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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(2): 75-81, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368364

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A más de un año del inicio de la pandemia, el seguimiento y la atención presencial de pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes se ha visto modificado. Según la evidencia, pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple (EM), síndrome desmielinizante aislado (SDA), Síndrome Radiológico Aislado (SRA) o enfermedades del espectro de neuromielitis óptica (NMO) no parecen ser un grupo de riesgo para COVID19 por el hecho de tener la enfermedad. La presencia de ciertas condiciones puede hacerlos susceptibles de cursar infección severa. Se ha descripto una asociación de curso grave con drogas anti CD20, faltan datos sobre la respuesta a vacunas COVID19 en esta población. Objetivos: Establecer características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes que han padecido COVID-19 y describir su evolución. Caracterizar población vacunada, evaluar acceso al seguimiento médico/ terapéutico durante la pandemia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 168 pacientes con EM, SDA y SRA y 33 pacientes con NMO correspondientes al Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin. Mediante encuesta telefónica se evaluó adherencia al tratamiento, evolución clínica, infección COVID-19, vacunación y acceso durante la pandemia. Resultados: Se encontraron 49 pacientes que desarrollaron COVID-19 en el grupo de pacientes con EM, y 7 en el grupo de NMO. Del primer grupo ninguno requirió internación, mientras que en el segundo, 2 fueron hospitalizados y uno de ellos falleció. La complicación post-COVID más frecuente fue: astenia prolongada y 3 pacientes presentaron un brote de la enfermedad de base en los 3 meses posteriores. Cerca del 90% de nuestra población ya contaba con al menos 1 dosis de vacuna para SARS-CoV2. Se interrogó sobre el acceso a la consulta neurológica y casi el 70% de los pacientes otorgó máximo puntaje al acceso a consultas virtuales. Conclusión: Los pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes que cursaron COVID-19 no tuvieron complicaciones severas por la infección, con solamente 2 pacientes cursando un brote en los 3 meses posteriores. No observamos reacciones adversas severas post vaccinales, ni infección posterior, sólo 2 pacientes presentaron un brote en el período post aplicación. Gran cantidad de pacientes percibieron acceso fluido a sus neurólogos de manera virtual, lo que podría relacionarse con alta tasa de adherencia a sus tratamientos a pesar de la limitación a la consulta presencial.


Introduction: More than a year after the start of the pandemic, the follow-up and face-to-face care of patients with demyelinating diseases has been modified. According to the evidence, patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), isolated demyelinating syndrome (ADS), Isolated Radiological Syndrome (RAS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum diseases do not seem to be a risk group for COVID19 due to the fact that they have the disease. The presence of certain conditions can make them susceptible to severe infection. A severe course association with anti-CD20 drugs has been described, data on the response to COVID19 vaccines in this population are lacking. Objectives: To establish clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients with demyelinating diseases who have suffered from COVID-19 and describe their evolution. Characterize the vaccinated population, evaluate access to medical/therapeutic follow-up during the pandemic. Materials and methods: Descriptive observational study. The medical records of 168 patients with MS, ADS and ARS and 33 patients with NMO corresponding to the Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin were reviewed. Through a telephone survey, adherence to treatment, clinical evolution, COVID-19 infection, vaccination, and access during the pandemic were evaluated. Results: 49 patients who developed COVID-19 were found in the MS patient group, and 7 in the NMO group. Of the first group, none required hospitalization, unlike in the second, 2 were hospitalized and one of them died. The most frequent post-COVID complication was: prolonged asthenia and 3 patients presented an outbreak of the underlying disease in the following 3 months. Close to 90% of our population already had at least 1 dose of SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Access to the neurological consultation was questioned and almost 70% of the patients gave the highest score to access to virtual consultations. Conclusion: Patients with demyelinating diseases who had COVID-19 did not have severe complications from the infection, with only 2 patients having an outbreak in the subsequent 3 months. We did not observe severe post-vaccinal adverse reactions, nor subsequent infection, only 2 patients presented an outbreak in the post-application period. A large number of patients perceived fluid access to their neurologists virtually, which could be related to a high rate of adherence to their treatments despite the limitation to face-to-face consultation


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Evolution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Aftercare , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis
2.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 850-858, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358282

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A esclerose múltipla é uma doença inflamatória, desmielinizante, progressiva e sem cura, que afeta o sistema nervoso central e gera déficits físicos e cognitivos. É geralmente na fase grave da doença que o indivíduo procura atendimento médico devido à gravidade dos sintomas. Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com esclerose múltipla internados em hospitais públicos do Pará entre 2008-2018. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo realizado através de informações secundárias armazenadas na plataforma online SIS/DATASUS. Resultados: O número de internações por esclerose múltipla nos hospitais públicos do Pará foi de 96 casos. As regiões com mais internações foram as localidades fora da área metropolitana (73,96%), identificou-se maior prevalência no sexo feminino (55,21%), na faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos (32,29%), na raça parda (48,96%), a maioria das internações foram de urgência (95,83%), o tempo médio de internação foi de 10,5 dias e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 2,08%. Conclusão: Este estudo apresenta limitações por se tratar de dados secundários e pelo número limitado de estudos epidemiológicos para discussão, porém é um estudo pioneiro na área que abre um leque de possibilidades e norteia novas pesquisas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Studies , Central Nervous System , Hospitals, Public , Multiple Sclerosis , Hospitalization
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 161-167, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364369

