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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 399-402, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tillaux fractures are fractures of the lateral margin of the distal tibia, usually reported in children between 12 and 14 years old. As intraarticular fractures, they require anatomic reduction and fixation to avoid posttraumatic complications. Since the injury mechanism is external rotation of the foot on the leg, these injuries are commonly associated with other fractures or ligamentous lesions. Currently, arthroscopy is being increasingly used to assist and improve surgical treatment of ankle fractures. The authors describe a 12-month follow-up of a rare case of a missed Tillaux fracture associated with syndesmosis injury in a 76-year-old polytrauma patient, successfully treated by arthroscopically-assisted reduction and internal fixation.


Resumo As fraturas de Tillaux são fraturas da margem lateral da tíbia distal, geralmente relatadas em crianças entre 12 e 14 anos. Como fraturas intra-articulares, requerem redução e fixação anatômica para evitar complicações pós-traumáticas. Como o mecanismo de lesão é a rotação externa do pé na perna, essas lesões são comumente associadas a outras fraturas ou lesões ligamentares. Atualmente, a artroscopia está sendo cada vez mais utilizada para auxiliar e melhorar o tratamento cirúrgico das fraturas do tornozelo. Os autores descrevem um acompanhamento de 12 meses de um caso raro de uma fratura não percebida de Tillaux associada a lesão por sindesmose em um paciente de politrauma com 76 anos de idade, tratado com sucesso por redução e fixação interna assistida por artroscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tibial Fractures , Multiple Trauma , Ankle Injuries , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Intra-Articular Fractures , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Ankle , Ankle Fractures
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 421-426, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253955

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La mayoría de las lesiones de carótida cervical en nuestra institución se manejan por vía endovascular. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los desenlaces del manejo de las lesiones de carótida cervical en un hospital de cuarto nivel en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Métodos. Estudio de series de casos, retrospectivo, descriptivo, en pacientes con trauma de carótida (penetrante y cerrado), admitidos en un centro de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Cali, en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2018 hasta enero de 2020. Resultados. Se evaluaron 20 pacientes con lesión de carótida, de los cuales 90 % tenía trauma penetrante, en su mayoría por proyectil de arma de fuego. La zona más frecuentemente afectada fue la carótida interna (65 %) y el 40 % de los pacientes presentaban síntomas neurológicos al ingreso. Se realizó manejo endovascular en 13 pacientes, con un 75 % de éxito en el manejo endovascular al ingreso. La mortalidad general fue del 20 %, que en su mayoría estuvo relacionada con traumatismo en otros órganos. El 69 % de los pacientes quedaron sin secuelas neurológicas al alta y el 25 % con secuelas mínimas. Discusión. Se muestra una serie de casos con lesión de carótida donde, teniendo en cuenta las variables de mal pronóstico para hacer una selección adecuada de los pacientes candidatos a este tipo de terapia, el resultado del manejo endovascular fue exitoso


Introduction. Most cervical carotid injuries in our institution are managed by endovascular approach. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of the endovascular management of cervical carotid lesions in at a I Level Trauma Center in Cali, Colombia. Methods. Retrospective, descriptive case series study in patients with both penetrating and blunt carotid trauma who were admitted to a I Level Trauma Center between January 2018 and January 2020. Results. Twenty patients with carotid injury were evaluated, of which 90% had penetrating trauma, mostly from a firearm projectile. The most frequently affected area was the internal carotid (65%) and 40% of the patients had neurological symptoms on admission. Endovascular management was performed in 13 patients, with a 75% success rate in endovascular management on admission. Overall mortality was 20%, most of which was related to trauma to other organs; 69% of the patients were left without neurological sequelae at discharge and 25% with minimal sequelae.Discussion. We describe a case series of patients with cervical carotid injury, taking into account the variables of poor prognosis to make an adequate selection of patients for endovascular management, the result of endovascular management was successful


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Artery Injuries , Endovascular Procedures , Wounds and Injuries , Multiple Trauma , Angiography , Embolization, Therapeutic
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 295-301, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1151198

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar os aspectos epidemiológicos das vitimas de trauma atendidas por um Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência 192. Método: estudo exploratório, descritivo e quantitativo, realizado no pronto socorro de um hospital de referencia. A população alvo foram as vitimas de trauma atendidas pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência, transportadas para o referido hospital. Resultados: observou-se que 5,9% deram entrada na urgência por Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo, 4,9% por Ferimento por Arma Branca, 23,8% por queda, e 60,4% por acidentes de transito. Conclusão: o perfil identificado foi de homens, vitimas de acidente de transito, nas idades de 18 a 35 anos, com segundo grau completo, sendo o tórax a região mais atingida. Esse estudo pode subsidiar a elaboração de estratégias para enfrentamento desses agravos, pois a grande quantidade de óbitos por causas externas são considerados um problema de saúde publica, causando sequelas irreparáveis


Objective: to characterize the epidemiological aspects of the victims of trauma treated by a Mobile Emergency Care Service 192. Method: an exploratory, descriptive and quantitative study, carried out in the first aid hospital of a reference hospital. The target population was the victims of trauma treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Service, transported to the referred hospital. Results: It was observed that 5.9% were admitted to the emergency due to Firearm Injuries, 4.9% to White Weapon Injury, 23.8% to fall, and 60.4% due to trafficaccidents. Conclusion: the identified profile was of men, victims of traffic accident, in the ages of 18 to 35 years, with full second degree, being the thorax the most affected region. This study may support the development of strategies to deal with these diseases, since the large number of deaths from external causes are considered a public health problem, causing irreparable sequelae


