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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 8-16, May. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) such as MyoD, Myf6 and Myf5 play a vital role in the growth and development of muscles. Jeju Native Pig (JNP) is the top ranker in Korea amongst the indigenous livestock reared for meat purpose. Few studies covering transcript abundance of the MRFs and related to their co-expression with Pax7 in JNP have been conducted. Despite having better quality pork, JNP does not have a comparative growth rate with respect to western breeds. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objective to study the relative transcript levels of MRFs in the postnatal myogenesis of longissimus dorsi muscles in JNP and Berkshire breeds. RESULTS: Relative transcript levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR and blot expression analysis through Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry was performed to analyze their expressions at cellular levels. ToppCluster aided in the analysis of gene ontology of biological processes. The quantitative transcript levels of MyoD and Pax7 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Berkshire than in JNP. Myotube formation was observed under the co-expression of MyoD and Pax7. ToppCluster helped in the understanding of the linking of biological processes of the MRFs with the different signaling pathways. MyBPH had significantly (P < 0.05) high transcript levels during the chosen age groups in JNP than Berkshire. CONCLUSIONS: The current study can be helpful in understanding the genetic basis for myogenesis in postnatal stage. Moreover, it can act as stepping stone for the identification of marker genes related to body growth and meat quality in JNP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Muscle Development/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Genetic Markers , Blotting, Western , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/genetics , PAX7 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Ontology , Pork Meat
2.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 407-413, dic. 2020. graf, il
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288149

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La unión del tubo esofágico con el estómago en lo que denominamos el cardias, su tránsito y relacio nes con el hiato diafragmático, las estructuras fibromembranosas que la fijan y envuelven, la existencia de un esfínter gastroesofágico anatómico y su real morfología, así como la interacción de todos estos elementos, han sido materia de controversia por décadas y aún hoy. Este artículo actualiza la descrip ción de tales estructuras.


ABSTRACT The point where the esophagus connects to the stomach, known as the cardia, its transition and re lationship with the diaphragmatic hiatus, its fibromembranous attachments, the existence of an ana tomic gastroesophageal sphincter and its real morphology, and the interaction between all these ele ments, have been subject of debate for decades that still persist. The aim of this article is to describe the updated information of such structures.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm/physiology , Muscle Development , Esophagogastric Junction/physiology , Diaphragm/anatomy & histology , Esophagogastric Junction/anatomy & histology , Esophagogastric Junction/embryology
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 72-77, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between muscle and adipose in cattle, we analyzed the data from the RNA sequencing of three Angus×Qinchuan crossbred cattle. RESULTS: Searched the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for a microarray dataset of Yan yellow cattle, GSE49992. After the DEGs were identified, we used STRING and Cytoscape to construct a protein­protein interaction (PPI) network, subsequently analyzing the major modules of key genes. In total, 340 DEGs were discovered, including 21 hub genes, which were mainly enriched in muscle contraction, skeletal muscle contraction, troponin complex, lipid particle, Z disc, tropomyosin binding, and actin filament binding. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these genes can be regarded as candidate biomarkers for the regulation of muscle and adipose development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Adipose Tissue/growth & development , Muscle Development/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Computational Biology , RNA-Seq
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 113, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139471