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative autoimmune chronic neurological disease. Currently, there are no effective serum biomarkers to verify MS diagnosis, to assess disease prognosis, and evaluate response to MS treatment. Objective: The present study is a preliminary assessment of irisin and nesfatin-1 serum levels in patients with relapsing- remitting MS (RRMS). Methods: A total of 86 participants, 42 patients with RRMS diagnosis and 44 healthy controls were included in the study. The serum irisin and nesfatin-1 parameters of the patients and control group members were analyzed. Results: Irisin and nesfatin-1 levels of the RRMS patients were significantly lower than the controls (z: -3.82, p<0.001; z: -4.79, p<0.001, respectively) The cut-off level of irisin is 10.390 (ng/mL) (sensitivity: 84.1%, specificity: 71.4%, AUC: 0.800), and the cut-off level of nestatin-1 is 7.155 (ng/mL) (sensitivity: 68.2%, specificity: 64.3%, AUC: 0.739) in the ROC analysis. For these cut-off levels in the case-control groups, the lower irisin and nesfatin-1 levels are the independent variables for MS patients (OR 9.723, 95%CI 2.884-32.785, p<0.001; OR 3.992, 95%CI 1.336-11.928, p<0.001) respectively. Conclusion: The present study revealed lower irisin and nesfatin-1 levels in patients with RRMS. These findings suggest that the decreased levels of irisin and nesfatin-1 peptides may contribute to MS pathogenesis such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in MS, leading to demyelination, axonal damage with neuronal loss, and gliosis.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A esclerose múltipla (EM) é uma doença neurológica crônica autoimune inflamatória e neurodegenerativa. Atualmente, não há biomarcadores séricos eficazes para verificar o diagnóstico de EM, para avaliar o prognóstico da doença e avaliar a resposta ao tratamento de EM. Objetivo: O presente estudo é uma avaliação preliminar dos níveis séricos de irisina e nesfatina-1 em pacientes com EM recorrente-remitente (EMRR). Métodos: Um total de 86 participantes, 42 pacientes com diagnóstico de EMRR e 44 controles saudáveis, foram incluídos no estudo. Os parâmetros séricos de irisina e nesfatina-1 dos pacientes e membros do grupo controle foram analisados. Resultados: Os níveis de irisina e nesfatina-1 dos pacientes com EMRR foram significativamente mais baixos do que os dos controles (z: -3,82, p <0,001; z: -4,79, p <0,001, respectivamente). O nível de corte de irisina é 10,390 (ng/mL) (sensibilidade: 84,1%, especificidade: 71,4%, AUC: 0,800), e o nível de corte de nestatina-1 é 7,155 (ng/mL) (sensibilidade: 68,2%, especificidade: 64,3%, AUC: 0,739) na análise ROC. Para esses níveis de corte nos grupos de caso-controle, os níveis mais baixos de irisina e nesfatina-1 são as variáveis independentes para pacientes com EM (OR 9,723, IC95% 2,884-32,785, p <0,001; OR 3,992, IC95% 1,336-11,928, p <0,001) respectivamente. Conclusão: O presente estudo revelou níveis mais baixos de irisina e nesfatina-1 em pacientes com EMRR. Esses achados sugerem que os níveis diminuídos de peptídeos irisina e nesfatina-1 podem contribuir para a patogênese da EM, como inflamação, estresse oxidativo e apoptose na EM, levando à desmielinização, dano axonal com perda neuronal e gliose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Biomarkers , Case-Control Studies
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 168-172, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364368

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Among the comorbidities that accompany multiple sclerosis (MS), restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common. Anxiety and depression are common psychological comorbidities that impact the quality of life of patients with MS (PwMS), as well as patients with RLS. Objective: To investigate the psychiatric burden of MS and RLS coexistence, we conducted a nationwide, multicenter and cross-sectional survey. Methods: Participants were assessed by using demographic and clinical parameters along with the Hamilton Anxiety and Hamilton Depression Scales (HAM-A and HAM-D). Results: Out of the 1,068 participants, 173 (16.2%) were found to have RLS [RLS(+)] and 895 (83.8%) did not [RLS(-)]. The mean scores for HAM-A and HAM-D were significantly higher among RLS(+) subjects than among RLS(-) subjects (p<0.001 for all variables). Conclusions: According to our data, the presence of RLS in PwMS may increase the occurrence of both anxiety and depression symptoms. Awareness and treatment of RLS in PwMS could possibly reduce the symptoms of psychiatric comorbidities originating from RLS.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Considerando-se as comorbidades que acompanham a esclerose múltipla (EM), a síndrome das pernas inquietas (SPI) é uma das mais comuns, e ansiedade e depressão são comorbidades psicológicas comuns que afetam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com EM, bem como de pacientes com SPI. Objetivo: Investigar a carga psiquiátrica da coexistência de EM e SPI por meio de uma pesquisa nacional, multicêntrica e transversal. Métodos: Os participantes foram avaliados por parâmetros demográficos e clínicos, além da versão turca das escalas de ansiedade e depressão de Hamilton (HAM-A e HAM-D). Resultados: Dos 1.068 participantes, 173 (16,2%) apresentaram SPI [SPI (+)] e 895 (83,8%) não [SPI (-)]. As pontuações médias no HAM-A e no HAM-D foram significativamente maiores em indivíduos com SPI (+) do que naqueles com SPI (-) (p <0,001 para todas as variáveis). Conclusões: De acordo com nossos dados, a presença de SPI na EM pode aumentar a ocorrência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. A conscientização e o tratamento da SPI na EM podem reduzir os sintomas de comorbidades psiquiátricas originadas da SPI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restless Legs Syndrome/diagnosis , Restless Legs Syndrome/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 62-68, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360130

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) has been recently developed as a brief, practical, and feasible tool for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: This study aimed to provide continuous and discrete normative values for the BICAMS in the Brazilian context. Methods: Normatization was achieved using six hundred and one healthy controls from the community assessed at five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Results: Mean raw scores, T scores, percentiles, and Z scores for each BICAMS measure are provided, stratified by age and educational level. Regression-based norms were provided by converting raw scores to scaled scores, which were regressed on age, gender, and education, yielding equations that can be used to calculate the predicted scores. Regression analyses revealed that age, gender, and education significantly influenced test results, as in previous studies. Conclusions: The normative data of the BICAMS to the Brazilian context presented good representativeness, improving its use in daily clinical practice.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O BICAMS foi desenvolvido como uma ferramenta breve, prática e confiável para avaliar o comprometimento cognitivo na esclerose múltipla (EM). Objetivo: Neste estudo, objetivamos fornecer dados normativos para o BICAMS. Métodos: Normatização foi realizada com seiscentos e um controles saudáveis​​ da comunidade avaliados das cinco regiões geopolíticas brasileiras. Resultados: Escores brutos médios, escore T, percentil e escore Z para cada medida do BICAMS são fornecidos e estratificados por idade e nível educacional. Normas baseadas em regressão foram obtidas através da conversão dos pontos brutos em pontos ponderados, produzindo parâmetros de regressão que podem ser usados para calcular os escores preditos. As análises de regressão revelaram que idade, gênero e educação influenciaram significativamente nos resultados do teste, assim como em estudos prévios. Conclusão: Normas do BICAMS para o contexto brasileiro apresentaram boa representatividade, contribuindo para a utilização na prática clínica diária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Edumecentro ; 13(4): 58-74, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345949

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la promoción de salud es una vía para alcanzar niveles de salud deseables para toda la humanidad. La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante crónica del sistema nervioso central de carácter autoinmune. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de una estrategia para el seguimiento multidisciplinario de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple dirigida a incrementar la calidad de vida percibida en ellos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental con un diseño antes-después con un solo grupo en el Servicio de Neurología del Hospital Universitario Clínico- Quirúrgico "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Santa Clara, en la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido de mayo 2017 a mayo 2019. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción e histórico-lógico; empíricos: la aplicación individual del cuestionario de la Escala de Calidad de vida percibida y matemático-estadísticos para el análisis de los datos encontrados. Resultados: todos los pacientes modificaron su estado de calidad de vida percibida en los componentes: escala de satisfacción sexual, escala visual, control intestinal, impacto del dolor y estado físico hacia puntuaciones mejores después de aplicada la estrategia. La mayoría de los indicadores evaluados por el equipo de trabajo ofrecieron resultados de evaluación muy adecuados sobre el proceso interventivo. Conclusiones: la estrategia de seguimiento para los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple posibilitó una mayor calidad de vida percibida en ellos; es efectiva dado el logro de modificaciones satisfactorias en la puntuación de la escala calidad de vida percibida en todos sus componentes; los indicadores evaluados por el equipo de trabajo ofrecen resultados de evaluación muy adecuados.


