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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881036

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, especially in developing countries. Drug therapy is one of the main ways to treat cardiovascular diseases. Among them, great progress has been made in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases with traditional Chinese medicine. In terms of experimental research, the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has been thoroughly discussed in vitro and in vivo. In terms of clinical treatment, traditional Chinese medicine with flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids as the main effective components has a definite effect on the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, with high safety and good application prospects. With the further research on the effective ingredients, mechanism and adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine, it will be beneficial to the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, reduce side effects and promote the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Calycosin and its derivatives, the main bioactive flavonoids in Astragalus membranaceus have multiple biological effects, such as antioxidant, pro-angiogenesis, anti-tumour, and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on the above biological effects, calycosin has been shown to have good potential for cardiovascular protection. The potent antioxidant effect of calycosin may play an important role in the cardiovascular protective potential. For injured cardiac myocytes, calycosin and its derivatives can alleviate the cell damage mainly marked by the release of myocardial enzymes and reduce the death level of cardiac myocytes mainly characterized by apoptosis through various mechanisms. For vascular endothelial cells, calycosin also has multiple effects and multiple mechanisms, such as promoting vascular endothelial cell proliferation, exerting vasodilating effect and directly affecting the synthesis function of endothelial cells. The present review will address the bioactivity of calycosin in cardiovascular diseases such as protective effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular endothelial cells and elucidate main mechanism of calycosin and its derivatives to exert the above biological effects.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Muscle Cells/drug effects
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761799

ABSTRACT

Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to be a representative skin disorder, it also affects the systemic immune response. In a recent study, myoblasts were shown to be involved in the immune regulation, but the roles of muscle cells in AD are poorly understood. We aimed to identify the relationship between mitochondria and atopy by genome-wide analysis of skeletal muscles in mice. We induced AD-like symptoms using house dust mite (HDM) extract in NC/Nga mice. The transcriptional profiles of the untreated group and HDM-induced AD-like group were analyzed and compared using microarray, differentially expressed gene and functional pathway analyses, and protein interaction network construction. Our microarray analysis demonstrated that immune response-, calcium handling-, and mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology pathway analyses, immune response pathways involved in cytokine interaction, nuclear factor-kappa B, and T-cell receptor signaling, calcium handling pathways, and mitochondria metabolism pathways involved in the citrate cycle were significantly upregulated. In protein interaction network analysis, chemokine family-, muscle contraction process-, and immune response-related genes were identified as hub genes with many interactions. In addition, mitochondrial pathways involved in calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidation-reduction process, and calcium-mediated signaling were significantly stimulated in KEGG and Gene Ontology analyses. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the genome-wide transcriptional changes of HDM-induced AD-like symptoms and the indicated genes that could be used as AD clinical biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Citric Acid , Citric Acid Cycle , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Ontology , Genome , Metabolism , Mice , Microarray Analysis , Mitochondria , Muscle Cells , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Myocardium , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Interaction Maps , Pyroglyphidae , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Skin
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761797

ABSTRACT

Aurora kinases inhibitors, including ZM447439 (ZM), which suppress cell division, have attracted a great deal of attention as potential novel anti-cancer drugs. Several recent studies have confirmed the anti-cancer effects of ZM in various cancer cell lines. However, there have been no studies regarding the cardiac safety of this agent. We performed several cytotoxicity, invasion and migration assays to examine the anti-cancer effects of ZM. To evaluate the potential effects of ZM on cardiac repolarisation, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and cells with heterogeneous cardiac ion channel expression. We also conducted a contractility assay with rat ventricular myocytes to determine the effects of ZM on myocardial contraction and/or relaxation. In tests to determine in vitro efficacy, ZM inhibited the proliferation of A549, H1299 (lung cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HepG2 (hepatoma) cell lines with IC₅₀ in the submicromolar range, and attenuated the invasive and metastatic capacity of A549 cells. In cardiac toxicity testing, ZM did not significantly affect I(Na), I(Ks) or I(K1), but decreased I(hERG) in a dose-dependent manner (IC₅₀: 6.53 µM). In action potential (AP) assay using hiPSC-CMs, ZM did not induce any changes in AP parameters up to 3 µM, but it at 10 µM induced prolongation of AP duration. In summary, ZM showed potent broad-spectrum anti-tumor activity, but relatively low levels of cardiac side effects compared to the effective doses to tumor. Therefore, ZM has a potential to be a candidate as an anti-cancer with low cardiac toxicity.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Aurora Kinases , Cardiotoxicity , Cell Division , Cell Line , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Muscle Cells , Myocardial Contraction , Myocytes, Cardiac , Phosphotransferases , Rats , Relaxation
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Humans , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 314-325, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738791