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of early determinants on adolescent fat-free mass. METHODS: A cohort study with 579 adolescents evaluated at birth and adolescence in a birth cohort in São Luís, Maranhão. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, socioeconomic status (SES) at birth, maternal age, pregestational body mass index (BMI), gestational smoking, gestational weight gain, type of delivery, gestational age, sex of the newborn, length and weight at birth, adolescent socioeconomic status, "neither study/nor work" generation, adolescent physical activity level and alcohol consumption were tested as early determinants of adolescent fat-free mass (FFM). RESULTS: A higher pregestational BMI resulted in higher FFM in adolescence (Standardized Coefficient, SC = 0.152; p < 0.001). Being female implied a lower FFM in adolescence (SC = −0.633; p < 0.001). The negative effect of gender on FFM was direct (SC = −0.523; p < 0.001), but there was an indirect negative effect via physical activity level (SC = −0.085; p < 0.001). Women were less active (p < 0.001). An increase of 0.5 kg (1 Standard Deviation, SD) in birth weight led to a gain of 0.25 kg/m2 (0.106 SD) in adolescent FFM index (p = 0.034). Not studying or working had a negative effect on the adolescent's FFM (SC = −0.106; p = 0.015). Elevation of 1 SD in the adolescent's physical activity level represented an increase of 0.5 kg/m2 (0.207 SD) in FFM index (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The early determinants with the greatest effects on adolescent FFM are gender, adolescent physical activity level, pregestational BMI, birth weight and belonging to the "neither-nor" generation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Birth Weight , Body Composition , Adolescent Development/physiology , Subcutaneous Fat/growth & development , Adiposity , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Muscle Development , Adolescent Health , Social Determinants of Health , Latent Class Analysis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761809

ABSTRACT

Anoctamin 5 (ANO5)/TMEM16E belongs to a member of the ANO/TMEM16 family member of anion channels. However, it is a matter of debate whether ANO5 functions as a genuine plasma membrane chloride channel. It has been recognized that mutations in the ANO5 gene cause many skeletal muscle diseases such as limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) and Miyoshi muscular dystrophy type 3 (MMD3) in human. However, the molecular mechanisms of the skeletal myopathies caused by ANO5 defects are poorly understood. To understand the role of ANO5 in skeletal muscle development and function, we silenced the ANO5 gene in C2C12 myoblasts and evaluated whether it impairs myogenesis and myotube function. ANO5 knockdown (ANO5-KD) by shRNA resulted in clustered or aggregated nuclei at the body of myotubes without affecting differentiation or myotube formation. Nuclear positioning defect of ANO5-KD myotubes was accompanied with reduced expression of Kif5b protein, a kinesin-related motor protein that controls nuclear transport during myogenesis. ANO5-KD impaired depolarization-induced [Ca²⁺]i transient and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca²⁺ storage. ANO5-KD resulted in reduced protein expression of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and SR Ca²⁺-ATPase subtype 1. In addition, ANO5-KD compromised co-localization between DHPR and ryanodine receptor subtype 1. It is concluded that ANO5-KD causes nuclear positioning defect by reduction of Kif5b expression, and compromises Ca²⁺ signaling by downregulating the expression of DHPR and SERCA proteins.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Cell Membrane , Chloride Channels , Humans , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Myoblasts , RNA, Small Interfering , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 26(2): 176-185, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-948815

ABSTRACT

Exercitar-se na água é uma prática constatada há vários séculos, embora seja recente sua realização de forma sistemática e planejada. A literatura científi ca é ampla no estudo dos efeitos do treinamento aeróbico aquático, tendo investigado diferentes modalidades. Nas últimas décadas têm ganhado elevância os estudos que avaliam treinamentos aquáticos de caráter de força e sua melhora no sistema neuromuscular. Contudo estes trabalhos apresentam métodos de prescrição muito diferentes,dificultando sua comparação. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é elucidar aspectos metodológicos para prescrição de exercícios de força no meio aquático. Este artigo tem caráter narrativo e para a localização e aquisição dos estudos foram consultadas as bases de dados eletrônicas SCOPUS, SCIELO e MEDLINE, realizando-se buscas de artigos publicados entre os anos 1980 e 2016, com os seguintes descritores: hidroginástica, treinamento de força aquático e corrida em piscina funda. Os resultados demonstraram que os primeiros estudos publicados mundialmente relacionados a este tema datam do início dos anos 2000. Estes seguiam métodos de treinamento que buscavam reproduzir o modelo aplicado no meio terrestre, ou seja, utilizando número de repetições e número de séries. Por outro lado, os estudos mais recentes têm proposto a utilização da velocidade máxima e o tempo de execução para enfatizar vias metabólicas específi cas (anaeróbica alática e anaeróbica lática) e promover níveis adequados de tensão mecânica (velocidade máxima) e estresse metabólico (tempo de execução). Assim, os trabalhos demonstram que o treinamento de força no meio aquático têm proporcionado resultados satisfatórios em variáveis neuromusculares e morfológicas. Ainda, a prescrição de um treinamento de força neste meio, visando a ênfase sobre vias metabólicas específi cas, utilizando o tempo de execução e a máxima velocidade, parece ser uma forma adequada de se alcançar objetivos relacionados ao treinamento de força....(AU)