ABSTRACT Background: health promotion is recognized as a way to achieve desirable levels of health for all humanity. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of an autoimmune nature. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of a strategy for the multidisciplinary follow-up to patients with multiple sclerosis aimed at increasing their quality of life. Methods: a quasi-experimental study with a before-after design was carried out with a single group in the Neurology Service of the "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical-Surgical University Hospital of Santa Clara, in the province of Villa Clara, in the period from May 2017 to May 2019. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction and historical-logical; empirical ones: the individual application of the questionnaire of the Perceived Quality of Life Scale and mathematical-statistical for the analysis of the data found. Results: all patients modified their perceived quality of life status in the components: sexual satisfaction scale, visual scale, bowel control, impact of pain and physical state towards better scores after applying the strategy. Most of the indicators evaluated by the team work offered very adequate evaluation results on the interventional process. Conclusions: the follow-up strategy for patients with multiple sclerosis enabled a higher perceived quality of life in them; its effectiveness is given by the achievement of satisfactory modifications in the score of the perceived quality of life scale in all its components; as well as the indicators evaluated by the team work offer very adequate evaluation results.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Health Strategies , Education, Medical , Health Promotion , Multiple Sclerosis
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 113-118, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352964

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante crónica que produce discapacidad progresiva, por lo que el tratamiento se centra en retrasar la progresión, prevenir recaídas y disminuir los síntomas de manera efectiva. Realizamos un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal, de un solo centro, con los pacientes admitidos en la unidad de enfermedades desmielinizantes, desde diciembre 2017 hasta febrero 2020. Del total de pacientes, 62.5% recibieron tratamiento con ocrelizumab y completaron seguimiento por 12 meses, sin progresión de la enfermedad. Con este estudio, resaltamos la importancia y la efectividad de los tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad.


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease that causes progressive disability, so treatment focuses on slowing progression, preventing relapses, and effectively reducing symptoms. We conducted an observational, descriptive, longitudinal, single-center study with patients admitted to the demyelinating diseases unit from December 2017 to February 2020. Of the total number of patients, 62.5% received treatment with ocrelizumab and completed 12-month follow-up, without disease progression. With this study, we highlight the importance and effectiveness of disease-modifying treatments


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Patients , Effectiveness , Demyelinating Diseases , Aftercare , Disease Progression
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1109-1115, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355702

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with HLA alleles, especially HLA-DRB1*15:01. Objective: To identify associations between findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic features in a Brazilian cohort of patients with MS. Methods: We retrospectively studied data from 95 consecutive patients with MS. Two independent observers who were blinded to the clinical data identified black holes and enhanced lesions on T1 MRI sequences, and counted and measured contrast-enhanced lesions on T2 and Flair (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) sequences. Cases were classified according to lesion size, number, and volume. The HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DQA1 alleles, and the rs4774, rs3087456, rs6897932, rs731236, and rs1033182 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequence-specific primers using the One Lambda Inc. Kit, Canoga Park, CA, USA. Results: Patients with the HLA-DQA1*04:01 allele had lesion load (adjusted for age, sex, and MS duration) above median compared with patients with other HLA-DQA1 alleles (p=0.02). There were no differences among all the other HLA alleles and single nucleotide polymorphisms and lesion load. Conclusions: The correlation of the HLA-DQA1*04:01 allele with a higher lesion load on T2/Flair MRI sequences suggests that the presence of this allele is associated with the risk of greater MS severity.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A predisposição genética para a esclerose múltipla (EM) está associada a alelos HLA, principalmente o HLA-DRB1*15:01. Objetivo: Identificar associações entre lesões na ressonância magnética e características genéticas em uma coorte brasileira de pacientes com EM. Métodos: Estudamos retrospectivamente os dados de 95 pacientes consecutivos com EM. Dois observadores independentes que desconheciam os dados clínicos identificaram "black holes" e lesões realçadas pelo contraste nas sequências de ressonância magnética T1 e contaram e mediram as lesões nas sequências T2 e FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery). Os casos foram classificados de acordo com tamanho, número e volume da lesão. Os alelos HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 e HLA-DQA1 e os polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único rs4774, rs3087456, rs6897932, rs731236 e rs1033182 foram identificados por amplificação de reação em cadeia da polimerase com iniciadores específicos de sequência usando o kit One Lambda Inc., Canoga Park, CA, EUA. Resultados: Os pacientes com alelo HLA-DQA1*04:01 apresentaram carga de lesão (ajustada para idade, sexo e duração da EM) acima da mediana em comparação com outros pacientes com demais alelos HLA-DQA1 (p=0,02). Não houve diferenças entre todos os outros alelos HLA e polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único e carga lesional. Conclusões: A correlação do alelo HLA-DQA1*04:01 com maior carga de lesão nas sequências de RM em T2 sugere que a presença desse alelo pode estar associada ao risco de maior gravidade da EM.