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease can lead to myocardial infarction (MI), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adoptive transfer of multiple stem cell types into failing human hearts has demonstrated safety however the beneficial effects in patients with cardiovascular disorders have been modest. Modest improvement in patients with cardiac complications warrants identification of a novel stem cell population that possesses effective reparative properties and improves cardiac function after injury. Recently we have shown in a mouse model and a porcine pre-clinical animal model, that cortical bone derived stem cells (CBSCs) enhance cardiac function after MI and/or ischemia-reperfusion injury. These beneficial effects of allogeneic cell delivery appear to be mediated by paracrine mechanisms rather than by transdifferentiation of injected cells into vessels and/or immature myocytes. This review will discuss role of CBSCs in cardiac wound healing. After having modest beneficial improvement in most of the clinical trials, a critical need is to understand the interaction of the transplanted stem cells with the ischemic cardiac environment. Transplanted stem cells are exposed to pro-inflammatory factors and activated immune cells and fibroblasts, but their interactions remain unknown. We have shown that CBSCs modulate different processes including modulation of the immune response, angiogenesis, and restriction of infarct sizes after cardiac injury. This review will provide information on unique protective signature of CBSCs in rodent/swine animal models for heart repair that should provide basis for developing novel therapies for treating heart failure patients.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Animals , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Heart , Heart Failure , Humans , Immunomodulation , Mice , Models, Animal , Mortality , Muscle Cells , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , Reperfusion Injury , Stem Cells , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapies for treating bone defects require a source of stem cells with osteogenic potential. There is evidence from pathologic ossification within muscles that human skeletal muscles contain osteogenic progenitor cells. However, muscle samples are usually acquired through a traumatic biopsy procedure which causes pain and morbidity to the donor. Herein, we identified a new alternative source of skeletal muscle stem cells (SMSCs) without conferring morbidity to donors. METHODS: Adherent cells isolated from human orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) fragments, which are currently discarded during ophthalmic cosmetic surgeries, were obtained using a two-step plating method. The cell growth kinetics, immunophenotype and capabilities of in vitro multilineage differentiation were evaluated respectively. Moreover, the osteogenically-induced cells were transduced with GFP gene, loaded onto the porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioceramics, and transplanted into the subcutaneous site of athymic mice. Ectopic bone formation was assessed and the cell fate in vivo was detected. RESULTS: OOM-derived cells were fibroblastic in shape, clonogenic in growth, and displayed phenotypic and behavioral characteristics similar to SMSCs. In particular, these cells could be induced into osteoblasts in vitro evidenced by the extracellular matrix calcification and enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) production. New bone formation was found in the cell-loaded bioceramics 6 weeks after implantation. By using the GFP-labeling technique, these muscle cells were detected to participate in the process of ectopic osteogenesis in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that human OOM tissue is a valuable and noninvasive resource for osteoprogenitor cells to be used in bone repair and regeneration.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Biopsy , Extracellular Matrix , Fibroblasts , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Methods , Mice , Mice, Nude , Muscle Cells , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Ossification, Heterotopic , Osteoblasts , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740058