Objetivo: caracterizar los aspectos epidemiologicos de las victimas de trauma atendidas por un Servicio de Atencion Movil de Urgencia 192. Método: estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y cuantitativo, realizado en el pronto socorro de un hospital de referencia. La poblacion objetivo fueron las victimas de trauma atendidas por el Servicio de Atencion Movil de Urgencia, transportadas al referido hospital. Resultados: se observo que el 5,9% ingreso en la urgencia por Feridas por Arma de Fuego, 4,9% por Lesion por Arma Blanca, 23,8% por caida, y 60,4% por accidentes de transito. Conclusión: el perfil identificado fue de hombres, victimas de accidente de transito, en las edades de 18 a 35 anos, con segundo grado completo, siendo el torax la region mas afectada. Este estudio puede subsidiar la elaboracion de estrategias para enfrentar esos agravios, pues la gran cantidad de muertes por causas externas son consideradas um problema de salud publica, causando secuelas irreparables


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Multiple Trauma , Emergency Relief , Health Services Research , External Causes
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e31, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To report demographic and substance use characteristics and risk of road traffic injury (RTI) from alcohol use, cannabis use, and combined use in a sample of emergency department patients from two countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. A cross-sectional study in which patients 18 years and older admitted within six hours of suffering an RTI to one emergency department in Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic (n = 501) and in Lima, Peru (n = 431) were interviewed. Case-crossover analysis, based on self-reported use prior to the RTI, was used to analyze risk from alcohol, cannabis, and co-use. Results. Overall, 15.3% reported alcohol use prior to the event and 2.5% cannabis use. Drivers using alcohol only were over twice as likely to have an RTI (OR = 2.46, p < 0.001), and nearly eight times more likely if using both alcohol and cannabis (OR = 6.89, p < 0.01), but risk was not elevated for cannabis alone. Significant differences were not found for passengers or pedestrians. Conclusions. Risk of RTI for drivers in these two samples is significantly elevated from alcohol use, and more so for co-use with cannabis. Differences between the two countries underscore the need for similar data from the region to determine risk of RTI from substance use, including risk for passengers and pedestrians. Data suggest that alcohol contributes significantly to the burden of RTI, which calls for more stringent enforcement of alcohol control policy related to drink driving in the region.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Presentar las características demográficas y de consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y el riesgo de traumatismos causados por el tránsito debidos al consumo de alcohol, cannabis y su consumo combinado en una muestra de pacientes del departamento de urgencias de dos países de América Latina y el Caribe. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en que se entrevistaron pacientes de 18 años o más ingresados en las siguientes seis horas de haber recibido traumatismos causados por el tránsito en un departamento de urgencias en Lima (Perú) (n = 431) y en Santo Domingo (República Dominicana) (n = 501). Se empleó el análisis de cruce de casos, basado en el consumo autoinformado con anterioridad a los traumatismos causados por el tránsito, para evaluar el riesgo por consumo de alcohol, cannabis y consumo combinado. Resultados. En términos generales, 15,3% notificó consumo de alcohol con anterioridad al evento y 2,5%, consumo de cannabis. Los conductores que consumieron alcohol únicamente tuvieron más del doble de probabilidades de sufrir traumatismos causados por el tránsito (OR = 2,46, p < 0,001) y casi ocho veces más probabilidades si consumieron tanto alcohol como cannabis (OR = 6,89, p < 0,01), si bien el riesgo no fue tan elevado para el consumo único de cannabis. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en pasajeros o peatones. Conclusiones. El riesgo de sufrir traumatismos causados por el tránsito para los conductores en estas dos muestras es significativamente más elevado por el consumo de alcohol y más aún por el consumo combinado con cannabis. Las diferencias entre ambos países ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de obtener datos similares sobre la región para determinar el riesgo de sufrir traumatismos causados por el tránsito debidos al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, así como el riesgo para pasajeros y peatones. Los datos indican que el alcohol agrava significativamente la carga de los traumatismos causados por el tránsito, lo que exige un cumplimiento más estricto de las políticas de control del alcohol relacionadas con la conducción bajo los efectos del alcohol en la región.


RESUMO Objetivo. Descrever as características demográficas e uso de substâncias químicas e o risco de lesões por acidentes de trânsito associados ao consumo de álcool, uso de cannabis (maconha) e uso combinado de álcool e cannabis em uma amostra de pacientes que deram entrada no setor de emergência em dois países da América Latina e no Caribe. Métodos. Estudo transversal em que foram entrevistados pacientes maiores de 18 anos que deram entrada no setor de emergência no espaço de seis horas após sofrerem lesões por acidentes de trânsito em Santo Domingo, na República Dominicana (n = 501), e em Lima, Peru (n = 431). Foi realizada uma análise cruzada de casos com dados obtidos do autorrelato do uso de substâncias químicas anterior ao acidente de trânsito para avaliar o risco associado ao consumo de álcool, uso de cannabis e uso combinado. Resultados. Dos pacientes entrevistados, 15,3% relataram consumo de álcool e 2,5% referiram uso de cannabis antes do acidente. Os condutores que fizeram uso de álcool tiveram uma chance duas vezes maior de ter lesões por acidente de trânsito (OR = 2,46, p < 0,001) e uma chance de cerca de oito vezes maior com o uso combinado de álcool e cannabis (OR = 6,89, p < 0,01). Porém, o risco não foi elevado com o uso somente de cannabis. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no risco para passageiros ou pedestres. Conclusões. Verificou-se que o risco de lesões por acidentes de trânsito para os condutores nas duas amostras estudadas foi significativamente elevado com o consumo de álcool e foi ainda maior com o uso combinado de álcool e cannabis. As diferenças entre os dois países reforçam a necessidade de dados semelhantes da Região para determinar o risco de lesões por acidentes de trânsito com o uso de substâncias químicas, inclusive para determinar o risco para passageiros e pedestres. Os dados indicam que o álcool contribui significativamente à carga de lesões por acidentes de trânsito requerendo o cumprimento mais rigoroso da política de controle do consumo de álcool associado à condução de veículos na Região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Multiple Trauma/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Marijuana Abuse/complications , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Dominican Republic/epidemiology
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2487-2498, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150032

