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2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 41: e1355, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408617

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La vacuna contra sarampión-parotiditis-rubéola es administrada en Cuba con un 99 por ciento de cobertura vacunal. Actualmente se plantea la baja inmunogenicidad de la cepa de parotiditis con que se fabrica por lo que resulta importante velar por la eficacia de las vacunas y su respuesta inmune protectora. Objetivos: Evaluar el comportamiento de los índices de anticuerpo antirubéola, antiparotiditis y antisarampión de acuerdo con la edad, y analizar la variación de la respuesta de anticuerpos antiparotiditis con respecto a estudios anteriores. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron muestras de suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo de 42 pacientes pediátricos con procesos neuroinflamatorios y se les cuantificó IgG total y albúmina y anticuerpos específicos contra los tres virus a partir de ensayos innmunoenzimáticos tipo ELISA. Se realizaron los reibergramas correspondientes e índices de anticuerpos específicos. Resultados: Se observó un incremento sostenido de anticuerpos contra los tres inmunógenos de forma general, sin diferencias significativas por razones de edad ni cambios notables posrevacunación. Existió un decrecimiento del índice de anticuerpos a medida que se alejaba de la fecha de revacunación por lo que se debe mantener una vigilancia en esos grupos de edades. La velocidad de producción de anticuerpos antiparotiditis fue mayor que frente a los otros virus, aunque no de forma significativa. Conclusiones: Esta vacuna garantiza protección por la uniformidad de la respuesta inmune de memoria inducida en todos los grupos de edades. Se demostró un aumento de protección de la población estudiada frente a la parotiditis con respecto a estudios previos(AU)


Introduction: The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine is administered in Cuba with 99 percent vaccination coverage. Currently, the low immunogenicity of the strain of mumps with which it is manufactured is raised, so it is important to ensure the effectiveness of vaccines and their protective immune response. Objectives: Evaluate the behavior of the anti-rubella, anti-mumps and anti-measles antibody indices according to age, and to analyze the variation of the anti-mumps antibody response with respect to previous studies. Materials and methods: Serum and cerebro-spinal fluid samples from 42 pediatric patients with neuro-inflammatory processes were studied and total IgG and albumin and specific antibodies against the three viruses were quantified from immunoenzymatic assays ELISA type. Corresponding reibergrams and specific antibody indices were performed. Results: A sustained increase in antibodies against the ethree immunogens was observed in general, without significant differences due to age or notable post-vaccination changes. There was a decrease in the antibody index as it moved away from the date of revaccination, so surveillance should be maintained in these age groups. The rate of production of anti-mumps antibodies was higher than against the other viruses, although not significantly. Conclusions: This vaccine guarantees protection by the uniformity of the memory induced immune response in all age groups. An increase in the protection of the studied population against mumps was demonstrated with respect to previous studies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Mumps
3.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(4)dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408584

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El esquema nacional de vacunación cubano presenta coberturas superiores al 99 por ciento que incluye la vacuna contra parotiditis, rubéola y sarampión. Así, cuando existe un proceso neuroinflamatorio se produce una amplia síntesis intratecal de anticuerpos antiparotiditis, antirubéola y antisarampión, que permite realizar evaluaciones neuroepidemiológicas de las campañas de vacunación y el sesgo de casos extremos, desde el punto de vista inmunológico. Objetivos: Correlacionar el índice de anticuerpos antirubéola, antiparotiditis y antisarampión con procesos autoinmunes asociados y en la identificación de posibles pacientes con inmunodeficiencias en la muestra estudiada. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio aplicado y descriptivo de corte transversal en 42 niños evaluados en los servicios de cuerpo de guardia de los hospitales pediátricos de La Habana del 2015 al 2018. La muestra fue dividida según los tres intervalos del índice de anticuerpos (menor o igual a 0,6; de 0,6 a 1,5 y mayor o igual a 1,5). Se procedió a detectar en los segmentos extremos pacientes con posible autoinmunidad (mayor o igual a 1,5) e inmunodeficiencia (se tomó el intervalo inferior a una desviación estándar). Resultados: En el grupo con índice de anticuerpos mayor o igual a 1,5, el 75 por ciento fue positivo a la reacción MRZ, indicativo de una enfermedad autoinmune activa. En el grupo con índice de anticuerpos menor o igual a 0,6 preponderó una clínica con prevalencia de enfermedades tumorales e infecciosas asociadas a un alto índice de hospitalización, test de inmunodeficiencia positivo y bajos niveles de IgG en suero. Conclusiones: Es posible identificar pacientes pediátricos con desórdenes autoinmunes y sospecha de inmunodeficiencias, a partir de la estrategia de la evaluación neuroepidemiológica de los índices de anticuerpos antiparotiditis, antirubéola y antisarampión(AU)