ABSTRACT

K⁺ channels are key components of the primary and secondary basolateral Cl- pump systems, which are important for secretion from the salivary glands. Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for psychiatric disorders that can induce QT prolongation, which may lead to torsades de pointes. We studied the effects of paroxetine on a human K⁺ channel, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG), expressed in Xenopus oocytes and on action potential in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. The hERG encodes the pore-forming subunits of the rapidly-activating delayed rectifier K⁺ channel (I(Kr)) in the heart. Mutations in hERG reduce I(Kr) and cause type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2), a disorder that predisposes individuals to life-threatening arrhythmias. Paroxetine induced concentration-dependent decreases in the current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps and hERG tail currents. The inhibition was concentration-dependent and time-dependent, but voltage-independent during each voltage pulse. In guinea pig ventricular myocytes held at 36℃, treatment with 0.4 µM paroxetine for 5 min decreased the action potential duration at 90% of repolarization (APD₉₀) by 4.3%. Our results suggest that paroxetine is a blocker of the hERG channels, providing a molecular mechanism for the arrhythmogenic side effects of clinical administration of paroxetine.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Guinea Pigs , Heart , Humans , Long QT Syndrome , Muscle Cells , Oocytes , Paroxetine , Salivary Glands , Serotonin , Tail , Torsades de Pointes , Xenopus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Popeye deformity is common after rupture of the biceps muscle's long head tendon. Herein, we report on histological changes in biceps brachii muscles following tenotomy of the long head biceps tendon. METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats (12-week-old) underwent tenotomy of the long head biceps tendon in the right shoulder. At postoperative weeks 4, 7, and 10, the operative shoulders were removed by detaching the biceps brachii muscle from the glenoid scapula and humerus; the opposite shoulders were removed as controls. H&E staining was performed to elucidate histological changes in myocytes. Oil-red O staining was performed to determine fatty infiltration. Myostatin antibody immunohistochemistry staining was performed as myostatin is expressed by skeletal muscle cells during myogenesis. RESULTS: H&E staining results revealed no changes in muscle cell nuclei. There were no adipocytes detected. Compared with that of the control biceps, the cross-sectional area of the long head biceps was significantly smaller (p=0.00). Statistical changes in the total extent of the 100 muscle cells were significant (p=0.00). Oil-red O staining revealed no fatty infiltration. Myostatin antibody immunohistochemical staining revealed no significant difference between the two sides. CONCLUSIONS: Muscular changes after tenotomy of the long head biceps included a decrease in the size of the individual muscle cells and in relative muscle mass. There were no changes observed in muscle cell nuclei and no fatty infiltration. Moreover, there were no changes detected by myostatin antibody immunohistochemistry assay.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Animals , Congenital Abnormalities , Head , Humerus , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Myostatin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rupture , Scapula , Shoulder , Tendons , Tenotomy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727859

ABSTRACT

Fimasartan, a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist, reduces myocyte damage and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque through its anti-inflammatory effect in animal studies. We investigated the protective effects of pretreatment with fimasartan on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of ischemic renal damage. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with or without 5 (IR-F5) or 10 (IR-F10) mg/kg/day fimasartan for 3 days. Renal ischemia was induced by clamping bilateral renal vascular pedicles for 30 min. Histology, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis assays were evaluated 24 h after IRI. Compared to the untreated group, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in the IR-F10 group. IR-F10 kidneys showed less tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis than untreated kidneys. The expression of F4/80, a macrophage infiltration marker, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, decreased in the IR-F10 group. High-dose fimasartan treatment attenuated the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in ischemic kidneys. Fewer TUNEL positive cells were observed in IR-F10 compared to control mice. Fimasartan caused a significant decrease in caspase-3 activity and the level of Bax, and increased the Bcl-2 level. Fimasartan preserved renal function and tubular architecture from IRI in a mouse ischemic renal injury model. Fimasartan also attenuated upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and decreased apoptosis of renal tubular cells. Our results suggest that fimasartan inhibited the process of tubular injury by preventing apoptosis induced by the inflammatory pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Caspase 3 , Constriction , Creatinine , Cytokines , Fibrosis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Ischemia , Kidney , Macrophages , Mice , Muscle Cells , Necrosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Receptors, Angiotensin , Reperfusion Injury , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739498

ABSTRACT

Sumoylation, the conjugation of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein to a target, has diverse cellular effects. However, the functional roles of the SUMO modification during myogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that basal sumoylation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) enhances the deacetylation of MyoD in undifferentiated myoblasts, whereas further sumoylation of HDAC1 contributes to switching its binding partners from MyoD to Rb to induce myocyte differentiation. Differentiation in C2C12 skeletal myoblasts induced new immunoblot bands above HDAC1 that were gradually enhanced during differentiation. Using SUMO inhibitors and sumoylation assays, we showed that the upper band was caused by sumoylation of HDAC1 during differentiation. Basal deacetylase activity was not altered in the SUMO modification-resistant mutant HDAC1 K444/476R (HDAC1 2R). Either differentiation or transfection of SUMO1 increased HDAC1 activity that was attenuated in HDAC1 2R. Furthermore, HDAC1 2R failed to deacetylate MyoD. Binding of HDAC1 to MyoD was attenuated by K444/476R. Binding of HDAC1 to MyoD was gradually reduced after 2 days of differentiation. Transfection of SUMO1 induced dissociation of HDAC1 from MyoD but potentiated its binding to Rb. SUMO1 transfection further attenuated HDAC1-induced inhibition of muscle creatine kinase luciferase activity that was reversed in HDAC1 2R. HDAC1 2R failed to inhibit myogenesis and muscle gene expression. In conclusion, HDAC1 sumoylation plays a dual role in MyoD signaling: enhancement of HDAC1 deacetylation of MyoD in the basally sumoylated state of undifferentiated myoblasts and dissociation of HDAC1 from MyoD during myogenesis.