Subject(s)
Humans , HLA-DQ alpha-Chains/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Genes, MHC Class II , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Alleles , HLA-DQ beta-Chains , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Gene Frequency
9.
Becker, Jefferson; Ferreira, Lis Campos; Damasceno, Alfredo; Bichuetti, Denis Bernardi; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Peixoto, Marco Aurélio Lana; Sousa, Nise Alessandra De Carvalho; Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro De; Adoni, Tarso; Santiago-Amaral, Juliana; Junqueira, Thiago; Pereira, Samira Luisa Apóstolos; Gomes, Ana Beatriz Ayroza Galvão Ribeiro; Pitombeira, Milena; Paolilo, Renata Barbosa; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Piccolo, Ana Claudia; D´Almeida, José Arthur Costa; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva De; Oliveira, Bianca Santos De; Tauil, Carlos Bernardo; Vasconcelos, Claudia Ferreira; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio; Varela, Daniel; Diniz, Denise Sisterolli; Oliveira, Enedina Maria Lobato De; Malfetano, Fabiola Rachid; Borges, Fernando Elias; Figueira, Fernando Faria Andrade; Gondim, Francisco De Assis Aquino; Passos, Giordani Rodrigues Dos; Silva, Guilherme Diogo; Olival, Guilherme Sciascia Do; Santos, Gutemberg Augusto Cruz Dos; Ruocco, Heloisa Helena; Sato, Henry Koiti; Soares Neto, Herval Ribeiro; Cortoni Calia, Leandro; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinícius Magno; Vecino, Maria Cecilia Aragón De; Pimentel, Maria Lucia Vellutini; Ribeiro, Marlise De Castro; Boaventura, Mateus; Parolin, Mônica Koncke Fiuza; Melo, Renata Brant De Souza; Lázaro, Robson; Thomaz, Rodrigo Barbosa; Kleinpaul, Rodrigo; Dias, Ronaldo Maciel; Gomes, Sidney; Lucatto, Simone Abrante; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira; Fukuda, Thiago; Ribeiro, Taysa Alexandrino Gonsalves Jubé; Winckler, Thereza Cristina Dávila; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Nascimento, Osvaldo José Moreira Do; Ferreira, Maria Lucia Brito; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Brum, Doralina Guimarães; Glehn, Felipe Von.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(11): 1049-1061, Nov. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Scientific Department of Neuroimmunology of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology (DCNI/ABN) and Brazilian Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunological Diseases (BCTRIMS) provide recommendations in this document for vaccination of the population with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) against infections in general and against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. We emphasize the seriousness of the current situation in view of the spread of COVID-19 in our country. Therefore, reference guides on vaccination for clinicians, patients, and public health authorities are particularly important to prevent some infectious diseases. The DCNI/ABN and BCTRIMS recommend that patients with CNS demyelinating diseases (e.g., MS and NMOSD) be continually monitored for updates to their vaccination schedule, especially at the beginning or before a change in treatment with a disease modifying drug (DMD). It is also important to note that vaccines are safe, and physicians should encourage their use in all patients. Clearly, special care should be taken when live attenuated viruses are involved. Finally, it is important for physicians to verify which DMD the patient is receiving and when the last dose was taken, as each drug may affect the induction of immune response differently.


RESUMO O DC de Neuroimunologia da ABN e o BCTRIMS trazem, nesse documento, as recomendações sobre vacinação da população com doenças desmielinizantes do sistema nervoso central (SNC) contra infecções em geral e contra o coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causador da COVID-19. Destaca-se a gravidade do atual momento frente ao avanço da COVID-19 em nosso País, o que torna mais evidente e importante a criação de guia de referência para orientação aos médicos, pacientes e autoridades de saúde pública quanto à vacinação, meio efetivo e seguro no controle de determinadas doenças infecciosa. O DCNI/ABN e o BCTRIMS recomendam que os pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes do SNC (ex., EM e NMOSD) sejam constantemente monitorados, quanto a atualização do seu calendário vacinal, especialmente, no início ou antes da mudança do tratamento com uma droga modificadora de doença (DMD). É importante também salientar que as vacinas são seguras e os médicos devem estimular o seu uso em todos os pacientes. Evidentemente, deve ser dada especial atenção às vacinas com vírus vivos atenuados. Por fim, é importante que os médicos verifiquem qual DMD o paciente está em uso e quando foi feita a sua última dose, pois cada fármaco pode interagir de forma diferente com a indução da resposta imune.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Neurology , Central Nervous System , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 774-779, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351050

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre el nivel de glutamato en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) al inicio de la enfermedad y la progresión de la enfermedad durante el seguimiento en una cohorte de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM). Se determinaron niveles de glutamato (Glu) en LCR al inicio de la enfermedad. Se realizó una resonancia basal y durante el seguimiento cada 12 meses con el objeto de determinar el porcentaje de cambio de volumen cerebral (PCVC), grosor cortical (GC) y volumen le sional cerebral en secuencia T2 (VLT2). Los predictores primarios de interés fueron los niveles basales de Glu en LCR, PCVC Y GC, así como la progresión clínica de la enfermedad [medida por Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) y tasa anual de recaídas]. Un total de 26 pacientes fueron incluidos. La concentración media de Glu fue de 5.3 ± 0.4 μM/l. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre concentraciones basales elevadas de Glu y la progresión del EDSS (b = 1.06, IC 95% 0.47-1.66, p = 0.003), así como también el PCVC (b = -0.71, IC 95% -0.56-1.38, p = 0.002) y CG (b = -0.15, IC 95% -0.06-0.33, p = 0.01). No se encontró asociación entre los niveles de Glu y la tasa anual de recaídas como tampoco el VLT2 (b = 0.08, IC 95% -0.11-0.43, p = 0.11 y b = 195, IC -39-330, p = 0.22, respectivamente). Los niveles aumentados de Glu se asociaron con un mayor cambio en el PCVC y progresión del EDSS durante el seguimiento.


Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between glutamate (Glu) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at disease onset and disease progression during follow up in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Glu level was measured at disease onset (first relapse). MRI was obtained at baseline and follow-up (every 12 months) to determine the percent of brain volume change (PBVC), cortical thickness (CT), and T2 lesion volume (T2LV). The primary predictors of interest were baseline CSF Glu levels, PBVC and CT, as well as clinical disease progression [measured by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and annualized relapse rate] during follow-up. A total of 26 MS patients were included. Mean concentration of Glu in CSF at diagnosis was 5.3 ± 0.4 μM/l. A significant association was observed between higher baseline levels of Glu and an increase in EDSS during follow up (b = 1.06, 95%CI 0.47-1.66, p = 0.003) as well as PBVC (b = -0.71 95%CI -0.56-1.38, p = 0.002) and CT (b = -0.15, 95%CI -0.06-0.33, p = 0.01). We did not observe an association between baseline Glu levels and relapse rate or T2LV during follow-up (b = 0.08, 95%CI -0.11-0.43, p = 0.11 and b = 195, 95%CI -39-330, p = 0.22, respectively). Higher Glu concentrations at disease onset were associated with an increase in PBVC and EDSS progression during follow-up in MS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Glutamic Acid
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 895-899, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345318