Introduction: The Cuban national vaccination scheme has a coverage of more than 99 percent of the population, and includes the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Therefore, in the presence of a neuroinflammatory process, a broad intrathecal synthesis of measles, mumps and rubella antibodies takes place which makes it possible to conduct neuroepidemiological evaluations of the vaccination campaigns and the bias of extreme cases, from an immunological perspective. Objectives: Correlate the measles, mumps and rubella antibody index with associated autoimmune processes and in the identification of patients with possible immunodeficiencies in the study sample. Methods: An applied cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of 42 children attending the emergency services of Havana children's hospitals in the period 2015-2018. The sample was divided according to the three antibody index intervals: smaller than or equal to 0.6, from 0.6 to 1.5, and greater than or equal to 1.5. Extreme segments were examined to detect patients with possible autoimmunity (greater than or equal to 1.5) and immunodeficiency (the interval below a standard deviation was taken as reference). Results: 75 percent of the group with an antibody index greater than or equal to 1.5 was positive to the MRZ reaction, indicative of an active autoimmune disease. In the group with an antibody index lower than or equal to 0.6, the prevailing clinical status showed a prevalence of tumoral and infectious diseases associated to a high hospitalization index, a positive immunodeficiency test and low serum IgG levels. Conclusions: It is possible to identify pediatric patients with autoimmune disorders and suspicion of immunodeficiencies applying the strategy of neuroepidemiological evaluation of the measles, mumps and rubella antibody indices(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autoimmune Diseases , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Vaccines , Autoimmunity , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Antibodies , Mumps , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(6): 329-331, 20210000. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359113

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: las paperas son una infección viral que se transmite por contacto directo, gotitas y fómites. Irak es testigo de varias epidemias de paperas. Objetivo: Informar sobre la última epidemia de paperas 2015-2016. Métodos: El lado de Bagdad de Al-Rusafa fue seleccionado al azar de dos lados de Bagdad. Se llevó a cabo una revisión de los datos del Departamento de Salud Pública de la Dirección de Salud de Bagdad / Al-Rusafa. Los datos fueron todos los casos notificados de paperas para los años 2015-2016. Resultados: Los casos registrados de paperas fueron 9780 y 33728 para 2015 y 2016, respectivamente. La edad máxima en 2015 y 2016 fue de 5 a 14 años. Los picos de casos de paperas se registraron en octubre, diciembre de 2015 y enero de 2016, y desaparecieron en junio de 2016. Conclusiones: La epidemia de paperas fue clara en Bagdad. La lucha social juega un papel en el desarrollo de la epidemia.


Background: Mumps is a viral infection transmitted by direct contact, droplet infection and fomites. Iraq witnesses several epidemics of mumps. Objective: To report on last epidemic of mumps 2015- 2016. Methods: Al-Rusafa side of Baghdad was selected randomly from two sides of Baghdad. A review of data from department of public health, Directorate of Health of Baghdad / Al-Rusafa was carried out. The data was all the notification cases of mumps for the years 2015-2016. Results: The registered cases of mumps were 9780 and 33728 for 2015 and 2016, respectively. The peak age in 2015 and 2016 was 5-14 year. The peaks mumps cases were in October, December 2015 and January 2016, and disappear in June 2016. Conclusions: Epidemic of mumps was clear in Baghdad. Social strife plays a role in developing the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Health Equity , Epidemics/prevention & control , Mumps/diagnosis
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(6)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388185

ABSTRACT

Resumen Comunicamos el caso de un lactante mayor previamente sano, que luego de tres semanas de recibir la vacuna SPR (sarampión, parotiditis, rubeola) presentó fiebre, aumento de volumen parotídeo y compromiso de conciencia. Se diagnosticó una meningitis aséptica, con pleocitosis en el LCR de predominio mononuclear, detectándose virus parotídeo en LCR por biología molecular. En el Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile se realizó serología (IgM e IgG) que resultó positiva. La muestra de saliva confirmó la etiología por virus parotídeo con genotipo N. La evolución fue favorable, sin secuelas al seguimiento a seis meses. Ante esta situación clínica, se revisó la información respecto a la asociación y causalidad de esta entidad clínica y vacuna SPR, focalizado en diferentes cepas del virus parotiditis.