Subject(s)
Creatine Kinase, MM Form , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylase 1 , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Luciferases , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Myoblasts , Myoblasts, Skeletal , Sumoylation , Transfection
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739199

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rhabdomyolysis is a metabolic disorder in which the content of damaged muscle cells is released into plasma. Its manifestations include asymptomatic, myalgia, gross hematuria, and complications of acute kidney injury. Because of limited data on rhabdomyolysis in children, we performed this study to determine clinical characteristics of rhabdomyolysis in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with rhabdomyolysis who were treated at the Pusan National University Children's hospital from January 2011 to July 2016. The diagnostic criteria were serum myoglobin level of ≥80 ng/mL, exclusive of acute myocardial injury, cardiac arrest, and brain damage. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were enrolled; mean age, 116±68 months. Of these, 35 were boys and 10 were girls. Twenty-six patients experienced myalgia and 12 patients showed gross hematuria. Among these, seven patients initially had both myalgia and gross hematuria. The most common causes of rhabdomyolysis were infection, physical exertion, prolonged seizures, metabolic abnormalities, and drug addiction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was the most common complication, followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thirty-seven patients improved with sufficient fluid supply but two patients underwent hemodialysis due to deterioration of kidney function. Gross hematuria, positive occult blood test, and positive urine protein were more common in patients with AKI than in those without AKI. CONCLUSIONS: In children, infection was the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis. Most patients recovered by sufficient fluid therapy. However, in severe cases, especially in patients with underlying kidney disease, hemodialysis may be necessary in the present study.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Brain , Child , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Female , Fluid Therapy , Heart Arrest , Hematuria , Humans , Influenza, Human , Kidney , Kidney Diseases , Muscle Cells , Myalgia , Myoglobin , Occult Blood , Physical Exertion , Plasma , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Rhabdomyolysis , Seizures , Substance-Related Disorders
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644004

ABSTRACT

Recent investigations consider adipose-derived stemcells (ASCs) as a promising source of stemcells for clinical therapies. To obtain functional cells with enhanced cytoskeleton and aligned structure, mechanical stimuli are utilized during differentiation of stem cells to the target cells. Since function of muscle cells is associated with cytoskeleton, enhanced structure is especially essential for these cells when employed in tissue engineering. In this study by utilizing a custom-made device, effects of uniaxial tension (1Hz, 10% stretch) on cytoskeleton, cell alignment, cell elastic properties, and expression of smooth muscle cell (SMC) genes in ASCs are investigated.Due to proper availability ofASCs, results can be employed in cardiovascular engineeringwhen production of functional SMCs in arterial reconstruction is required. Results demonstrated that cells were oriented after 24 hours of cyclic stretch with aligned pseudo-podia. Staining of actin filaments confirmed enhanced polymerization and alignment of stress fibers. Such phenomenon resulted in stiffening of cell body which was quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Expression of SM α-actin and SM22 α-actin as SMC associated genes were increased after cyclic stretch while GAPDH was considered as internal control gene. Finally, it was concluded that application of cyclic stretch on ASCs assists differentiation to SMC and enhances functionality of cells.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Cell Body , Cytoskeleton , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Muscle Cells , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Polymerization , Polymers , Stem Cells , Stress Fibers , Tissue Engineering
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with the higher content of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and the saturation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), but a paucity of data exist in humans. This study examined associations among IMAT content, IMCL saturation, and fasting glucose concentration in middle-aged and older adults with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects (26 males, 49 females) were recruited and thigh muscle and IMAT were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Vastus lateralis tissue was acquired from a subset of nine subjects and IMCL content and saturation were assessed using nonlinear dual complex microscopy. RESULTS: The characteristics of the 75 subjects were as follows: age 59±11 years, body mass index 30±5 kg/m², fasting glucose concentration 5.2±0.5 mmol/L, fasting insulin concentration 12.2±7.3 µU/mL, fasting homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 2.9±2.0 (mean±SD). IMAT to muscle tissue (MT) volume ratio was positively associated with the saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in IMCL. IMAT:MT was positively associated with fasting glucose concentration and HOMA-IR. IMCL saturation was positively associated with fasting glucose concentration while muscle cell area, IMCL area, and % IMCL in muscle cell were not associated with fasting glucose concentration. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that higher intermuscular fat content and IMCL saturation may impact fasting glucose concentration in middle-aged and older adults with overweight or obesity. The centralization of adipose tissue in the appendicular region of the body may promote insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adult , Body Mass Index , Fasting , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Microscopy , Muscle Cells , Obesity , Overweight , Quadriceps Muscle , Thigh
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93424