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Spasticity, fatigue, muscle weakness and changes in gait are some of the main motor symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). These changes can interfere with the patients' quality of life. Objective: To characterize the motor and quality of life symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis at a specialized center. Methods: Fifty five patients at the Neuroimmunology Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre were evaluated for fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale — FSS), walking ability (Functional Ambulation Categories — FAC), impact of MS on walking (Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 — MSWS-12), walking speed (10-Meter Walk Test — 10MWT and the Times 25-foot Walk test — T25FW), functional independence (Barthel Index — BI), functional mobility (Timed Up and Go — TUG), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale — MSIS-29). Results: The patients were mostly women (69.1%), with average age of 43.3 (±12.1) years old, with time since diagnosis of 8.2 (±5.3) years, and EDSS average of 4.3 (±1.3). On the BI, the mean was 96.6 (±5.7) points and 80% of the patients had FAC 5. At MSIS-29, patients had a higher average score on the psychological scale (19.5±26.7) than on the physical scale (10.2±23.6). Most patients (69.1%) presented fatigue. Conclusion: The patients had preserved functional independence and functional walking ability and presence of fatigue. There was minimal impact of MS on patients' quality of life.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Espasticidade, fadiga, fraqueza muscular e alterações na marcha são alguns dos principais sintomas motores da esclerose múltipla (MS). Essas alterações podem interferir na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar os sintomas motores e qualidade de vida de pacientes com EM do tipo remitente-recorrente de um Centro Especializado. Métodos: Foram avaliados 55 pacientes do Ambulatório de Neuroimunologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, quanto a fadiga (Escala de Severidade da Fadiga — FSS), capacidade de deambulação (Categoria de Deambulação Funcional — FAC), impacto da EM na caminhada (Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 — MSWS-12), velocidade de marcha (Teste de Caminhada de 10 Metros — 10MWT e o de Caminhada Cronometrada de 25 Pés — T25FW), independência funcional (Índice de Barthel — BI), mobilidade funcional (Timed Up and Go — TUG) e qualidade de vida (Escala de Impacto de Esclerose Múltipla — MSIS-29). Resultados: Os pacientes eram, em sua maioria, do sexo feminino (69,1%), com média de idade de 43,3 (±12,8) anos, tempo de diagnóstico de 8,2 (±5,3) anos e a média da EDSS de 4,3 (±1,3). A média no BI foi de 96,6 (±5,7) pontos e 80% dos pacientes apresentavam FAC 5. Na MSIS-29, os pacientes apresentaram maior pontuação média na escala psicológica (19,5±26,7) do que na física (10,2±23,6). A maioria dos pacientes (69.1%) apresentou fadiga. Conclusão: Os pacientes apresentaram independência funcional e capacidade de deambulação funcional preservadas e presença de fadiga. Houve pequeno impacto da EM na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Brazil , Walking , Multiple Sclerosis
12.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e997, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352032

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de obtener información actualizada acerca de las características, diagnóstico y tratamiento del síndrome del uno y medio. Se emplearon principalmente las bases de datos disponibles en Infomed, Google Scholar y Pubmed. El síndrome del uno y medio es una entidad infrecuente, que se caracteriza por parálisis de la mirada conjugada horizontal y alteración del fascículo longitudinal medial ipsilateral secundario a diversas etiologías, entre las que se incluyen la enfermedad cerebrovascular y la esclerosis múltiple. Clínicamente se presenta con exotropía y nistagmo a la abducción. Su diagnóstico puede ser establecido en la exploración por las alteraciones típicas de los movimientos oculares, mientras que la imagen de resonancia magnética cerebral resulta indispensable para el diagnóstico diferencial y etiológico(AU)


One and a half syndrome is an infrequent condition characterized by conjugate horizontal gaze palsy and ipsilateral medial longitudinal fasciculus alteration secondary to various etiologies, including cerebrovascular disease and multiple sclerosis. Clinically, it presents with exotropia and abduction nystagmus. Its diagnosis may be established during exploration, due to the typical eye movement alterations, whereas brain magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable for differential and etiological diagnosis. A bibliographic review was conducted to obtain updated information about the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of one and a half syndrome. Use was made of the databases available in Infomed, Google Scholar and Pubmed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Exotropia/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
13.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(3): 423-447, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340191

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante, degenerativa, crónica, autoinmune e inflamatoria, que afecta al sistema nervioso central. Esta afección constituye la primera causa de invalidez neurológica en adultos jóvenes. Objetivo: caracterizar a los pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple ingresados en el servicio de Neurología del Hospital Universitario Clínico-Quirúrgico «Arnaldo Milián Castro¼. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal con los pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple ingresados en el servicio de Neurología del Hospital Universitario Clínico-Quirúrgico «Arnaldo Milián Castro¼, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, durante el período de enero 2018 - diciembre 2019; la población de estudio quedó constituida por 30 pacientes. Resultados: el promedio de edad de debut fue de 38,7 años. La relación entre pacientes con color de piel blanca y no blanca fue 9:1, y la de mujeres y hombres de 14:1. La esclerosis múltiple recidivante-remitente representó el 70 %, y el grado mínimo de discapacidad el 60 %. El 48,27 %, 41,37 % y 37,93 % de los pacientes presentaron lesiones supratentoriales, infratentoriales y en número de dos a cuatro, respectivamente. Conclusiones: predominó el sexo femenino con edad de debut entre los 20 a 29 años. Los síntomas más comunes fueron: las alteraciones motoras, sensitivas y cerebelosas. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la esclerosis múltiple recidivante-remitente y el grado de discapacidad mínimo. Las lesiones supratentoriales e infratentoriales y la cantidad de lesiones en número dos a cuatro fueron las más frecuentes; la mayoría de los casos presentó cambio de intensidad del cuerpo calloso.


ABSTRACT Introduction: multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating, degenerative, chronic, autoimmune and inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. This condition is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults. Objective: to characterize patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis admitted to the Neurology service at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis admitted to the Neurology Service at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, from January 2018 to December 2019; the study population consisted of 30 patients. Results: the average age at debut was 38.7 years. The ratio between patients with white and non-white skin color was 9: 1, and that of women and men was 14: 1. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis accounted for 70%, and the minimum degree of disability for 60%. The 48.27%, 41.37% and 37.93% of the patients had supratentorial and infratentorial lesions and two to four in number, respectively. Conclusions: female gender predominated with the age at debut between 20 to 29 years. Motor, sensory and cerebellar alterations were the most common symptoms. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was the predominant clinical presentation and minimal degree of disability. Supratentorial and infratentorial lesions and the number of lesions in number two to four were the most frequent; most of the cases had a change in intensity of the corpus callosum.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Multiple Sclerosis
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(9): 795-798, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345345

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system. The YKL-40 protein, which is secreted from various cells that contribute to inflammation and infection, plays a role in immune regulation. Objective: This study investigated the serum YKL-40 levels of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and MS. Methods: The participants was divided into three groups: 1) patients with CIS (n = 20); 2) patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 39); and 3) healthy individuals (n = 35). The YKL-40 levels in serum samples obtained from the participants were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results: The median serum YKL-40 level was 20.2 ng/mL (range 9.8-75.9 ng/mL) in the patients with CIS, 22.7 ng/mL (range 13.4-57.9 ng/mL) in the patients with RRMS and 11.0 ng/mL (range 10.0-17.3 ng/mL) in the control group (p < 0.001). The serum YKL-40 levels in the patients with RRMS were correlated with the patients' expanded disability status scale scores and ages (p < 0.05). No relationships were determined between the serum YKL-40 levels and the other variables (p > 0.05). The serum YKL-40 levels were higher in the CIS group than in the MS group. These findings show that the serum YKL-40 levels were high even at the beginning of the disease. The serum YKL-40 levels were also not involved in the progression to clinically definite MS. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggested that YKL-40 may be a useful marker for the inflammatory process of MS.