Abstract We report the case of an older infant with no prior morbidity that approximately 3 weeks after receiving MMR vaccination (measles, mumps, rubella) was hospitalized for feverish symptoms, increased parotid volume and compromised consciousness. Aseptic meningitis was diagnosed, detecting pleocytosis in the CSF, predominantly mononuclear, and confirming by molecular biology, presence of parotid virus in CSF. A study was carried out by the Institute of Public Health of Chile, where serology (IgM and IgG) was positive. Saliva sample confirmed the etiology of parotid virus with genotype N. The evolution was favorable and at 6-month follow-up, there were no sequelae. Given this clinical situation, information regarding the association and causality of this clinical entity and the MMR vaccine, focused on different strains of the mumps virus, was reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Rubella , Measles , Meningitis, Aseptic , Mumps , Chile , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Mumps virus/genetics
6.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; mayo 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1116129

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: La inmunización es una de las intervenciones en salud pública más costo efectivas y rentables. Sarampión, parotiditis y rubeola (SPR) son enfermedades virales, que pueden causar complicaciones y consecuencias graves, especialmente en niños desnutridos e inmunodeprimidos; siendo importante destacar, que estas enfermedades son prevenibles mediante la vacunación. El resurgimiento de las infecciones por el virus de las paperas entre personas previamente vacunados con dos dosis, ha planteado preocupaciones en el mundo, sobre la ausencia de inmunidad a largo plazo después de la vacunación contra esta enfermedad y ha aperturado discusiones sobre nuevas estrategias para mitigar el riesgo de brotes futuros, incluyendo la posibilidad de implementar una tercera dosis de la vacuna SPR como respuesta a un brote epidémico, frente al cual, además surge la necesidad de estudios adicionales que evalúen la protección a largo plazo proporcionada por tres dosis de las vacunas SPR, así como la rentabilidad de la implementación de ésta intervención. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de la presente revisión sistemática es sintetizar evidencias científicas sobre la seguridad y efectividad frente a parotiditis de la vacuna Sarampión, Rubéola, Paperas (SPR) en personas mayores de 5 años. METODOLOGÍA: La búsqueda sistemática se realizó en la base de datos de Medline (PubMed), Lilacs y Cochrane Library fueron formuladas una estrategia de búsqueda para la pregunta PICO de la revisión, no se aplicaron filtros de fecha ni idiomas, la búsqueda abordó la evidencia publicada hasta 12 de marzo del 2020. La selección de título y resumen y extracción de datos fue realizada por un solo revisor. RESULTADOS: La búsqueda identificó 9 estudios: 1 revisión sistemática, 1 ensayo clínico y 7 estudios observacionales. La revisión incluyó tres estudios en niños y adolescentes. El ensayo clínico se realizó en adultos y los estudios observacionales fueron en adultos y en niños. CONCLUSIONES: No se observan diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los niños que reciben una tercera dosis con los que reciben dos dosis. La vacuna SPR en niños mayores de 5 años presenta pocos y leves reacciones adversas. En adultos sanos, la tercera dosis de SPR no presenta reacciones adversas graves o largo plazo. En población militar, la aplicación de vacuna SPR no se asocia con aparición de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 51-57, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vaccines are well-established public health interventions with major impacton the prevalence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks are occurring frequently due to pri-mary and secondary failures, despite high coverage. Surveillance of efficacy and duration ofinduced immunity is a difficult task as it requires invasive blood sampling in children andteenagers. Saliva can be an acceptable alternative source of IgG to assess vaccine efficacyand toxoplasmosis incidence. We investigated IgG response for measles, mumps, rubella,and T. gondii in saliva samples of vaccinated young people. Methods: Saliva was collected from 249 public schools students from São Paulo, Brazil, aged7 to 13 years old, during an interactive exhibition on hygiene. We used S. aureus proteinA solid phase capture assay for IgG reactive to biotinylated purified proteins. Paired salivaand serum (47) were tested from young adults with serum evidence of T. gondii infectionand from negative children less than 12 month old for standardization. Reproducibility wasgreater than 98% and sensitivity and specificity of the saliva assays were greater than 95%,as well as the concordance of paired saliva and serum samples. Results: Saliva from high school students showed a prevalence of 8.5% (95% CI: 5.0-11.9%)for anti T. gondii IgG; 96.8% (94.6-99%) of anti-measles IgG; 59.1% (53-65%) of anti-rubella IgG,and 57.5% (51.3-63.6%) of anti-mumps IgG. Discussion: The prevalence of antibodies against mumps and rubella after 6-8 years of vaccination was lower than against measles among students. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of saliva sampling for follow-up of vaccine immune status in teenagers. This useful approach allows for IgG detection for vaccine control or epidemio- logical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/immunology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Reference Values , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/prevention & control , ROC Curve , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control
8.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 64-67, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782290

ABSTRACT

@#<![CDATA[Mumps is contagious disease and maintaining immunity to mumps in healthcare worker (HCW) is important for preventing transmission in the hospital. We evaluated the seroprevalence of mumps in HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Republic of Korea. A total of 6,055 HCWs born between 1950 and 1995 underwent antibody testing. The overall seropositivity rate of mumps was 87% (95% confidence interval, 86%–87%). Our data indicates that, in Korean HCWs, testing for mumps antibody followed by mumps vaccination is more appropriate than routine mumps vaccination without testing for mumps antibody.]]>