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el control de daños en Ortopedia es aplazar la reparación definitiva de lesiones traumáticas, con el objetivo de la recuperación fisiológica deteriorada por lesiones y/o complicaciones que pueden poner en peligro la vida, realizando entonces procedimientos quirúrgicos sencillos, como una estabilización quirúrgica externa de las fracturas. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento del control de daños ortopédicos en politraumatizados pediátricos. Materiales y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, de enero del 2015 a diciembre del 2018. El universo estuvo constituido por 22 pacientes menores de 19 años de edad, politraumatizados en el período; la muestra por 15 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó control de daños ortopédicos, según criterios de selección. Resultados: se aplicó control de daños ortopédicos a 15 infantes. El más afectado fue el sexo masculino con el 73,3 %. Prevalecieron los traumatismos de los miembros inferiores con el 58,3 % y las fracturas cerradas con un 53,8 %. La osteomielitis crónica fue la complicación que predominó, en el 20 % de la muestra. En el 73,3 % de los casos se evaluó como satisfactoria la aplicación del control de daños ortopédicos en los politraumatizados. Conclusiones: a la totalidad de los traumatizados se le aplicó control de daños ortopédicos. Predominó el sexo masculino y el grupo de edad de 9 -14 años. Los miembros inferiores aportan la mayor cantidad con el fémur y la tibia. El control de daños ortopédicos se evaluó satisfactoriamente en la mayoría de los pacientes estudiados (AU).


ABSTRAC Introduction: the control of damages in Orthopedics is to postpone the definitive repair of traumatic lesions, with the objective of the physiologic recovery deteriorated by lesions and/or complications that can put in danger the life, carrying out simple surgical procedures, like an external surgical stabilization of the fractures at that time. . Objective: to determine the behavior of the orthopedic damage control in pediatric politraumatized patients. Material and method: a cross-sectional, prospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out from January 2015 to December 2018. The universe was formed by 22 patients younger than 19 years politraumatized in the period and the sample formed 15 patients; they underwent orthopedic damage control, according to the selection criteria. Results: the orthopedic damage control, was applied to 15 children. Male sex was the most affected one. Trauma in the lower limbs with 58.3 % and closed fractures with 53.8 prevailed. The predominating complication was chronic poliomyelitis in 20 % of the sample. The orthopedic damage control in politraumatized patients was assessed as successful in 73.3 % of the cases. Conclusions: the orthopedic damage control was applied to the total of traumatized patients. The male sex and the 9-14 years-old age group predominated. Lower limbs contributed with the biggest quantity of trauma, in femur and tibia. The orthopedic damage control was assessed as successful in most of studied patients (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Multiple Trauma/prevention & control , Child , Patient Harm/prevention & control , Orthopedics/methods , Minor Surgical Procedures/methods , Wounds and Injuries/prevention & control , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Fractures, Closed/diagnosis , Fractures, Open/diagnosis
6.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(270): 4861-4872, nov.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145470

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever os cuidados de enfermagem ao paciente politraumatizado grave. MÉTODO: Revisão integrativa com buscas nas bases de dados CINAHL, MEDLINE/BIREME, IBECS, BDENF e LILACS, utilizando os MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) obtidos através da estratégia PVO e operador booleano em duas estratégias distintas: estratégia 01 "nursing care AND multiple trauma" e estratégia 02 "nursing care AND patient AND multiple trauma". RESULTADOS: Após buscas e aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade restaram uma totalidade de 09 artigos. Nesse sentido, observou-se que os cuidados de enfermagem ao paciente politraumatizado estão ligados ao âmbito do manejo adequado com a estrutura corporal, com ênfase na técnica de imobilização; aos cuidados à restauração e manutenção da pele; à administração medicamentosa e controle da dor; e, ao monitoramento de sistemas fisiológicos. CONCLUSÃO: O cuidado de enfermagem é um instrumento complexo que abrange o ser em sua totalidade, onde na assistência ao politraumatizado várias intervenções são necessárias para que haja progressão no estado de saúde deste individuo, demonstrando a importância desta profissão em virtude das inúmeras atividades desempenhadas.(AU)