ABSTRACT

Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) releases Ca²⁺ from ryanodine receptor (RyR)-sensitive calcium pools in various cell types. In cardiac myocytes, the physiological levels of cADPR transiently increase the amplitude and frequency of Ca²⁺ (that is, a rapid increase and decrease of calcium within one second) during the cardiac action potential. In this study, we demonstrated that cADPR levels higher than physiological levels induce a slow and gradual increase in the resting intracellular Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺](i)) level over 10 min by inhibiting the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase (SERCA). Higher cADPR levels mediate the tyrosine-dephosphorylation of α-actin by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) present in the endoplasmic reticulum. The tyrosine dephosphorylation of α-actin dissociates phospholamban, the key regulator of SERCA, from α-actin and results in SERCA inhibition. The disruption of the integrity of α-actin by cytochalasin B and the inhibition of α-actin tyrosine dephosphorylation by a PTP1B inhibitor block cADPR-mediated Ca²⁺ increase. Our results suggest that levels of cADPR that are relatively higher than normal physiological levels modify calcium homeostasis through the dephosphorylation of α-actin by PTB1B and the subsequent inhibition of SERCA in cardiac myocytes.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adenosine Diphosphate , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Calcium , Cyclic ADP-Ribose , Cytochalasin B , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Homeostasis , Muscle Cells , Myocytes, Cardiac , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Reticulum , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Tyrosine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Htr3a antagonist, ondansetron, has been reported to prolong the QT interval and induce Torsades de pointes in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. To explore the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined the effects of ondansetron on the mouse cardiac voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ondansetron increased QT intervals in late pregnant (LP) mice. We measured the Kv channels in freshly isolated left ventricular (LV) myocytes from non-pregnant (NP) and late pregnant (LP) mice, using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Ondansetron blocked Kv current at a dose of 50 µM, and reduced the amplitude of peak current densities in a dose-dependent manner (0, 1, 5, 50 µM), in LP but not in NP mice. In contrast, serotonin and the Htr3 agonist, m-CPBG, increased Kv current densities in NP, but not in LP mice. Interestingly, during pregnancy, serum serotonin levels were markedly increased, suggesting the saturation of the effect of serotonin. Immunostaning data showed that Kv4.3 protein and Htr3a co-localize at the membrane and t-tubule of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, Kv4.3 membrane trafficking was enhanced in response to Htr3a-mediated serotonin stimulation in NP, but not in LP mice. Membrane analysis showed that serotonin enhances Kv4.3 membrane trafficking in NP, but not LP mice. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron reduced Kv current densities, and reduced the Kv4.3 membrane trafficking in LP mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. This data suggests that QT prolongation by ondansetron is mediated by the reduction of Kv current densities and Kv4.3 membrane trafficking.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrophysiology , Membranes , Mice , Muscle Cells , Myocytes, Cardiac , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Pregnancy , Serotonin , Torsades de Pointes
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644859