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Korea , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps , Republic of Korea , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare , Vaccination
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00008520, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132881

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A vacinação é uma das maiores intervenções em saúde pública pela segurança e efetividade, porém nem sempre vacinar significa imunizar. Inúmeros aspectos relacionados tanto ao indivíduo que recebe a vacina, quanto à especificidade de cada imunobiológico administrado compõem o processo para a obtenção de uma adequada imunização, sendo essencial que sejam observados para não culminar em falhas vacinais. A análise dos estudos de imunogenicidade e efetividade para as vacinas sarampo, varicela e caxumba apontam para a necessidade da incorporação de duas doses aos calendários básicos de vacinação para o controle das referidas doenças. Estudos epidemiológicos que analisaram surtos dessas doenças identificaram casos em indivíduos que receberam duas doses da vacina, o que pode apontar provável falha secundária. Para a vacina febre amarela, a discussão atual reside no número de doses ideal para a proteção individual. A Organização Mundial da Saúde recomenda dose única para toda a vida. Apesar dos poucos relatos em literatura a respeito das falhas vacinais, os estudos de imunogenicidade demonstram perda de proteção ao longo dos anos, principalmente na faixa etária pediátrica. Num cenário atual de eliminação e controle de doenças, associado à diminuição da circulação de vírus selvagens, o papel da vigilância epidemiológica é fundamental para aprofundar o conhecimento a respeito dos múltiplos fatores envolvidos, que culminam com falhas vacinais e surgimento de surtos. A ocorrência de surtos de doenças imunopreveníveis impacta negativamente a credibilidade dos programas de imunização, acarretando baixas coberturas vacinais e interferindo no êxito da vacinação.


Resumen: La vacunación es una de las mayores intervenciones en salud pública, por su seguridad y efectividad, sin embargo, no siempre vacunar significa inmunizar. Innumerables aspectos relacionados tanto con el individuo que recibe la vacuna, como con la especificidad de cada inmunobiológico administrado, componen el proceso para conseguir una adecuada inmunización, siendo esencial que sean observados para no acabar con fallos en las vacunas. El análisis de los estudios de inmunogenicidad y efectividad para las vacunas sarampión, varicela y parotiditis, apuntan hacia la necesidad de la incorporación de dos dosis a los calendarios básicos de vacunación para el control de las mencionadas enfermedades. Estudios epidemiológicos que analizaron brotes de esas enfermedades identificaron casos en individuos que recibieron dos dosis de la vacuna, lo que puede apuntar un probable fallo secundario. Para la vacuna de fiebre amarilla la discusión actual reside en el número de dosis ideal para protección individual. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda una dosis única para toda la vida. A pesar de los pocos relatos en la literatura, respecto a los fallos en las vacunas, los estudios de inmunogenicidad demuestran una pérdida de protección a lo largo de los años, principalmente en la franja de etaria pediátrica. En un escenario actual de eliminación y control de enfermedades, asociado a la disminución de la circulación de virus salvajes, el papel de la vigilancia epidemiológica es fundamental para profundizar el conocimiento respecto a los múltiples factores implicados, que culminan con fallos en las vacunas y surgimiento de brotes. La ocurrencia de brotes de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles impacta negativamente en la credibilidad de los programas de inmunización, acarreando bajas coberturas de vacunación e interfiriendo en el éxito de la vacunación.


Abstract: Vaccination is one of the greatest public health interventions, based on its safety and effectiveness, but vaccination does not always mean immunization. Numerous aspects related both to the individual that receives the vaccine and the specificity of each vaccine administered are part of the process of obtaining adequate immunization, and it is essential to observe the aspects in order to avoid vaccine failures. The analysis of immunogenicity and effectiveness studies for the measles, varicella, and mumps vaccines point to the need to incorporate two doses into the basic vaccination calendars in order to control these diseases. Epidemiological studies that analyzed outbreaks of these diseases identified cases in individuals that received two doses of the vaccine, which may indicate likely secondary failure. For the yellow fever vaccine, the current discussion lies in the ideal number of doses for individual protection. The World Health Organization recommends a single dose for life. Despite the few reports in the literature concerning vaccine failures, immunogenicity studies demonstrate waning protection over the years, mainly in the pediatric age bracket. In the current scenario of elimination and control of diseases, associated with the decrease in the circulation of the wild-type viruses, the role of epidemiological surveillance is crucial for expanding knowledge on the multiple factors involved, culminating in vaccine failures and the emergence of outbreaks. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases negatively impact the credibility of immunization programs, leading to low vaccination coverage rates and interfering in vaccination's success.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Rubella , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Chickenpox , Measles/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Brazil , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Vaccines, Combined , Chickenpox Vaccine/adverse effects , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
10.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 265-272, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1348243