OBJECTIVE: To describe nursing care for severe polytrauma patients. METHOD: Integrative review with searches in the following databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE/BIREME, IBECS, BDENF and LILACS, using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) obtained through the PVO strategy and Boolean operator in two different strategies: strategy 01 "nursing care AND multiple trauma "and strategy 02" nursing care AND patient AND multiple trauma". RESULTS: After searching and applying the eligibility criteria, a total of 09 articles remained. In this sense, it was observed that nursing care for polytrauma patients is linked to the scope of adequate management with body structure, with an emphasis on the immobilization technique; care for the restoration and maintenance of the skin; medication administration and pain control; and, the monitoring of physiological systems. CONCLUSION: Nursing care is a complex instrument that encompasses the being in its entirety, where in assistance to multiple trauma patients, several interventions are necessary for there to be progression in the health status of this individual, demonstrating the importance of this profession due to the numerous activities performed.(AU)


OBJETIVO: Describir la atención de enfermería a pacientes politraumatizados graves. METODO: Revisión integrativa con búsquedas en las bases de datos CINAHL, MEDLINE/BIREME, IBECS, BDENF y LILACS, utilizando el MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) obtenido a través de la estrategia PVO y operador booleano en dos estrategias distintas: estrategia 01 "cuidado de enfermería y trauma múltiple" y estrategia 02 "cuidado de enfermería y y y trauma múltiple del paciente". RESULTADOS: Después de buscar y aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad, se mantuvieron un total de 09 artículos. En este sentido, se observó que la atención de enfermería para pacientes politraumatizados está vinculada al ámbito de un manejo adecuado con estructura corporal, con énfasis en la técnica de inmovilización; cuidado de la restauración y mantenimiento de la piel; administración de drogas y control del dolor; y, el monitoreo de los sistemas fisiológicos. CONCLUSION: La atención de enfermería es un instrumento complejo que abarca el ser en su totalidad, donde en el cuidado de la politraumatizada son necesarias varias intervenciones para que haya progresión en el estado de salud de este individuo, demostrando la importancia de esta profesión debido a las numerosas actividades realizadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Trauma/nursing , Fractures, Multiple , Nursing Care , Wounds and Injuries , Patient-Centered Care
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1804-1814, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127042

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el politraumatismo por si solo constituye uno de los problemas más grandes de la sociedad moderna. Las lesiones traumáticas en Cuba aparecen en el quinto lugar entre las causas globales de muerte para todas las edades. Objetivo: determinar cómo incidió el factor tiempo en la organización de las acciones para la atención de urgencia al paciente politraumatizado. Materiales y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, conformado por 183 pacientes politraumatizados, atendidos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Emergentes del Hospital Provincial". José R. López Tabrane " de Matanzas, durante el año 2014. Las variables a considerar fueron: edad, sexo, tiempo en que recibieron las primeras acciones, tiempo de llegada al Hospital, factores asociados que influyeron en la aparición de injuria secundaria. Se utilizó la técnica estadística de análisis de distribución de frecuencias. Resultados: el mayor porcentaje de los pacientes (82,6 %) acudieron 4-6 h después de sufrido el traumatismo. Aparecieron factores como la hipotensión, la hipoxia (66,1 y 50,2 %) respectivamente, que tuvieron lesiones asociadas y fueron valoradas en la primera hora del traumatismo. Conclusiones: el trauma severo es una de las entidades prevenibles que más vida cobra en la sociedad. El sexo masculino y edades más productivas de la vida fueron los que más morbimortalidad presentaron. El hecho de que la mayor cantidad de estos pacientes arribaron al Hospital después de la hora dorada, propició un mayor número de complicaciones por el no control a tiempo de los elementos que forman la injuria secundaria (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: polytrauma, by itself, is one of the biggest problems of the modern society. Trauma lesions in Cuba are in the fifth place among the death global causes for all age groups. Objective: to determine how time factor had an impact in the actions organization for the emergency care to polytrauma patient. Materials and method: an observational study was performed in 183 poly-trauma patients who attended the Intensive Care Unit of the Provincial Hospital "Jose Ramón López Tabrane" of Matanzas during 2014. The considered variables were: age; sex; time of receiving the first actions; time of arrival to the hospital; associated factors influencing in the appearance of secondary injury. The authors used the statistic technique of analysis of frequency distribution. Results: the highest percent of patients (82.6 %) assisted the consultation 4-6 hours after suffering the trauma. There were found factors like hypotension and hypoxia (66.1 and 50.2 % respectively that had associated lesions and were assessed in the first hour of the trauma. Conclusions: acute trauma is one of the preventable entities taking more lives in the society. Male sex predominated and the more productive ages of life were the ones presenting more morbid-mortality. The fact that the biggest quantity of these patients arrived to the hospital after the golden hour favored a higher number of complications due to the untimely control of the elements forming the secondary injury (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Time Factors , Multiple Trauma/epidemiology , Advanced Trauma Life Support Care , Multiple Trauma/surgery , Multiple Trauma/mortality , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Observational Study , Intensive Care Units
8.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(1): 23-27, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291847

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old man was transferred to our institution after a highenergy accident (an explosion). He presented second-degree burns on 20% of the total body surface area (TBSA), affecting the lower hemiabdomen and the lower right limb. He also presented a supraintercondylar open fracture of the right femur (Gustilo I). The burns were treated with debridement and coverage withmesh graft, while the fracture required an early transitory transarticular external fixation with delayed definitive osteosynthesis. Our patient presented good local and systemic evolution. We can offer a eleven-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: The literature supports that the combination of trauma and burn injuries is a relatively rare pattern, which may explain the lack of knowledge and studies on this subject. This double injury has demonstrated a synergistic effect on mortality. The management of soft tissues in the coexistence of an open fracture and a burn in the same limb is a challenge. The method and timing of the treatment of the fracture directly impacts the treatment of the burn (and vice versa), and most authors tend to treat the fracture first. All of the studies reviewed emphasized the importance of the multidisciplinary approach. CONCLUSIONS: We have presented a complex case combining major trauma and severe burns. Although there is a lack of studies in the literature on this subject, the papers state that this is an unusual pattern with a synergistic effect on mortality. In our experience, the management of soft tissues and the multidisciplinary approach play a central role, as it is also stated in the literature. The management of these patients is still controversial, and more studies are needed.