RESUMO Contexto: A Esclerose Múltipla (EM) é uma doença inflamatória crônica que afeta o sistema nervoso central. A proteína UKL-40, secretada de várias células que participam de processos inflamatórios e infecciosos, desempenha um importante papel na regulação imunológica. Objetivo: Este estudo investigou níveis séricos de YKL-40 em pacientes com Síndrome Clinicamente Isolada (SCI) e EM. Métodos: Os participantes foram divididos em três grupos: 1) pacientes com SCI (n = 20); 2) pacientes com EM recorrente-remitente (EMRR; n = 39); e 3) indivíduos saudáveis (n = 35). Os níveis de YKL-40 em amostras séricas obtidas dos participantes foram medidos usando-se imunoensaios ligados a enzimas. Resultados: O nível sérico médio de YKL-40 foi 20.2 ng/mL (range 9.8-75.9 ng/mL) em pacientes com CIS, 22.7 ng/mL (intervalo entre 13.4-57.9 ng/mL) em pacientes com EMRR e 11.0 ng/mL (intervalo entre 10.0-17.3 ng/mL) no grupo controle (p < 0.001). Os níveis séricos de YKL-40 em pacientes com EMRR estavam correlacionados às pontuações e idades dos pacientes na EDSS (p < 0.05). Não foram determinadas relações entre os níveis séricos de YKL-40 e outras variáveis (p > 0.05). Os níveis séricos de YKL-40 no grupo SCI estavam mais elevados do que no grupo EM. Estes resultados demonstram que os níveis séricos de YKL-40 estavam mais elevados até mesmo no início da doença. Os níveis séricos de YKL-40 também não estavam associados à progressão da EM clinicamente definida. Conclusões: A partir deste estudo, os resultados sugeriram que a proteína YKL-40 pode ser um indicador útil no processo inflamatório da EM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Demyelinating Diseases , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Biomarkers , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1
15.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 42-63, jul.-sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278988

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la promoción de salud puede ser interpretada como un nuevo camino, una estrategia, una filosofía o una forma diferente de pensar y actuar para alcanzar la salud de los pueblos. La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante neurológica que requiere seguimiento a largo plazo, carácter sistemático y mayor competitividad en la asistencia médica para lograr calidad de vida percibida en estos pacientes. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para el seguimiento multidisciplinario a pacientes con esclerosis múltiple dirigida a incrementar la calidad de vida percibida. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo en el Servicio de Neurología del Hospital Provincial Universitario Clinico-Quirúrgico "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Villa Clara entre mayo 2017 a mayo 2019. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: inductivo-deductivo, analítico-sintético e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: análisis documental, observación directa, la entrevista estructurada y el grupo focal con los miembros del equipo de trabajo y los pacientes, además de otras técnicas investigativas. Resultados: existen insuficiencias en el seguimiento multidisciplinario de los pacientes y no se aprovechan los recursos humanos capacitados para su manejo, por lo que se elaboró una estrategia que fue valorada por criterios de expertos, la cual contiene un plan de acción para garantizar el funcionamiento de la consulta multidisciplinaria con la aplicación de un programa de seguimiento. Conclusiones: la estrategia diseñada está dirigida a la formación de un paciente responsable y activo ante su autocuidado, y al fortalecimiento de las capacidades del equipo de trabajo para alcanzar este objetivo; fue valorada como Muy adecuada por criterios de expertos.