ABSTRACT

Se determinó la frecuencia de anticuerpos IgG para Toxoplasma gondii y los virus de paperas, sarampión, rubéola, varicela y hepatitis B en 90 estudiantes de la carrera de Química Biológica de la Facultad de CCQQ y Farmacia. La mayor frecuencia se encontró para rubéola y sarampión, 98.9% para cada prueba y la menor frecuencia fue para T. gondii con 23.3%. No se encontró asociación significativa entre la positividad y el género, entre la positividad a paperas, sarampión, varicela y el haber sufrido la infección o haber estado en contacto con personas infectadas y entre la positividad a T. gondii y el consumir carne roja y/o comida callejera (p > .05). Únicamente en el caso de la hepatitis B se encontró una asociación significativa entre la positividad y la edad (p = < .001), el hecho de estar vacunado (p < .001) y el ser sexualmente activo (p = .004). Los porcentajes de vacunación en la población en estudio fue alta únicamente para hepatitis B (80%), mientras que para las otras infecciones fue 35.6% para rubéola y sarampión, 22.2% para varicela y 10% para paperas. Más de 82% de los estudiantes presentaron protección a los seis agentes estudiados y se recomienda realizar encuestas sero-epidemiológicas constantes, evaluar los programas de inmunización, identificar los grupos a riesgo y que las personas que no presenten anticuerpos se vacunen.


The frequency of IgG antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and the mumps, measles, rubella, varicella and hepa-titis B viruses was determined in 90 students of the Biological Chemistry career of the Faculty of CCQQ and Pharmacy. The highest frequency was found for Rubella and Measles, 98.9% each, and the lowest frequency was for T. gondii with 23.3%. No significant difference was found between positivity and gender, between positivity to mumps, measles, chicken pox and having suffered infection or having been in contact with infected persons and between positivity to T. gondii and consuming red meat and / or street food (p > .05). Only in the case of Hepatitis B a significant difference between positivity and age (p = .001), the fact of being vaccinated (p = .001) and being sexually active (p = .004 was found. The percentage of vaccination in the study population was high only for He-patitis B (80%), while for the other infections it was 35.6% for rubella and measles, 22.2% for varicella and 10% for mumps. More than 82% of the students presented protection to the six agents studied and it is recommended to carry out constant sero-epidemiological surveys, to evaluate the immunization programs, to identify the risk groups and that people who do not present antibodies get vaccinated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Pharmacy , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Rubella/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Chickenpox/immunology , Mass Vaccination , Guatemala/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Measles/immunology , Mumps/immunology
11.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 128-134, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811288

ABSTRACT

An increase in the number of patients with infectious diseases in Korea, can be attributed to various factors, such as the prevalence of new infectious diseases of the 21st century, the re-emergence of past infectious diseases, an increase in the number of elderly individuals, patients with chronic diseases, immune deficiency, and globalization. In this context, vaccination becomes vital for the adult population. Although, the guidelines for adult immunization are currently being updated, the rate of adult vaccination remains lower than that of infant vaccination. At present, the major challenges for increasing the rate of adult immunization include negative views on the need for some immunizations and a lack of understanding of group immunity among the youth. Consequently, a successful immunization program will be required to direct efforts towards educating patients and spreading awareness. Based on the current guidelines and practical applications, varicella zoster; Japanese encephalitis; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; pneumococcus; measles, mumps, and rubella; and hepatitis A vaccines could effectively be considered for adult vaccination.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Infant , Chickenpox , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases , Diphtheria , Encephalitis, Japanese , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Herpes Zoster , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Internationality , Korea , Measles , Mumps , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Prevalence , Rubella , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tetanus , Vaccination , Whooping Cough
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 774-777, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058110

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Chile, la cepa del virus parotídeo utilizada en la vacuna es Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z). Aunque la relación entre meningitis y la cepa L-Z sigue siendo controvertida, la mayoría de los casos reportados han presentado un cuadro de curso benigno y sin secuelas neurológicas. Presentamos el caso de una paciente que tres semanas post-inmunización con la vacuna tresvírica evolucionó con una meningitis aséptica de predominio mononuclear, con serología para IgM positiva contra el virus parotídeo. En este caso clínico, existió una relación temporal entre la vacunación, el inicio del cuadro parotídeo y posteriormente el meníngeo; la curva de inmunoglobulinas demostró una infección aguda posterior a la vacuna. Si bien no se logró aislar el virus en LCR, es razonable atribuir el cuadro a una infección post-vacunal.