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that stem cells, as a response to valve-specific extracellular matrix “niches” and mechanical stimuli, would differentiate into valvular interstitial cells (VICs). Porcine aortic root scaffolds were prepared by decellularization. After verifying that roots exhibited adequate hemodynamics in vitro, we seeded human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) within the interstitium of the cusps and subjected the valves to in vitro pulsatile bioreactor testing in pulmonary pressures and flow conditions. As controls we incubated cell-seeded valves in a rotator device which allowed fluid to flow through the valves ensuring gas and nutrient exchange without subjecting the cusps to significant stress. After 24 days of conditioning, valves were analyzed for cell phenotype using immunohistochemistry for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle cell actin (SMA) and prolyl-hydroxylase (PHA). Fresh native valves were used as immunohistochemistry controls. Analysis of bioreactor-conditioned valves showed that almost all seeded cells had died and large islands of cell debris were found within each cusp. Remnants of cells were positive for vimentin. Cell seeded controls, which were only rotated slowly to ensure gas and nutrient exchange, maintained about 50% of cells alive; these cells were positive for vimentin and negative for alpha-SMA and PHA, similar to native VICs. These results highlight for the first time the extreme vulnerability of hADSCs to valve-specific mechanical forces and also suggest that careful, progressive mechanical adaptation to valve-specific forces might encourage stem cell differentiation towards the VIC phenotype.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult Stem Cells , Adult , Bioreactors , Extracellular Matrix , Heart Valves , Hemodynamics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Islands , Muscle Cells , Phenotype , Stem Cells , Vimentin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196826

ABSTRACT

Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells , Bone Marrow , Fetal Blood , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Muscle Cells , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocytes, Cardiac , Neurons , Organ Transplantation , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Regeneration , Skin , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 177-183, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158510

ABSTRACT

Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5–6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0.05–0.07) with high statistical significance. Thick muscle fibers over 80 µm in diameter were seen in the pharynx, larynx, and anal sphincter of two limited specimens. Conversely, in the other sites or specimens, muscle fibers were thinner than 50 µm. We did not find any multinuclear muscle cells suggestive of regeneration. At the beginning of the study, we suspected that mucosal macrophages might have invaded into the muscle layer of the larynx and pharynx, but we found no evidence of inflammation in the mucosa. Likewise, the internal anal sphincter (a smooth muscle layer near the mucosa) usually contained fewer macrophages than the external sphincter. The present result suggest that, in elderly men, thinning and death of striated muscle fibers occur more frequently in the larynx and pharynx than in other parts of the body.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anal Canal , Cadaver , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Humans , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Laryngeal Muscles , Larynx , Macrophages , Male , Masseter Muscle , Mucous Membrane , Muscle Cells , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Striated , Muscles , Muscular Atrophy , Pharynx , Regeneration , Sarcopenia , Shoulder , Tongue
19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 570-574, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160403

ABSTRACT

Brunner’s gland hamartomas are small benign lesions that are most commonly found in the bulb of the duodenum. They are very uncommon, and most are found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal series or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The lesions tend to be asymptomatic, but patients may present with symptoms of duodenal obstruction or hemorrhage secondary to ulceration. Histologically, a Brunner's gland hamartoma consists of the components of Brunner's gland cells, as well as glandular, adipose and muscle cells. In this study, we report the case of a 30-year-old man who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive symptoms due to a giant Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenal bulb. The hamartoma was successfully removed by endoscopic resection. No significant complications were observed. Microscopically, the lesion was found to be entirely composed of variable Brunner's glands and adipocytes.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adult , Brunner Glands , Duodenal Obstruction , Duodenum , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hamartoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Muscle Cells , Ulcer
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 562-568, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in myocardial protection. We examined the effects of thromboxane A₂ on the regulation of K(ATP) channel activity in single ventricular myocytes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of adult Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by enzymatic digestion. Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at -60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. RESULTS: In the excised inside-out patches, the thromboxane A₂ analog, U46619, decreased the K(ATP) channel activity in a dose-dependent manner; however, the thromboxane A₂ receptor antagonist, SQ29548, did not significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of U46619. In the cell-attached patches, U46619 inhibited dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced K(ATP) channel activity in a dose-dependent manner, and SQ29548 attenuated the inhibitory effects of U46619 on DNP-induced K(ATP) channel activity. CONCLUSION: Thromboxane A₂ may inhibit K(ATP) channel activity, and may have a harmful effect on ischemic myocardium.


Subject(s)
15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid , Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Adult , Animals , Digestion , Heart , Humans , KATP Channels , Mice , Muscle Cells , Myocardium , Perfusion , Potassium Channels , Potassium
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