ABSTRACT Background: health promotion can be interpreted as a new path, a strategy, a philosophy or a different way of thinking and acting to achieve the health of peoples. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological demyelinating disease that requires long-term follow-up, systematic character and greater competitiveness in medical care to achieve perceived quality of life in these patients. Objective: to design a strategy for the multidisciplinary follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis aimed at increasing the perceived quality of life. Methods: a development investigation was carried out in the Neurology Service of the "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical-Surgical University Hospital of Villa Clara Province from May 2017 to May 2019. Theoretical methods were used: inductive-deductive, analytical-synthetic and historical- logical; and empirical ones: documentary analysis, direct observation, the structured interview and the focal group with the members of the work team and the patients, in addition to other investigative techniques. Results: there were shortcomings in the multidisciplinary follow-up of the patients and the human resources trained for their management were not used, so a strategy was developed that was assessed by expert criteria, which contains an action plan to guarantee the functioning of multidisciplinary consultation with the application of a follow-up program. Conclusions: the designed strategy is aimed at training a patient who is responsible and active in self-care, and at strengthening the capacities of the work team to achieve this objective; it was rated as Very adequate by expert criteria.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Health Strategies , Education, Medical , Health Promotion , Multiple Sclerosis
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 666-675, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis exhibits specific neuropathological phenomena driving to both global and regional brain atrophy. At the clinical level, the disease is related to functional decline in cognitive domains as the working memory, processing speed, and verbal fluency. However, the compromise of social-cognitive abilities has concentrated some interest in recent years despite the available evidence suggesting the risk of disorganization in social life. Recent studies have used the MiniSEA test to assess the compromise of social cognition and have found relevant relationships with memory and executive functions, as well as with the level of global and regional brain atrophy. Objective: The present article aimed to identify structural changes related to socio-cognitive performance in a sample of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: 68 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis Chilean patients and 50 healthy control subjects underwent MRI scans and neuropsychological evaluation including social-cognition tasks. Total brain, white matter, and gray matter volumes were estimated. Also, voxel-based morphometry was applied to evaluate regional structural changes. Results: Patients exhibited lower scores in all neuropsychological tests. Social cognition exhibited a significant decrease in this group mostly related to the declining social perception. Normalized brain volume and white matter volume were significantly decreased when compared to healthy subjects. The regional brain atrophy analysis showed that changes in the insular cortex and medial frontal cortices are significantly related to the variability of social-cognitive performance among patients. Conclusions: In the present study, social cognition was only correlated with the deterioration of verbal fluency, despite the fact that previous studies have reported its link with memory and executive functions. The identification of specific structural correlates supports the comprehension of this phenomenon as an independent source of cognitive disability in these patients.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La esclerosis múltiple presenta fenómenos neuropatológicos específicos que conducen a la atrofia cerebral global y regional. A nivel clínico, la enfermedad está relacionada con el deterioro funcional de los dominios cognitivos como la memoria de trabajo, la velocidad de procesamiento y la fluidez verbal. Sin embargo, el compromiso de las habilidades socio-cognitivas ha concentrado cierto interés en los últimos años debido a la evidencia disponible que sugiere el riesgo de desorganización en la vida social. Estudios recientes han utilizado la prueba MiniSEA para evaluar el compromiso de la cognición social y han encontrado relaciones relevantes con la memoria y funciones ejecutiva, así como con el nivel de atrofia cerebral global y regional. Objetivo: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar cambios estructurales relacionados con el rendimiento sociocognitivo en una muestra de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente. Métodos: 68 pacientes Chilenos con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente y 50 sujetos de control sanos se sometieron a resonancias magnéticas y evaluación neuropsicológica, incluidas las tareas de cognición social. Se estimaron los volúmenes cerebrales totales, de materia blanca y materia gris. Además, se aplicó la morfometría basada en vóxel para evaluar los cambios estructurales regionales. Resultados: Los pacientes muestran puntuaciones más bajas en todas las pruebas neuropsicológicas. La cognición social exhibe una disminución significativa en este grupo principalmente relacionada con la disminución de la percepción social. El volumen normalizado del cerebro y el volumen de la materia blanca disminuyeron significativamente en comparación con los sujetos sanos. El análisis regional de atrofia cerebral mostró que los cambios en la corteza insular y la corteza frontal medial están significativamente relacionados con la variabilidad del rendimiento sociocognitivo entre los pacientes. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio, la cognición social sólo se correlacionó con el deterioro de la fluencia verbal, a pesar de que estudios previos han reportado su vinculación con la memoria y funciones ejecutivas. La identificación de correlatos estructurales específicos apoya la comprensión de este fenómeno como una fuente independiente de discapacidad cognitiva en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/pathology , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognition , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Social Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 692-696, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: To improve the comparability of multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence across Brazilian regions, the Brazilian Committee for Treatment and Research in MS has implemented a standardized approach to assess the prevalence of the disease in five key cities, which were deemed representative of their regions in terms of socio-geographical features and where in-person revision of each case was feasible. Objective: To report the point-prevalence of MS in Passo Fundo, one of the key cities in Southern Brazil. Methods: We sought to identify all MS patients who were living in Passo Fundo on July 1st, 2015. The primary source for case ascertainment was records from the offices of neurologists and neurosurgeons practicing in the city. Multiple secondary sources were used to maximize identification of cases. All patients underwent in-person review of the diagnosis by a panel of neurologists with experience in MS. Results: We identified 52 MS patients living in Passo Fundo on July 1st, 2015. The point-prevalence rate for MS was 26.4/100,000 population (95% confidence interval, 19.7 to 34.6/100,000). Among the MS cases, 42 (80.8%) were female, for a sex ratio of 4.2:1. Forty-six cases (88.5%) were categorized as relapsing-remitting MS, and the remaining 6 cases, as secondary progressive MS (11.5%). Other epidemiological and clinical features were comparable to national and international MS populations. Conclusions: The prevalence of MS in Passo Fundo is one of the highest reported in Brazil so far. Studies in other key Brazilian cities, using the same methodology, are currently being carried out.


RESUMO Introdução: Para melhor comparar a prevalência de esclerose múltipla (EM) nas diferentes regiões do Brasil, o Comitê Brasileiro para Tratamento e Pesquisa em Esclerose Múltipla implementou uma abordagem padronizada para avaliar a prevalência da doença em 5 cidades-chave, consideradas representativas de suas regiões em termos de características sociogeográficas e nas quais seria viável revisar cada caso pessoalmente. Objetivos: Descrever a prevalência pontual de EM em Passo Fundo, uma das cidades-chave, localizada no Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Buscamos identificar todos os pacientes com EM que viviam em Passo Fundo no dia 1( de julho de 2015. A fonte primária para identificação de casos foi os registros de consultórios de neurologistas e neurocirurgiões da cidade. Múltiplas fontes secundárias foram usadas para maximizar a identificação de casos. Todos os pacientes tiveram o diagnóstico revisado pessoalmente por um painel de neurologistas com experiência em EM. Resultados: Identificamos 52 pacientes com EM que viviam em Passo Fundo em 1( de julho de 2015. Assim, a prevalência pontual bruta de EM foi 26,4/100.000 habitantes (intervalo de confiança de 95%, 19,7 a 34,6/100.000). Entre os casos de EM, 42 (80,8%) eram mulheres, (razão de sexos: 4,2:1). Quarenta e seis casos (88,5%) foram categorizados como EM remitente-recorrente, e os 6 casos restantes como EM secundariamente progressiva (11,5%). As demais características epidemiológicas e clínicas foram comparáveis a populações de EM internacionais. Conclusões: A prevalência de EM em Passo Fundo é uma das maiores já relatadas no Brasil. Estudos em outras cidades-chave brasileiras, usando a mesma metodologia, estão em andamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cities/epidemiology
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 311-317, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346464

ABSTRACT

Resumen La adherencia al tratamiento prescrito en enfermedades crónicas, como ocurre en la esclerosis múltiple (EM), es un factor crítico para una respuesta terapéutica exitosa. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre las variables demográficas y la adherencia al tratamiento en una población de pacientes con EM en Argentina. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes con EM que recibieron tratamiento con medicamentos modificadores de la enfermedad, incluidos en la base de datos de dispensación de medicamentos del Programa Nacional de Atención Médica: PAMI (Programa Asistencia Médica Integral). La adherencia óptima se definió como una adquisición del fármaco superior al 80% durante un seguimiento de 9 meses. Se incluyó un total de 648 pacientes, edad media 55 años (RIC 46-64), 59.4% mujeres. La adherencia media al tratamiento fue del 67% (RIC 44-89) y la adherencia óptima se documentó solo en el 35.5% de los casos. La adherencia a los medicamentos inyectables fue 10% menor que la de los medicamentos orales (p = 0.0001) y el uso de marcas originales se asoció con una adherencia 7.4% mayor que los medicamentos genéricos (p = 0.001). En conclusión, la adherencia al tratamiento ha sido subóptima. En la región patagónica, el uso de inyectables y de medicamentos genéricos se asoció con una menor adherencia terapéutica. Estos datos son muy importantes para planificar programas socio-sanitarios que tengan como objetivo aumentar la adherencia terapéutica.