In Chile, the strain of the mumps virus used in the vaccine is Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z). Although the relationship between meningitis and the L-Z strain remains controversial, most of the reported cases have shown a benign course without permanent neurological sequelae. We present a case of a patient who presented an aseptic meningitis three weeks after immunization with a mumps vaccine; and laboratory confirmation showed positive serum mumps IgM antibody. In this clinical case, there was a temporal relationship between vaccination and the onset of the mumps and subsequently the meningeal involvement; the immunoglobulin curve demonstrates acute infection after vaccination. Although it was not possible to isolate the virus in CSF, it is reasonable to attribute the picture to a post-vaccinal infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis , Mumps , Mumps Vaccine/adverse effects , Chile , Mumps virus
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 106-111, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Comunicamos dos casos de meningitis aséptica asociadas a parotiditis viral en mujeres de edad mediana, una de ellas embarazada. Ambas se presentaron pocos días después del aumento de volumen parotídeo, con cefalea, fiebre y signos meníngeos, pleocitosis de predominio mononuclear en el LCR y resultados negativos para otras causas. La parotiditis fue confirmada por serología IgG e IgM positiva. Las pacientes tuvieron una evolución favorable con desaparición total de sus síntomas. Ambos casos ocurrieron durante un brote regional de parotiditis. La meningitis aséptica es una complicación frecuente de las parotiditis. Su diagnóstico puede lograrse por el aumento de volumen glandular precedente, la pleocitosis de predominio mononuclear en el LCR y una serología IgM e IgG positiva o detección genómica por RPC en muestra urinaria o salival. Esta complicación es más probable que sea observada durante brotes de parotiditis viral.


We report two cases of acute aseptic meningitis associated to mumps in middle-aged women, one pregnant. Both presented shortly after parotid gland enlargement. Neurological complications were suspected by headache, fever and meningeal signs and confirmed by CSF findings (mononuclear predominant pleocytosis) with negative results for alternative causes. Mumps were confirmed by positive IgM and IgG serology. Both patients were discharged with a favorable evolution and complete disappearance of symptoms. Cases were concurrent with a regional mumps outbreak. Conclusions: Aseptic meningitis is a rare mumps-associated neurological complication. Its diagnostic can be achieved by precedent parotid enlargement, mononuclear pleocytosis in the CSF and positive IgM and IgG serology or viral detection by PCR in urine or salivary samples. This complication would be more probably observed during mumps outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Meningitis, Aseptic/virology , Mumps/complications , Seasons , Time Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Epidemics , Meningitis, Aseptic/pathology , Meningitis, Aseptic/epidemiology , Mumps/epidemiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 195-198, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774102

ABSTRACT

In countries and regions with high vaccination coverage, several vaccine-preventable diseases have been resurged in recent years, such as measles, varicella, pertussis and mumps. Some studies have found that the clinical manifestation and epidemiological characteristics of these diseases were different from those in pre-vaccine era. This article reviewed the clinical and epidemiological features of vaccine-preventable diseases before and after wide immunization implementation, focusing on the situation in China, in order to attract the attention of clinicians, raise awareness, strengthen prevention and control, and promote in-depth research for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chickenpox , China , Measles , Mumps , Vaccination , Vaccines
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 441-444, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in mainland China from 2004 to 2018, and to provide data for the key population for prevention and control of mumps.@*METHODS@#The epidemiological characteristics of mumps were analyzed with reference to the data of the cases of mumps reported in the National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health and Disease Prevention and Control Bureau of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of mumps.@*RESULTS@#A total of 4 272 368 cases of mumps were reported in China during 2004-2018, with an average annual reported incidence rate of 21.44/100 000. A single dose of mumps-containing vaccine was added to the national Expanded Program of Immunization in 2008, but the annual incidence rate ranged from 12.84/100 000 to 35.59/100 000. The second dose of measles, mumps and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine was included in the routine immunization in Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai, and then the average incidence rate of mumps reported in these three regions dropped to about 10/100 000. From 2004 to 2016, the population aged 3-14 years accounted for 81.16% of all patients with mumps. The children aged 6 years had the highest incidence rate of mumps during 2004-2013.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A single dose of mumps-containing vaccine has no obvious effect on the incidence rate of mumps. Children aged 6 years have the highest incidence rate of mumps. A booster dose of mumps-containing vaccine should be given to preschool children.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , China , Measles , Mumps , Mumps Vaccine , Rubella
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 317-329, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975585