Exercising in the water environment is a practice that has been observed for several centuries, although its realization in a systematic and planned manner is recent. The scientifi c literature is broad in the study of the eff ects of water-based aerobic training, having investigated diff erent modalities. In the last decades, studies that evaluate water-based resistance training and its improvement in the neuromuscular system have gained relevance. However, these studies present very diff erent prescription methods, making diffi cult to compare them. Thus, the purpose of this review is to elucidate methodological aspects for prescription of water-based resistance exercises. This manuscript is a narrative review and for location and acquisition of the studies the electronic databases SCOPUS, SCIELO and MEDLINE were searched, searching articles published between 1980 and 2016, with the following descriptors: water gymnastics, water--based resistance training and deep water running. The results showed that the fi rst published studies related to this topic date back to the early 2000s. These studies followed training methods that sought to reproduce the model applied in the land environment, that is, using number of repetitions and number of series. On the other hand, more recent studies have proposed the use of maximum velocity and time to execution to emphasize specifi c metabolic pathways (lactic and alactic anaerobic) and to promote adequate levels of mechanical stress (maximal velocity) and metabolic stress (time to execution). Thus, the studies demonstrate that water-based resistance training has provided satisfactory results in neuromuscular and morphological variables. Furthermore, prescribing strength training in this environment, aiming at emphasizing specificmetabolic pathways, using time to execution and maximum velocity, seems to be an appropriate way of achieving goals related to strength training....(AU)


Subject(s)
Exercise , Muscle Development , Muscle Strength , Resistance Training , Physical Education and Training
7.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(4): e101804, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976259

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of different frequencies (three and five times a week) on electron transport chain and oxidative stress after 8 weeks of run training. Methods: Eighteen male mice (CF1, 30-35g) were distributed into the following groups (n=6): untrained (UT); trained three-time per week (T3) and trained five- time per week (T5). All training sessions were at the same intensity and duration (45min/day) in a treadmill for small animals. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, the animals were killed by decapitation and quadriceps (red portion) was removed and stored at -70ºC. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), complexes I, II, II-III, IV and hydroperoxides were measured. Results: Training sessions for five times per week were more effective in increasing the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities (SDH, complexes I, II, II-III, IV) as well as in decreasing the formation hydroperoxides than sessions performed for three times training per week (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings clearly showed that a higher the frequency of training session promotes a greater activity of the electron transport chain and consequently reduces the oxidative stress in healthy animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Muscle Development/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Electron Transport/physiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728629