PRESENTACIÓN DEL CASO: Hombre de 42 años trasladado a nuestra institución tras un accidente de alta energía (explosión). Presentaba quemaduras de segundo grado del 20% de la superficie corporal total (SCT), afectando el hemiabdomen inferior y la extremidad inferior derecha. También presentaba una fractura abierta supraintercondílea de fémur derecho (Gustilo I). Las quemaduras fueron tratadas mediante desbridamiento y cobertura mediante injerto mallado, mientras que la fractura requirió un fijador externo transarticular precoz de forma transitoria con una osteosíntesis definitiva diferida. Nuestro paciente presentó buena evolución local y sistémica. Podemos ofrecer un seguimiento a 11 meses. DISCUSIÓN: La bibliografía defiende que la lesión combinada de traumatismo y quemadura es un patrón relativamente raro, pudiendo explicar la falta de conocimiento y publicaciones al respecto. Este doble insulto ha demostrado un efecto sinérgico en la mortalidad. El manejo de las partes blandas cuando coexisten una fractura abierta y una quemadura en la misma extremidad es un desafío. El método y el momento de tratamiento de la fractura impactan de forma directa en el tratamiento de la quemadura (y viceversa); y la mayoría de los autores tienden a tratar en primer lugar la fractura. Todos los estudios analizados enfatizan la importancia del abordaje multidisciplinario. CONCLUSIONES: Hemos presentado un caso complejo combinando traumatismo grave y quemaduras severas. Aunque haya una falta de bibliografía, los estudios afirman que se trata de un patrón inusual con un efecto sinérgico sobre la mortalidad. En nuestra experiencia, el manejo de las partes blandas y el abordaje multidisciplinario tienen un rol central, tal y como defienden también los artículos publicados. El manejo de estos pacientes sigue siendo controvertido, y son necesarios más estudios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Burns/complications , Burns/therapy , Multiple Trauma , Lower Extremity , Debridement , Fracture Fixation, Internal
9.
Sahel medical journal (Print) ; 23(2): 121-125, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271720

ABSTRACT

Background: Floating knee is the term applied to the flail knee joint segment resulting from a fracture of the shaft or adjacent metaphysis of the ipsilateral femur and tibia. The fractures are often a result of high­energy trauma. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and distribution of these fracture types, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, method of treatment, complications, and the challenges encountered during the course of managing these patients. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all cases of floating knee injuries presenting to the Orthopedic Unit of Federal Medical Center and Surgery Department of Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital all in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 2011 to December 2017. Data were extracted from the accident and emergency register, operation register, and patients' case folders. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows version 22 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: A total of 29 cases of floating knee injuries presented to the accident and emergency units. Males constituted 27 (93.1%) while females constituted 2 (6.9%). Motor vehicle accident was the most common mechanism of injury in 25 (86.3%) of the patients. The most common fracture type according to Fraser et al. classification is Type I which occurred in 12 (41.4%) of the patients. Conclusion: Floating knee injury occurs mostly in the productive age group. Head injury is the most common associated injury seen. This is mostly caused by motor vehicle accidents


Subject(s)
Femoral Fractures , Fraser Syndrome , Knee , Multiple Trauma , Nigeria , Tibial Fractures
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258617

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Time is critical in the trauma setting. Emergency computed tomography (CT) scans are usually interpreted by the attending doctor and plans to manage the patient are implemented before the formal radiological report is available. This study aims to investigate the discrepancy in interpretation of emergency whole body CT scans in trauma patients by the trauma surgeon and radiologist and to determine if the difference in trauma surgeon and radiologist interpretation of emergency trauma CT scans has an impact on patient management. Method: This prospective observational comparative study was conducted over a 6 month period (01 April­30 September 2016) at the Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital which has a level 1 trauma department. The study population comprised 62 polytrauma patients who underwent a multiphase whole body CT scans as per the trauma imaging protocol. The trauma surgeons' initial interpretation of the CT scan and radiological report were compared. All CT scans reported by the radiology registrar were reviewed by a consultant radiologist. The time from completion of the CT scan and completion of the radiological report was analysed. Results: Since the trauma surgeon accompanied the patient to radiology and reviewed the images as soon as the scan was complete, the initial interpretation of the CT was performed within 15­30 min. The median time between the CT scan completion and reporting turnaround time was 75 (16­218) min. Critical findings were missed by the trauma surgeon in 4.8% of patients (bronchial transection, abdominal aortic intimal tear and cervical spine fracture) and non-critical/incidental findings in 41.94%. The trauma surgeon correctly detected and graded visceral injury in all cases. Conclusion: There was no significant discrepancy in the critical findings on interpretation of whole body CT scans in polytrauma patients by the trauma surgeon and radiologist and therefore no negative impact on patient management from missed injury or misdiagnosis. The turnaround time for the radiology report does not allow for timeous management of the trauma patient


Subject(s)
Multidetector Computed Tomography , Multiple Trauma , Radiologists , South Africa , Trauma Centers
11.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 363-366, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879653

