, para fines de pronóstico y tratamento. TECNOLOGÍAS ANALIZADAS: Bortezomib / Daratumumab / Plerixafor / Lenalidomida / Bendamustina. EFICACIA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS: -Bortezomib: La adición de bortezomib al tratamiento del mieloma múltiple disminuye la mortalidad. En cuanto a los efectos adversos, la adición de bortezomib aumenta el riesgo de éstos. ­ Daratumumab: La adición de daratumumab al tratamiento del mieloma múltiple podría disminuir la mortalidad, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja. En cuanto a los efectos adversos, estos no son reportados. ­ Plerixafor: La adición de perixafor al tratamiento del mieloma múltiple podría tener poco o nulo efecto sobre la mortalidad, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja. En cuanto a los efectos adversos la adición de plerixafor probablemente no se asocia a efectos adversos, o estos son mínimos. ­Lenalidomida: La adición de lenalidomida al tratamiento del mieloma múltiple probablemente no disminuye la mortalidad. En cuanto a los efectos adversos la adición de lenalidomida aumenta los estos efectos grado 3 y 4. ­Bendamustina: No se encontró evidencia sobre la eficacia de la adición de bendamustina al tratamiento del mieloma múltiple. En cuanto a los efectos adversos, tampoco se encontraron estudios que evaluaran la seguridad de la adición de bendamustina. ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO: Para Bortezomib se consideran los pacientes que logran una remisión completa de células cancerígenas, estimada aproximadamente en un 40%, junto con los que padecen mieloma múltiple y no logran remisión completa de la enfermedad, estimada aproximadamente en un 60% (2). Por lo que el impacto presupuestario proyectado para el año 2018 para pacientes que logran remisión y los que no remiten es de $MM 1.491 y $MM 4.473 respectivamente. Para Bendamustina se considera la cantidad de pacientes que logran una remisión completa de células cancerígenas, estimada aproximadamente en un 40%, junto con la población que padece mieloma múltiple y que son refractarios o tiene una recaída, estimada aproximadamente en un 60% (2). Esto traducido en cantidad de personas aproximadas es 163 y 245, respectivamente, por lo que se proyecta un impacto presupuestario para el año 2018 de $MM 971 para pacientes con remisión completa y de $MM 2.185 para pacientes refractarios al tratamiento. Para Daratumumab no se encuentra evidencia de evaluaciones económicas de este tratamiento para pacientes con mieloma múltiple. El impacto presupuestario proyectado para el año 2018 es de $MM 44.775. Para Lenalidomida se considera la cantidad de pacientes que con anterioridad cuenten con un tratamiento previo a tratarse con lenalidomida, para esto se considera al 60% de la población que desarrolla la enfermedad pero que con un primer diagnóstico no ha sido posible la remisión completa de su cuerpo. El número de personas correspondientes a este 60% es 245 (2). El impacto presupuestario proyectado para el año 2018 es de $MM 3.232. Para el tratamiento con Plerixafor, el impacto presupuestario proyectado para el año 2018 es de $MM 556. CONCLUSIÓN: Se hace presente que la oferta recibida en este Ministerio de Salud, contempla mecanismo de riesgo compartido, por lo que se sugiere que la CENABAST en una eventual compra, considere dicha modalidad contractual. Asimismo, cabe indicar que la determinaicón del Precio Máximo Industrial se ha ajustado a derecho. Por último y sin perjuicio de lo antes señalado, es dable agregar que, conforme al análisis efectuado al presente informe, éste se ajusta a derecho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Receptors, CXCR4/antagonists & inhibitors , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives , Bendamustine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/economics
20.
Lima; s.n; jul. 2016. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847613

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad de Bortezomib para su uso en pacientes con mieloma múltiple recidivante y/o refractario a uno o más tratamientos previos. Como antecedente relevante, existe un dictamen emitido por IETSI-ESSALUD sobre el uso de Bortezomib como primera línea de tratamiento en pacientes con mieloma múltiple. Generalidades: El mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia hematológica caracterizada por la proliferación de células plasmáticas que producen inmunoglobulinas monoclonales. Estas células, proliferan en la medula ósea y suelen producir destrucción ósea masiva manifestada por lesiones osteolíticas, osteopenia e incluso fracturas patológicas. Clínicamente suele presentarse con dolor óseo y lesiones líticas, proteínas séricas totales incrementadas, proteínas monoclonales incrementadas en suero u orina, anemia de origen incierto, hipercalcemia e incluso insuficiencia renal aguda o síndrome nefrótico por amiloidosis primaria concurrente. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: sobre Bortezomib: Bortezomib es un inhibidor de proteosomas, el primero de su clase, que actúa en la homeostasis proteica celular bloqueando específicamente el proteosoma 26. Este proteosoma 26 es una enzima que se encarga normalmente de catalizar todas las proteínas anormales que son generadas usualmente en el metabolismo. La inhibición de este proteosoma conlleva a apoptosis celular y es por lo tanto un blanco interesante en terapia del cáncer. Estrategia de Busqueda: Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la evidencia científica con respecto al uso de bortezomib en pacientes con mieloma múltiple recidivante y/o refractario a uno o más tratamientos previos. Las siguientes fuentes han sido revisadas y consultadas: Medline/Pubmed, Trip Database, The Cochrane Library, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) del Reino Unido, The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) de Escocia, The National Guideline Clearinghouse (NCG) de los Estados Unidos, The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) de los Estados Unidos, The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) de los Estados Unidos. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda y revisión de la evidencia científica actual para la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad de Bortezomib en pacientes con mieloma múltiple recidivante y/o refractario a uno o más tratamientos previos. Se presenta la información encontrada de acuerdo al tipo de evidencia revisada: Guías de Práctica Clínica (GPC): Se describió la GPC de la Evaluaciones de Tecnologías Sanitarias (ETS): Se encontró una evaluación de tecnología elaborada por la NICE del Reino Unido del año 2007 (Documento TA 129 de la NICE).NCCN Versión 3 del año 2016; Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS) o Meta-análisis: Se encontró la RS de Scott et al., 2016 del grupo colaborativo Cochrane; Estudios Primarios: Se consideraron tres ensayos clínicos pertenecientes a Richardson, et al., 2005, Garderet et al., 2012, Hjorth et al., 2012. CONCLUSIONES: El objetivo del presente dictamen fue evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de Bortezomib para su uso en pacientes con mieloma múltiple recidivante y/o refractario a uno o más tratamientos previos. Esta indicación actualmente no está contemplada en el petitorio de medicamentos. En la bibliografía identificada, existen recomendaciones vigentes para el uso de Bortezomib como tratamiento, o parte del tratamiento, farmacológico para pacientes con mieloma múltiple que han recibido tratamiento (esquemas) previos. Sin embargo la cantidad de evidencia es mucho menor con respecto al uso de este mismo fármaco como primera línea de tratamiento. Se identificó una revisión sistemática Cochrane, la misma que incluyó 3 estudios clínicos aleatorizados cuya población fue compatible con la pregunta PICO del presente dictamen, en donde el sub-análisis de sobrevida global y sobrevida libre de progresión favoreció a bortezomib sobre otros esquemas sin bortezomib. De los 3 estudios identificados solamente un estudio reportó calidad de vida y esta no fue diferente entre los dos grupos de estudio. Por lo expuesto, el Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación ­ IETSI, aprueba el uso de Bortezomib en pacientes con mieloma múltiple recidivante y/o refractario a uno o más tratamientos previos. La vigencia del presente dictamen preliminar es de dos años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Bortezomib/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Peru , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
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