ABSTRACT

Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) is a novel protein involved in cellular proliferation, migration, inflammatory reaction and signal transduction. However, little information is available on the relationship between MR-1 expression and the progression of atherosclerosis. Here we report atheroprotective effects of silencing MR-1 in a model of Ang II-accelerated atherosclerosis, characterized by suppression focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and atherosclerotic lesion macrophage content. In this model, administration of the siRNA-MR-1 substantially attenuated Ang II-accelerated atherosclerosis with stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and inhibited FAK, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and NF-kB activation, which was associated with suppression of inflammatory factor and atherogenic gene expression in the artery. In vitro studies demonstrated similar changes in Ang II-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages: siRNA-MR-1 inhibited the expression levels of proinflammatory factor. These studies uncover crucial proinflammatory mechanisms of Ang II and highlight actions of silencing MR-1 to inhibit Ang II signaling, which is atheroprotective.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Animals , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Cell Proliferation , Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Macrophages , Mice , Muscle Development , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NF-kappa B , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , RNA, Small Interfering , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Popeye deformity is common after rupture of the biceps muscle's long head tendon. Herein, we report on histological changes in biceps brachii muscles following tenotomy of the long head biceps tendon. METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats (12-week-old) underwent tenotomy of the long head biceps tendon in the right shoulder. At postoperative weeks 4, 7, and 10, the operative shoulders were removed by detaching the biceps brachii muscle from the glenoid scapula and humerus; the opposite shoulders were removed as controls. H&E staining was performed to elucidate histological changes in myocytes. Oil-red O staining was performed to determine fatty infiltration. Myostatin antibody immunohistochemistry staining was performed as myostatin is expressed by skeletal muscle cells during myogenesis. RESULTS: H&E staining results revealed no changes in muscle cell nuclei. There were no adipocytes detected. Compared with that of the control biceps, the cross-sectional area of the long head biceps was significantly smaller (p=0.00). Statistical changes in the total extent of the 100 muscle cells were significant (p=0.00). Oil-red O staining revealed no fatty infiltration. Myostatin antibody immunohistochemical staining revealed no significant difference between the two sides. CONCLUSIONS: Muscular changes after tenotomy of the long head biceps included a decrease in the size of the individual muscle cells and in relative muscle mass. There were no changes observed in muscle cell nuclei and no fatty infiltration. Moreover, there were no changes detected by myostatin antibody immunohistochemistry assay.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Animals , Congenital Abnormalities , Head , Humerus , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Myostatin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rupture , Scapula , Shoulder , Tendons , Tenotomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739498

ABSTRACT

Sumoylation, the conjugation of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein to a target, has diverse cellular effects. However, the functional roles of the SUMO modification during myogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that basal sumoylation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) enhances the deacetylation of MyoD in undifferentiated myoblasts, whereas further sumoylation of HDAC1 contributes to switching its binding partners from MyoD to Rb to induce myocyte differentiation. Differentiation in C2C12 skeletal myoblasts induced new immunoblot bands above HDAC1 that were gradually enhanced during differentiation. Using SUMO inhibitors and sumoylation assays, we showed that the upper band was caused by sumoylation of HDAC1 during differentiation. Basal deacetylase activity was not altered in the SUMO modification-resistant mutant HDAC1 K444/476R (HDAC1 2R). Either differentiation or transfection of SUMO1 increased HDAC1 activity that was attenuated in HDAC1 2R. Furthermore, HDAC1 2R failed to deacetylate MyoD. Binding of HDAC1 to MyoD was attenuated by K444/476R. Binding of HDAC1 to MyoD was gradually reduced after 2 days of differentiation. Transfection of SUMO1 induced dissociation of HDAC1 from MyoD but potentiated its binding to Rb. SUMO1 transfection further attenuated HDAC1-induced inhibition of muscle creatine kinase luciferase activity that was reversed in HDAC1 2R. HDAC1 2R failed to inhibit myogenesis and muscle gene expression. In conclusion, HDAC1 sumoylation plays a dual role in MyoD signaling: enhancement of HDAC1 deacetylation of MyoD in the basally sumoylated state of undifferentiated myoblasts and dissociation of HDAC1 from MyoD during myogenesis.


Subject(s)
Creatine Kinase, MM Form , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylase 1 , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Luciferases , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Myoblasts , Myoblasts, Skeletal , Sumoylation , Transfection
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727855

ABSTRACT

Myoblast fusion depends on mitochondrial integrity and intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling regulated by various ion channels. In this study, we investigated the ionic currents associated with [Ca²⁺]i regulation in normal and mitochondrial DNA-depleted (ρ0) L6 myoblasts. The ρ0 myoblasts showed impaired myotube formation. The inwardly rectifying K⁺ current (I(Kir)) was largely decreased with reduced expression of KIR2.1, whereas the voltage-operated Ca²⁺ channel and Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel currents were intact. Sustained inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport by antimycin A treatment (24 h) also decreased the I(Kir). The ρ0 myoblasts showed depolarized resting membrane potential and higher basal [Ca²⁺]ᵢ. Our results demonstrated the specific downregulation of I(Kir) by dysfunctional mitochondria. The resultant depolarization and altered Ca²⁺ signaling might be associated with impaired myoblast fusion in ρ0 myoblasts.