Abstract Adherence to prescribed treatment in chronic diseases, as occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a critical factor for a successful therapeutic response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between demographic variables and adherence to treatment of the population of MS patients in Argentina. A retrospective cohort study of MS patients who received treatment with disease-modifying drugs, included in the drug dispensing database of the National Care Medical Program: PAMI (Programa Asistencia Médica Integral), was conducted. Optimal adherence was defined as an acquisition of the drug greater than 80% during a 9-month follow-up. A total of 648 patients were included, mean age 55 years (IQR 46-64), 59.4% women. The mean adherence to treatment was 67% (IQR 44-89) and optimal adherence was documented only in 35.5% of cases. Adherence to injectable medications was 10% lower than that of oral drugs (p = 0.0001) and the use of original brands was associated with 7.4% greater adherence than with generic drugs (p = 0.001). In conclusion, adherence to treatment has been suboptimal. In the Patagonian region, the use of injectables and generic drugs was associated with lower adherence to therapy. These data are very important in order to planning socio-sanitary programs that aim to increase therapeutic adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Medication Adherence
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(6): 489-496, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases affecting the central nervous system in young adults. Objective: To investigate demographic and clinical factors that are effective in the development of irreversible disability from the onset of MS, and to identify factors that affect the transformation from the relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) phase to the progressive MS (PMS) phase. Methods: Retrospective study on 741 patients who were diagnosed with RRMS and PMS according to the McDonald criteria, and were enrolled into the Turkish MS database of the Department of Neurology MS Polyclinic, at the Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, in Trabzon, Turkey. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the time taken to reach EDSS 4 and EDSS 6 from the onset of disease, and the time taken between EDSS 4 and EDSS 6. Results: Age of onset >40 years; having polysymptomatic-type onset, pyramidal or bladder-intestinal system-related first episode; ≥7 episodes in the first 5 years; and <2 years between the first two episodes were found to be effective for MS patients to reach EDSS 4 and EDSS 6. The demographic and clinical parameters that were effective for progression from EDSS 4 to EDSS 6 were: pyramidal or bladder-intestinal system-related first episode; 4‒6 episodes in the first 5 years; >2 years until start of first treatment; and smoking. Conclusions: Our findings reveal important characteristics of MS patients in our region. However, the associations between these parameters and MS pathophysiology remain to be elucidated.


RESUMO Introdução: A esclerose múltipla (EM), uma das doenças neurológicas crônicas mais comuns, afeta o sistema nervoso central em jovens adultos. Objetivo: Investigar fatores demográficos e clínicos que são efetivos no desenvolvimento de deficiência irreversível, desde o início da EM, e identificar fatores que afetam a transformação da fase de EM recorrente-remitente (EMRR) para a fase de EM secundária progressiva (EMSP). Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 741 pacientes que foram diagnosticados com EMRR e EMSP, de acordo com os critérios de McDonald, e inscritos no banco de dados turco MSBase, do Departamento de Neurologia da MS Polyclinic, da Universidade Técnica de Karadeniz, Turquia. Análise de Kaplan-Meier foi usada para avaliar o tempo para alcançar EDSS 4 e EDSS 6, desde o início da doença e o tempo entre EDSS 4 e EDSS 6. Resultados: Idade de início>40 anos, início do tipo polissintomático, primeiro ataque relacionado ao sistema piramidal ou bexiga-intestinal, ≥7 recaídas nos primeiros 5 anos e <2 anos entre os dois primeiros ataques foram considerados eficazes em pacientes com EM que atingiram EDSS 4 e EDSS 6. Parâmetros demográficos e clínicos que foram efetivos no progresso de EDSS 4 para EDSS 6: primeiro ataque relacionado ao sistema piramidal ou bexiga-intestinal, 4‒6 recaídas nos primeiros 5 anos, >2 anos até o início do primeiro tratamento e tabagismo. Conclusão: Estudo revelou características importantes dos pacientes com EM em nossa região. No entanto, as associações entre esses parâmetros e a fisiopatologia da EM ainda precisam ser elucidadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Disabled Persons , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Disability Evaluation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(6): 527-535, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major cause of chronic neurological disability in young adults. An increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of new drug-free treatments, complementary to the standard care, including music-based therapy (MBT). Objective: To analyze the evidence for the effectiveness of MBT within the therapeutic approaches to individuals diagnosed with MS. Methods: A systematic review of clinical trials was performed with searches in the following databases: BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCO, ERIC, Google Scholar, IBECS, LILACS, LISA (ProQuest), Medline, PEDro, PsycINFO (APA), Psychological & Behavioral, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Clinical trials comparing MBT versus conventional therapy/no intervention were included. Results: From the 282 studies identified, 10 trials were selected. Among these, the total sample consisted of 429 individuals: 253 were allocated to the experimental group (MBT) and 176 to the control group (conventional therapies or no intervention). All the studies presented high methodological quality. Modalities of MBT were clustered into four groups: (1) Rhythmic auditory; (2) Playing musical instruments; (3) Dance strategy; and (4) Neurological music therapy. Overall, the studies consistently showed that MBT was better than conventional therapy or no intervention, with regard to gait parameters (double support time and walking speed), fatigue level, fatigability, coordination, dexterity, balance, walking endurance, lower extremity functional strength, emotional status and pain. Regarding mental fatigability and memory, the data were conflicting and the evidence was unclear. Conclusion: MBT is a safe and effective approach for clinical rehabilitation of MS patients that leads to positive results regarding both motor and non-motor functions.


RESUMO Introdução: A esclerose múltipla (EM) é a maior causa de incapacidade neurológica crônica em adultos jovens. Um crescente número de estudos controlados avalia a reabilitação por meio de tratamentos não medicamentosos, cuidados complementares incluindo a terapia baseada na música (TBM). Objetivo: Analisar a evidência de efetividade da TBM na abordagem terapêutica de indivíduos diagnosticados com EM. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos com busca nas bases de dados Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane, Ebsco, Eric, Google Scholar, Ibecs, Lilacs, Lisa (ProQuest), Medline, PEDro, PsycINFO (APA), Psychological & Behavioral, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, Sportdiscus e Web of Science. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos comparando TBM versus terapia convencional/sem intervenção. Resultados: Dentre os 282 estudos identificados, 10 ensaios foram selecionados. Desses, a amostra total consistia em 429 indivíduos (253 alocados no grupo experimental (TBM) e 176 no grupo controle (terapias convencionais ou sem intervenção). Todos os estudos apresentaram elevada qualidade metodológica. Modalidades da TBM foram reunidas em quatro grupos: (1) Audição rítmica; (2) Tocar instrumentos musicais; (3) Dança como estratégia; e (4) Terapia neurofuncional baseada na música. A maioria dos estudos identificou que a TBM é melhor que a terapia convencional ou nenhuma intervenção nos parâmetros da marcha (duplo apoio e velocidade), níveis de fadiga, fatigabilidade, coordenação, destreza, equilíbrio, força de membros inferiores, estado emocional e dor. Os dados sobre fatigabilidade mental e memória foram conflitantes e as evidências são incertas. Conclusão: A TBM é uma abordagem segura na reabilitação clínica de indivíduos com EM e propicia resultados positivos nas funções motoras e não motoras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Music , Music Therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Emotions , Gait
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