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction A majority of otolaryngologists have not had direct experience with many vaccine-preventable diseases since the creation of national vaccination programs. Despite the elimination of endemic transmission of some of these diseases in the United States, outbreaks can occur anywhere and still pose a threat to public health around the world. Recent outbreaks and changing trends in exemption rates indicate that it is important for physicians to maintain a working knowledge of how these diseases present and of the recommended treatment guidelines. Objectives This review will evaluate the current state of vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and disease incidence in the United States and in the world. It will also examine the clinical presentation and treatment recommendations of these diseases. Data Synthesis United States estimated vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and vaccine-preventable disease incidences were obtained from data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World vaccination rates and disease incidences were obtained from the World Health Organization databases, which compile official figures reported by member states. A PubMed literature review provided information on the current state of vaccination exemptions and outbreaks in the United States. Conclusion Vaccination and vaccine exemption rates continue to put the United States and many areas of the world at risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Clinical guidelines should be reviewed in the event of a local outbreak.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngologists/education , Asia , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella/epidemiology , United States , Americas , Vaccines , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Africa , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Diphtheria/epidemiology , Europe , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Haemophilus Infections/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology
18.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 27(1): 79-86, ene.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-960277

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la presente revisión se ofrecen las pautas éticas que rigen el esquema con que debe ser aplicada la vacuna triple contra Sarampión Rubeola y Paperas. Se hace énfasis en la falta de datos clínicos que hayan asociado esta vacuna con el desarrollo de autismo en niños y se expone con base en evidencia científica los riesgos de la no vacunación en este grupo etario.


Abstract In the present review is offered the ethical guidelines that govern the scheme with which the triple vaccine against Measles Rubella and Mumps must to be applied. It emphasizes the lack of clinical data that have associated this vaccine with the development of autism in children and exposes based on scientific evidence the risks of non-vaccination in this age group.


Subject(s)
Rubella/drug therapy , Autistic Disorder , Vaccination/adverse effects , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/analysis , Measles/drug therapy , Mumps/drug therapy , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital , Immunization Programs , Costa Rica
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00043617, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889907

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Os objetivos consistiram em descrever os casos e verificar a frequência de anafilaxia relacionada à vacina sarampo, caxumba e rubéola (SCR) do produtor A, bem como avaliar os possíveis fatores de risco associados. Estudo de caso-controle (1:4), em Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 14 de julho de 2014 a 12 de janeiro de 2015, em crianças de um a menores de cinco anos, vacinadas com SCR e notificadas com anafilaxia, sendo os controles sem anafilaxia. Utilizou-se, como medida de associação, odds ratio (OR) com intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%) e os testes qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher. Calcularam-se taxas de anafilaxia por doses distribuídas/aplicadas. Entrevistaram-se 15 casos e 60 controles, em 12 municípios. As taxas de anafilaxia foram 2,46 e 5,05 por doses distribuídas e aplicadas, respectivamente. Dentre os casos de anafilaxia, oito (53,4%) eram do sexo masculino, e dentre os controles, 36 (60%), com p = 0,64. Na análise bivariada referente à anafilaxia e alergia à proteína do leite de vaca (APLV), verificou-se OR = 51,62, com p = 0,00002 e IC95%: 5,59-476,11. As variáveis alergia alimentar familiar, aleitamento materno, evento adverso pós-vacinação (EAPV) anterior e vacinação simultânea não foram estatisticamente significativas (p = 0,48; p = 1,00; p = 0,49; p = 0,61). Taxas de anafilaxia por doses distribuídas/aplicadas ficaram acima de 1/100 mil doses aplicadas (taxa esperada). Anafilaxia e APLV apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa. Não foram encontradas associações estatísticas referentes à vacinação simultânea, aleitamento materno, alergia alimentar familiar e EAPV anterior. Recomendou-se ao produtor informar na bula todos os componentes do produto e que crianças com história pregressa de APLV não sejam vacinadas com essa vacina.


Abstract: The study aimed to describe cases and verify the frequency of anaphylaxis related to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine produced by manufacturer A and to assess associated risk factors. This was a case-control study (1:4) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from July 14, 2014, to January 12, 2015, in children from one year to less than five years of age, vaccinated with MMR and reported with anaphylaxis, while the controls were without anaphylaxis. The measure of association was odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Anaphylaxis rates were calculated per doses distributed/administered. Fifteen cases and 60 controls were interviewed in 12 municipalities (counties). Anaphylaxis rates were 2.46 and 5.05 cases per 100,000 doses distributed and administered, respectively. Among the cases of anaphylaxis, eight (53.4%) were males, and among the controls, 36 (60%), with p = 0.64. The bivariate analysis of anaphylaxis and cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) showed OR = 51.62, with p = 0.00002 and 95%CI: 5.59-476.11. The variables family food allergy, breastfeeding, previous post-vaccine adverse event (PVAE), and simultaneous vaccination were not statistically significant (p = 0.48; p = 1.00; p = 0.49; p = 0.61). Anaphylaxis rates per doses distributed/administered exceeded 1/100,000 doses administered (expected rate). Anaphylaxis and CMPA showed a statistically significant association. No statistically significant associations were found with simultaneous vaccination, breastfeeding, family food allergy, or history of PVAE. Recommendations: the manufacturer should specify the product's components in the package insert, and children with a history of CMPA should not be vaccinated with this vaccine.