Subject(s)
Antimycin A , Down-Regulation , Electron Transport , Ion Channels , Membrane Potentials , Mitochondria , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Oxidative Phosphorylation
12.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 46(3): 168-177, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-960133

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of ergogenic substances (UES) is not restricted to achieving a better athletic performance, but also it is a behaviour for body changing through muscle development; however, little is known about the relationship between muscle dysmorphia (MD) and UES. Therefore, it was conducted a systematic review of those empirical papers that have studied this relationship over the last decade (2004-2014). First it is highlighted that of the 22 articles analysed, only 13 explicitly aimed this interest. Besides, although the documented data outlined some relevant aspects such as the existence of a high co-occurrence (60-90%) between MD and UES. In general, the evidence is still incipient and uncertain, mainly because of the large disparity between the methodologies of the studies, particularly in terms of indicators, parameters and measures utilised to assess UES within the context of MD.


Resumen El uso de sustancias ergogénicas (USE) no se restringe a la consecución de un mayor desempeño atlético, actualmente también es una conducta de cambio corporal, vía el desarrollo muscular; no obstante, poco se sabe de la relación entre dismorfia muscular (DM) y USE. Por tanto se realizó una revisión sistemática de los estudios empíricos que, durante la última década (2004-2014), la han examinado. De entrada, destaca el hecho de que, de los 22 artículos analizados, solo en 13 se explicita este interés. Además, aunque los datos documentados delinean algunas vertientes relevantes, como la existencia de una alta concomitancia (60-90%) de DM y USE, en general las evidencias son aún incipientes e inciertas, principalmente debido a la gran disparidad metodológica entre estudios y, particularmente, en cuanto a los indicadores, los parámetros y las medidas que, en el contexto de la DM, se han venido empleando para evaluar USE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Muscle Development , Performance-Enhancing Substances , Weights and Measures , Athletic Performance , Indicators and Reagents
13.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(4)July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES. The ANKRD1 gene codes for the ankyrin repeat domain containing protein 1 and has an important role in myogenesis and possibly also in angiogenesis. Microvasculopathy is a cornerstone and an early pathological marker of change in dermatomyositis, leading to hypoxia and muscle perifascicular atrophy. These alterations could upregulate genes involved in myogenesis and angiogenesis such as ANKRD1. Therefore, we analyzed ANKRD1 expression in muscle biopsies of dermatomyositis and correlated with other hypoxia parameters and with histological changes. METHODS. Total RNA was extracted from frozen muscle biopsies samples of 29 dermatomyositis patients. A control group consisted of 20 muscle biopsies from adult patients with non-inflammatory myopathy diseases. The gene coding for hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1A), was analyzed to estimate the degree of hypoxia. ANKRD1 and HIF1A transcript expression levels were determined by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS. Significantly higher ANKRD1 and HIF1A expression levels were observed in dermatomyositis relative to the control group (P<0.001, both genes). In addition, ANKRD1 and HIF1A were coexpressed (r=0.703, P=0.001) and their expression levels correlated positively to perifascicular atrophy (r=0.420, P=0.023 and r=0.404, P=0.030, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. Our results demonstrate ANKRD1 overexpression in dermatomyositis correlated to HIF1A expression and perifascicular atrophy. ANKRD1 involvement in myogenesis and angiogenesis mechanisms indicates that further investigation is worthwhile.