ABSTRACT

The treatment of severe trauma, especially multiple injuries, requires multidisciplinary collaboration. The current study aims to highlight the challenges of consultation mode for severe trauma in general hospitals and emphasizes the need to create a new temporary-sustainable team. It suggests developing an information consultation mode and enforcing the fine management to improve the quality and safety of the medical treatment. The management mode of a temporary-sustainable team will reduce the cost and improve the treatment efficiency. Overall, a temporary-sustainable team has significant advantages over a traditional multidisciplinary team for severe trauma treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intersectoral Collaboration , Male , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Quality of Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Safety , Trauma Severity Indices , Traumatology/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 149-151, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827841

ABSTRACT

Adrenal gland trauma is a rare phenomenon, due to the small size and retroperitoneal location of the organ. The majority of adrenal gland trauma is due to blunt force injury and is only rarely encountered due to the penetrating mechanisms. A 20-year-old male sustained a gunshot wound to the left abdomen. Upon exploration, he was found to have a through and through injury to the left adrenal gland, among other injuries. Injury to the adrenal gland due to penetrating trauma is exceptionally rare. The principles of management are to control bleeding from the gland with debridement and hemostasis rather than attempt to resect the entire organ. The management of a penetrating injury to the adrenal gland is straightforward and should not be a contributor to a patient's morbidity or mortality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Diagnostic Imaging , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , Debridement , Hemorrhage , Therapeutics , Hemostasis, Surgical , Humans , Laparotomy , Male , Multiple Trauma , Therapeutics , Organ Sparing Treatments , Methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Wounds, Gunshot , Diagnostic Imaging , Therapeutics , Young Adult
13.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 243-248, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827836

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To explore the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients admitted to the trauma and emergency department (TED) of a tertiary care hospital due to tropical cyclone Fani and highlight the challenges faced by the hospital in this natural disaster.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted in the TED in the affected zone. Data of all victims affected by the cyclone Fani on May 3, 2019 were obtained from disaster records and medical case sheets. All patients except death on admission were included. Clinical variables included anatomical sites and severity of injuries which was assessed by revised trauma score (RTS) and injury severity score (ISS). Trauma injury severity score (TRISS) was also calculated.@*RESULTS@#Of 75 patients, 74 were included and the other one was brought dead and thus excluded. The age, median ± interquartile range (IQ), was 41.0 (27.7-53.0) years. The male to female ratio was 2:1. Most of the wounded were transported by the police control room vans on day 1: first 10 h, 50.0%; 10-24 h, 20.3%. The median ± IQ range of RTS, ISS and TRISS were 20 (14-28), 7.84 (7.841-7.841), and 97.4 (91.6-98.9), respectively. Simple external injury was the dominant injury type. Polytrauma (ISS >15) was seen in 67% cases and spine injury in 14% cases (7% cervical and 7% thoracolumbar). Injury causes included sharp flying objects (broken pieces of glasses and asbestos) in 31% cases, followed by fall of trees in 20.3%. Twenty-four patients were discharged after primary treatment, 30 admitted to the indoor-trauma ward or intensive care unit and 20 deferred or transferred to another center. There was no in-house mortality. Challenges were related to electricity failure, mobile network breakdown, infrastructure collapse, and delay in expertise repair from outside due to airport/railway closure.@*CONCLUSION@#In cyclonic storm like Fani, sharp flying objects, fall of trees/poles and collapsing walls constitute the common mode of injuries causing harm to more than one body regions. Polytrauma was seen in the majority of patients though external injury was the commonest. The affected hospital had the uphill task of treating hospitalized patients as well as disaster victims.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cyclonic Storms , Disaster Planning , Disaster Victims , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Trauma , Epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Trauma Centers , Trauma Severity Indices , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries resulting from interpersonal violence in Brazilian children and adolescents. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at a Center of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Dentistry with a sample of 335 medical reports of victims aged up to 19 years. Variables involved sex and age group, perpetrator, occurrence of the event, characterization of injuries, presence of maxillofacial injuries, type of tissue involvement, and injuries in the oral cavity. Data were analyzed using descriptive, and the Chi-square was used for categorical data. Results: Most victims were female (60.3%) and aged 15-19 years (57.6%). Aggressions occurred at home (50.6%), in the evening (39.5%) and involved perpetrators known to the victim (91.5%). Most victims had multiple injuries (75.8%), involving up to three regions of the body (93.4%). Injuries with blunt objects were the most frequent (86.2%). The prevalence of maxillofacial injuries was 36.7%, with low involvement of the oral cavity (8.4%). A significant association between the presence of injuries on the face and variables "perpetrator" (p=0.015) and "number of injuries" (p=0.006) was observed. Conclusion: Female adolescents were the main victims of physical violence, with repercussions in different regions of the body. The prevalence of maxillofacial injuries was high, although with little involvement of oral cavity structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Forensic Dentistry , Forensic Medicine , Maxillofacial Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Trauma , Chi-Square Distribution , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 504-508, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047913