Resumen: Los objetivos consistieron en describir los casos y verificar la frecuencia de anafilaxia, relacionada con la vacuna del sarampión, paperas y rubeola (SCR) del productor A, así como evaluar los posibles factores de riesgo asociados. Estudio de caso-control (1:4), en Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 14 de julio de 2014 a 12 de enero de 2015, en niños de uno a menores de cinco años, vacunadas con SCR y notificadas con anafilaxia, siendo los controles sin anafilaxia. Se utilizó, como medida de asociación, odds ratio (OR) con un intervalo de 95% de confianza (IC95%) y los testes chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher. Se calcularon las tasas de anafilaxia por dosis distribuidas/aplicadas. Se entrevistaron 15 casos y 60 controles, en 12 municipios. Las tasas de anafilaxia fueron 2,46 y 5,05 por dosis distribuidas y aplicadas, respectivamente. Entre los casos de anafilaxia, ocho (53,4%) eran del sexo masculino, y entre los controles, 36 (60%), con p = 0,64. En el análisis bivariado referente a la anafilaxia y alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV), se verificó OR = 51,62, con p = 0,00002 e IC95%: 5,59-476,11. Las variables alergia alimentaria familiar, lactancia materna , evento adverso pos-vacunación (EAPV) anterior y vacunación simultánea no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,48; p = 1,00; p = 0,49; p = 0,61). Tasas de anafilaxia por dosis distribuidas/aplicadas se situaron encima de 1/100.000 dosis aplicadas (tasa esperada). Anafilaxia y APLV presentaron una asociación estadísticamente significativa. No fueron encontradas asociaciones estadísticas referentes a la vacunación simultánea, lactancia materna, alergia alimentaria familiar y EAPV anterior. Se recomendó al productor informar en el prospecto sobre todos los componentes del producto, y que los niños con historial anterior de APLV no sean vacunados con esa vacuna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Residence Characteristics , Interviews as Topic , Risk Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(8): 580-588, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888309

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The polyspecific antibody synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) gained diagnostic relevance with the frequent combination of measles-, rubella- and varicella zoster antibodies (MRZ-antibody reaction) but their pathophysiological role remains unknown. This review connects the data for intrathecal polyspecific antibody synthesis in MS and neurolupus with observations in the blood of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Simultaneously increased antibody and autoantibody titers in GBS blood samples indicate that the polyspecific antibodies are based on a general property of an immune network, supported by the deterministic day-to-day concentration variation of antibodies in normal blood. Strongly correlated measles- and rubella- antibody variations point to a particular connectivity between the MRZ antibodies. The immune network, which provides serological memory in the absence of an antigen, implements the continuous change of the MRZ pattern in blood, not followed by the earlier immigrated B cells without corresponding connectivity in the brain. This may explain the different antibody patterns in cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous humor and blood of the individual MS patient. A complexity approach must implement a different view on causation in chronic diseases and causal therapies.


RESUMO A síntese de anticorpos poliespecíficos em esclerose múltipla (EM) ganhou relevância diagnóstica com a combinação frequente de anticorpos contra sarampo, rubéola e varicela-zoster (reação de anticorpos MRZ), mas seu papel fisiopatológico permanece desconhecido. Esta revisão relaciona os dados da síntese intratecal de anticorpos poliespecíficos em EM e Neurolupus com observações no sangue de pacientes com síndrome de Guillain Barré (SGB). Simultaneamente, os títulos aumentados de anticorpos e autoanticorpos em amostras de sangue de SGB indicam que os anticorpos poliespecíficos se baseiam numa propriedade geral de uma rede imunitária, suportada pela variação determinística da concentração diária de anticorpos no sangue normal. As variações fortemente correlacionadas de anticorpos contra sarampo e rubéola apontam para uma conectividade particular entre os anticorpos MRZ. A rede imunitária, que fornece memória sorológica na ausência de um antígeno, implementa a mudança contínua do padrão MRZ no sangue, não seguida pelas células B que imigraram anteriormente sem conectividade no cérebro. Isto pode explicar os diferentes padrões de anticorpos no LCR, humor aquoso e sangue do paciente individual de EM. Uma abordagem complexa deve implementar uma visão diferente sobre a causalidade em doenças crônicas e terapias causais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Rubella/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cerebrospinal Fluid/chemistry , Herpes Zoster/immunology , Measles/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial , Multiple Sclerosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Mumps/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology
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