OBJETIVOS: ANKRD1 codifica "ankyrin repeat domain containing protein 1" e tem um papel importante na miogênese e possivelmente também na angiogênese. Microvasculopatia é considerada como um ponto central e uma alteração patológica precoce na dermatomiosite (DM), levando à hipóxia e à atrofia perifascicular muscular. Estas alterações poderiam estimular genes envolvidos na miogênese e angiogênese como ANKRD1. Portanto, analisamos a expressão de ANKRD1 em biópsias musculares de DM e correlacionamos com outros parâmetros de hipóxia e alterações histológicas. MÉTODOS: O RNA total foi extraído de biópsias de músculos congelados de 29 pacientes com DM. Como grupo controle, foram usadas 20 biópsias de músculo de pacientes adultos com miopatia não-inflamatória. O gene que codifica a subunidade alfa do fator 1 induzido por hipóxia (HIF1A) foi analisado para estimar o grau de hipóxia. Os níveis de expressão dos transcritos ANKRD1 e HIF1A foram determinados por PCR quantitativa em tempo real. RESULTADOS: Níveis aumentados de expressões de ANKRD1 e HIF1A foram observados em DM quando comparados ao grupo controle (P<0,001, ambos os genes). Além disso, ANKRD1 e HIF1A apresentaram coexpressão (r=0,703, P=0,001) e seus níveis de expressão correlacionaram-se também positivamente com atrofia perifascicular (r=0,420, P=0,023 e r=0,404, P=0,030, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstraram aumento de expressão de ANKRD1 na DM, que correlacionou com a expressão de HIF1A e atrofia perifascicular. Investigações adicionais do envolvimento de ANKRD1 no mecanismo de miogênese e angiogênese devem ser realizadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA/analysis , Muscle Development , Dermatomyositis/physiopathology , Hypoxia
14.
Cambios rev. méd ; 16(2): 25-30, jul.- 2017. ^eilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981204

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pescado es una fuente completa de proteínas de fácil digestión. Su aceite, vitaminas y minerales proporcionan un funcionamiento normal a todos los sistemas básicos del organismo. Estudiar las características del crecimiento postnatal del músculo esquelético del pez permite formular propuestas basadas en evidencias para la producción de carne de pescado de buena calidad. Material y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de más de 300 especies de peces bajo principios análogos: edad joven de 20 a 500 días, de 860 días y con 2 a 3 años bajo crianza con tecnología de granja. El complejo metodológico incluyó morfometría, disección anatómica, métodos de preparación histológica, microscopio electrónico (Quanta 200 3D) y procesador estadístico. Resultados: Las condiciones tecnológicas y la conducta alimentaria garantizan el crecimiento del pez tipo pequeño (fingerlings). Según los registros del estudio, el incremento del peso del cuerpo de los peces carpa entre 15 y 135 días, fitoplankton para carpas plateadas sobre 190 y 301 veces, fitovorous para carpa herbívora, 128 a 302 veces. Discusión: El crecimiento vigoroso hiperplásico en el período inicial de la ontogénesis influye en el crecimiento posterior de los animales adultos. La dinámica estacional de las características morfométricas de las fibras musculares está influida por la intensidad de los procesos metabólicos del organismo.


Introduction: Fish as a food product is a source of complete, easily digested proteins, fish oil, vitamins, minerals which provide normal operation of all basic systems in the organism. Studying the general and specific characteristics of postnatal growth of fish skeletal muscles allow us to formulate evidence-based approach to the production of good quality fish. Methods: Prospective study of more than 300 species under analogue principles: : juveniles aged from 20 till 500 days, species aged 860 days at two- and three years farming technology. Complex methodological approach including morphometrics, anatomic dissection, histological set up methods with electronic scanning microscopy (Quanta 200 3D) was used. Statistical data processing was performed. Results: Technological conditions and feeding behaviour guarantee the intensity of fingerlings growth. According to our records carp increases body weight up to from 50 (at 3 year technology) to 411 times (at 2 year technology) between 15 and 135 days; phytoplankton silver carp up to 190-301 times, phytovorous grass carp up to 128-302 times respectively. Discussion: Vigorous hyperplastic growth of carps at early stages of postnatal ontogenesis influences on further growth of mature animals. Seasonal dynamics of morphometric characteristics of muscular fibers is determined by intensity of metabolic processes proceeding in organism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goldfish , Aquaculture , Fisheries , Anatomy, Veterinary , Fish Oils , Muscle Development , Muscles
15.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 39(1): 17-26, jan.-jun. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837167