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Lesões geradas por queimaduras representam um importante problema de saúde pública, constituindo a quarta causa de morte na infância no Brasil e Estados Unidos. Além disso, poucas são as doenças que trazem prejuízos tão importantes, com considerável morbidade pelo desenvolvimento de sequelas físicas e psicossociais. Diante disso, o objetivo deste estudo é traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças de 0-18 anos atendidas em um hospital escola de Curitiba, Paraná. Métodos: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo realizado através da análise de 625 prontuários de internação de crianças de 0-18 anos vítimas de queimaduras, entre janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2017. Foram coletadas informações sobre idade, sexo, tempo de internação, óbito, região corporal atingida, extensão da superfície corporal, grau de profundidade, agente etiológico e abordagem terapêutica. Resultados: A maior parte da amostra era composta por lactentes (43%), com média de idade de 12,6 anos. O sexo mais afetado foi o masculino e os pacientes permaneceram cerca de 14,5 dias internados. No estudo, 98% das queimaduras apresentaram como etiologia o agente térmico, principalmente por líquido quente. Em relação ao grau de profundidade, a maioria das queimaduras foram de 2º grau (61,3%), atingindo até 25% de superfície corporal queimada (SCQ), sendo o tronco o mais afetado. Dentre as modalidades de tratamento, 44% dos pacientes necessitaram de intervenção cirúrgica com debridamento e enxertia. Conclusão: Crianças mais novas são mais propensas a sofrerem queimaduras principalmente no ambiente domiciliar e, além disso, uma equipe preparada e capacitada é de crucial importância no prognóstico destes doentes.


Introduction: Injuries caused by burns represent a significant public health problem, constituting the fourth leading cause of childhood death in Brazil and the United States. In addition, few diseases carry such substantial losses as burns, with considerable morbidity due to the development of physical and psychosocial sequelae. This study aimed to outline the epidemiological profile of 0­18-year-old children treated for burns at a teaching hospital in Curitiba, Paraná. Methods: This cross-sectional, retrospective study involved analysis of 625 medical records of 0­18-year-old children who were victims of burns from January 2010 to December 2017. Information was collected on age, sex, length of hospitalization, death, body region affected, burned body surface area (BSA), depth, etiologic agent, and therapeutic approach. Results: A plurality of the sample were infants (43%), and the average age of the sample was 12.6 years. Most of the sample was comprised males, and the patients remained hospitalized for an average of 14.5 days. Of the burns, 98% were caused by thermal agents, particularly hot liquids. Most burns were second-degree burns (61.3%), reaching up to 25% of the BSA, and the most affected region was the trunk. Among the treatment modalities, 44% of the patients needed surgical intervention with debridement and grafting. Conclusion: Younger children are more prone to burns, especially in the home environment. A prepared and qualified team is of crucial importance for optimizing outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Health Profile , Burns , Multiple Trauma , Health Surveys , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Surgery, Plastic/statistics & numerical data , Burns/surgery , Burns/therapy , Multiple Trauma/surgery , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data
17.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e955, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093276

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La principal causa de mortalidad temprana en pacientes politraumatizados es la hipovolemia secundaria a hemorragia masiva. La terapia con hemocomponentes y cristaloides constituye un mecanismo esencial y salvavidas en estas situaciones como medida de reemplazo de volumen. De la misma manera los pacientes con lesiones traumáticas graves tienen una disminución aguda significativa en el recuento de plaquetas circulantes que los hace candidatos a la transfusión de componentes plaquetarios; sin embargo, el uso de estos componentes sanguíneos puede traer consigo desenlaces no deseados como aumento en la mortalidad. Si bien muchos estudios revelan un aumento de la mortalidad como desenlace asociado al uso de hemocomponentes, otros establecen su uso como una medida reductora de este desenlace. Objetivo: Exponer las principales indicaciones de hemocomponentes en los pacientes politraumatizados, así como relacionar los eventos adversos asociados a su uso que influyen sobre la mortalidad y el tiempo de hospitalización de estos pacientes. Desarrollo: La mortalidad asociada al uso de hemocomponentes aún es un tema controvertido. En la hemorragia masiva el apoyo transfusional rápido y eficiente es esencial en el tratamiento y la atención de politraumatismos, de ahí que sea necesario contar con protocolos de transfusión que mejoren los resultados y disminuyan las complicaciones. Además, se identificó la necesidad de nuevos estudios sobre el tema para mejorar estos protocolos y reducir las complicaciones.(AU)


Introduction: The main cause of early mortality in polytrauma patients is hypovolemia secondary to massive hemorrhage. Hemocomponent and crystalloid therapy is an essential and life-saving mechanism in these situations as a measure of volume replacement. In the same way, patients with severe traumatic injuries have a significant acute decrease in circulating platelet counts that makes them candidates for transfusion of platelet components; However, the use of these blood components can lead to unwanted outcomes such as increased mortality. Although many studies reveal an increase in mortality as an outcome associated with the use of blood components, others establish its use as a reducing measure of this outcome. Objective: to present the main indications of blood components in polytrauma patients, as well as to relate the adverse events associated with their use that influence the mortality and hospitalization time of these patients. Devlopment: Mortality associated with the use of blood components is still a controversial issue. In massive hemorrhage, rapid and efficient transfusion support is essential in the treatment and care of polytrauma, hence it is necessary to have transfusion protocols that improve results and reduce complications. In addition, the need for new studies on the subject to improve these protocols and reduce complications was identified(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Multiple Trauma/mortality , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Emergency Medicine
18.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(39): 25-30, Julio 2019. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1007193