ABSTRACT

Hippotherapy is a therapeutic method that uses the horse's movement to achieve functional results in practitioners with Down syndrome (DS), who present motor and neurophysiological changes that affect the musculoskeletal system. Evaluating the motor behavior related to the control and the improvement of muscle activation in practitioners with Down syndrome subjected to hippotherapy. 10 practitioners were divided into two groups: Down Group (DG) ­ practitioners with DS, and Healthy Group (HG) ­ practitioners with no physical impairment. The muscles gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were evaluated by electromyography using gross RMS values, which correspond to muscle activation; the evaluations were performed on the 1st and 10th hippotherapy sessions (frequency: once a week), and after 2 months interval without treatment, they were performed on the 1st and 10th hippotherapy sessions (frequency: twice a week). It was noted that activation of the studied muscles increased with the passing of sessions, regardless the weekly frequency of attendance; however, the period without treatment resulted in reduction of this effect. Practitioners with DS presented satisfactory changes in muscle activation pattern, in learning and in motor behavior during hippotherapy sessions.


Equoterapia é um método terapêutico que utiliza o movimento do cavalo para alcançar resultados funcionais, realizada em praticantes com síndrome de Down (SD), que apresentam alterações neurofisiológicas e motoras que afetam o sistema musculoesquelético. Avaliar o comportamento motor relacionado ao controle e melhora a ativação muscular em praticantes com SD submetidos ao tratamento equoterapêutico. Participaram dez praticantes divididos em dois grupos: grupo Down (GD) - praticantes com SD, e grupo Saudável (GS) - praticantes sem comprometimento físico. Os músculos glúteo médio, tensor da fáscia lata, reto femoral, vasto medial, vasto lateral, bíceps femoral, tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia, utilizando o valor de RMS bruto que corresponde à ativação muscular, e as avaliações foram realizadas na primeira e décima sessões de equoterapia (frequência: 01 vez por semana); e após intervalo de dois meses sem tratamento, foi realizada na primeira e décima sessões de equoterapia (frequência: 02 vezes por semana). Observou-se que a ativação muscular dos músculos estudados aumentou com o passar das sessões, independente da frequência semanal de atendimento; mas o período sem tratamento resultou em redução deste efeito. Os praticantes com SD apresentaram mudanças satisfatórias no padrão de ativação muscular, na aprendizagem e no comportamento motor no decorrer das sessões de equoterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Down Syndrome , Electromyography , Equine-Assisted Therapy , Muscle Development
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107083

ABSTRACT

The cytokine-like hormone leptin is a classic adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, increases with weight gain, and decreases with weight loss. Additional studies have, however, shown that leptin is also produced by skeletal muscle, and leptin receptors are abundant in both skeletal muscle and bone-derived mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in muscle-bone crosstalk. Leptin treatment in vitro increases the expression of myogenic genes in primary myoblasts, and leptin treatment in vivo increases the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenesis. Bone marrow adipogenesis is associated with low bone mass in humans and rodents, and leptin can reduce marrow adipogenesis centrally through its receptors in the hypothalamus as well as directly via its receptors in bone marrow stem cells. Yet, central leptin resistance can increase with age, and low circulating levels of leptin have been observed among the frail elderly. Thus, aging appears to significantly alter leptin-mediated crosstalk among various organs and tissues. Aging is associated with bone loss and muscle atrophy, contributing to frailty, postural instability, and the incidence of falls. Therapeutic interventions such as protein and amino acid supplementation that can increase muscle mass and muscle-derived leptin may have multiple benefits for the elderly that can potentially reduce the incidence of falls and fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Adipokines , Aged , Aging , Bone Marrow , Frail Elderly , Humans , Hypothalamus , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Leptin , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , MicroRNAs , Muscle Development , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Myoblasts , Osteoporosis , Receptors, Leptin , Rodentia , Sarcopenia , Stem Cells , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(2): e150149, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785077