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las lesiones asociadas al tránsito(LAT) constituyen un serio problema en hospitales públicos.Para mejorar la administración y distribución de recursos,es importante conocer el costo de hospitalización por esta causa. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar a los pacientes hospitalizados por LAT y estimar los costos directos de la asistencia entre enero y junio de 2017 en un hospital público de referencia de la provincia de Tucumán. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de estimación de costos de hospitalización por LAT, con seguimiento retrospectivo y sumatoria de variables contempladas. Se estimaron promedios, se compararon proporciones. Se consideró significativo p<0,05. Se empleó el programa estadístico Stata 11.2. RESULTADOS: Hubo 458 pacientes hospitalizados por LAT, el 79% fueron varones y y la mediana de edad fue de 27 años en ambos sexos. Las motos representaron el 77% de los vehículos utilizados. Los pacientes graves (25%) permanecieron más de 30 días en servicios quirúrgicos (costo promedio: USD 7.252). El costo promedio de estudios complementarios por paciente fue de USD 180, el de cirugías USD 823 y el de internación USD 1320. CONCLUSIONES: Las hospitalizaciones por LAT fueron principalmente en varones, jóvenes adultos y motociclistas. El mayor costo se observó en pacientes graves, que requirieron cirugía y un promedio de 35 días de internación en servicios quirúrgico


NTRODUCTION: Traffic-related injuries (TRI) are a major problem in public hospitals. For better resource management and distribution, it is important to know the cost of hospitalizations. The objective of this study was to characterize patients hospitalized due to TRI and to estimate the direct costs of the care provided between January and June 2017in a public hospital ofTucumán Province in Argentina. METHODS: A study of costs of patients hospitalized due to TRI was conducted, with retrospective follow-up and summation of the variables considered for the analysis. Averages were estimated and proportions were compared. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Statistical software Stata 11.2 was used. RESULTS: A total of 458 patients were hospitalized due to TRI, 79% were men, and the median age was 27 for both sexes. Motorcycles accounted for 77% of all vehicles used. Severely injured patients (25%) stayed more than 30 days in surgical facilities (average cost: USD 7252). The average cost per patient of complementary studies, in surgeries and hospitalization was USD 180, USD 823 and USD 1320, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized due to TRI were mainly males, young adults and motorcyclists. The highest cost was in the group of patients with serious injuries, who required surgery, with an average stay of 35 days of hospitalization in surgical facilitie


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Multiple Trauma , Accidents, Traffic , Health Care Costs
19.
Infectio ; 23(2): 212-214, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989953

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las lesiones anogenitales hipertróficas, pseudotumorales y similares a placas, son presentaciones atípicas del virus herpes simple (VHS). Estas lesiones desarrollan resistencia a los tratamientos y se presentan en inmunocomprometidos, especialmente aquellos con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 38 años de edad, VIH/SIDA, con antecedente de carcinoma escamocelular infiltrante de canal anal, con lesiones múltiples hipertróficas anogenitales y exudativas, a quien se le confirma infección por VHS-1, sin respuesta a aciclovir ni valaciclovir a dosis óptimas, el cual resuelve con 21 días de foscarnet intravenoso. Nuestro caso muestra la importancia de considerar el uso de foscarnet en adultos con infección de VIH y del VHS, que no respondan a tratamiento de primera línea, en un país donde no hay esquemas establecidos de manejo para este tipo de presentaciones y donde existe la limitante de no haber disponibilidad en pruebas para resistencia a antivirales.


Abstract Pseudotumoral, hypertrophic, plaque-like anogenital ulcers are atypical features of herpes simplex infection. These ulcers develop treatment resistance and they appear in immunocompromised mainly those infected by human immunodeficiency virus. We present a 38 years-old man with AIDS and personal history of infiltrative squamous carcinoma of anal canal with multiple hypertrophic and exudative ulcers secondary to VHS-1 etiology without response to acyclovir neither valacyclovir at optimal doses but complete answer with 21 days of foscarnet treatment. Our case highlights the role of foscarnet in adults with HIV-HSV coinfection that don't respond to frst line treatment in a country that doesn't have clear treatment recommendations in these cases and with the limitations of absence of antiviral resistance test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anal Canal , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Foscarnet , Herpes Simplex , Antiviral Agents , Ulcer , Multiple Trauma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Herpes Genitalis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762679

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture resulting from blunt trauma is usually severe. However, it is often overlooked during initial evaluation because there are no characteristic signs and symptoms. Thus, this study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of diaphragmatic rupture caused by blunt trauma and investigate the diagnostic usefulness of diaphragmatic height index (DHI) measured using chest radiographs. METHODS: The cohort comprised patients who were admitted due to diaphragmatic rupture from blunt trauma. Patients were divided into 2 groups; the control group comprised patients with blunt trauma who were matched for age, sex, and Injury Severity Score, while the DHI group comprised patients with diaphragmatic rupture from blunt trauma. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the cutoff value of DHI for diaphragmatic injury. The sensitivity, specificity, predictability, accuracy, and likelihood ratio of the cutoff were then determined. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were confirmed to have diaphragmatic rupture. The mean DHI in patients with diaphragmatic rupture on the right and left side were both significantly different compared to that in the control group. A DHI cutoff value of >1.31 showed 71% sensitivity and 87% specificity for diagnosing right diaphragmatic rupture, while a cutoff value of <0.43 showed 87% sensitivity and 76% specificity for diagnosing left diaphragmatic rupture. CONCLUSION: DHI can be useful in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture. DHI as determined using chest radiographs in patients with blunt abdominal trauma, particularly in those ineligible for diagnostic work-up, may help in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Diaphragm , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Multiple Trauma , Radiography, Thoracic , ROC Curve , Rupture , Sensitivity and Specificity
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