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate muscle organization in tambaqui in order to describe the muscle growth process. We analyzed the morphometric pattern of fibers from white muscle of young-adults (300 days) by smaller diameter. The organization of white muscle exhibited a typical morphological pattern found in other fish species. Heavier animals showed higher frequency of larger diameter fibers (>50 m ) and smaller animals had higher frequency of smaller diameter fibers ( 20 m ) (P =0.005). However, both animals showed the same frequency of intermediate diameter fibers (20-50 m ). Body weight showed a positive correlation with muscle diameter fiber (r=0.45), being 20-50 m the diameters that contributed the most to animal weight (P 0.0001). A weak correlation between fiber diameter and animal sex was observed (r=0.2). Females showed higher frequency of large fiber diameters (>50 m ) than males. However, there was no difference between body weight and sex (P =0.8). Our results suggest that muscle growth is by hypertrophy and hyperplasia due to a mosaic appearance from different diameters fibers, which is characteristic of large size fish species.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a organização muscular em tambaqui, a fim de descrever o processo de crescimento muscular. Foi analisado o padrão morfométrico das fibras do músculo branco de animais com 300 dias de idade usando o método de diâmetro menor. O músculo branco apresentou uma organização morfológica padrão encontrado em peixes. Animais de maior peso apresentaram maior frequência de fibras de maior diâmetro (> 50 m ) e os animais de menor peso apresentaram maior frequência de fibras de menor diâmetro ( 20 m ) (P = 0,005). Entretanto, ambos os animais, com maior e menor peso, apresentaram frequências semelhantes de fibras de diâmetro intermediário (20-50 m ). O parâmetro peso corporal mostrou correlação positiva com o diâmetro da fibra muscular (r = 0,45), sendo as fibras de diâmetro intermediários (20-50 m ) que mais contribuíram para o peso do animal (P 0,0001). Fêmeas apresentaram maior frequência de fibras de maior diâmetro (>50 m ) que machos. Observou-se uma fraca correlação entre o diâmetro da fibra e o sexo dos animais (r = 0,2). Apesar de fraca, a correlação estimada é corroborada pela fibras de grandes diâmetros (> 50 m ) serem mais frequente nas fêmeas que nos machos. No entanto, não houve diferença entre o peso corporal dos animais aos 300 dias de idade e sexo (P = 0,8). Os resultados encontrados sugerem que o crescimento muscular ocorre por hipertrofia e hiperplasia, caracterizado pela aparência em mosaico de fibras de diferentes diâmetros, característico de peixes de grande tamanho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Characiformes/anatomy & histology , Characiformes/growth & development , Characiformes/physiology , Muscle Development/physiology , Hyperplasia/veterinary , Hypertrophy/veterinary
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78632

ABSTRACT

Replication-independent incorporation of variant histone H3.3 has a profound impact on chromatin function and numerous cellular processes, including the differentiation of muscle cells. The histone chaperone HIRA and H3.3 have essential roles in MyoD regulation during myoblast differentiation. However, the precise mechanism that determines the onset of H3.3 deposition in response to differentiation signals is unclear. Here we show that HIRA is phosphorylated by Akt kinase, an important signaling modulator in muscle cells. By generating a phosphospecific antibody, we found that a significant amount of HIRA was phosphorylated in myoblasts. The phosphorylation level of HIRA and the occupancy of phosphorylated protein on muscle genes gradually decreased during cellular differentiation. Remarkably, the forced expression of the phosphomimic form of HIRA resulted in reduced H3.3 deposition and suppressed the activation of muscle genes in myotubes. Our data show that HIRA phosphorylation limits the expression of myogenic genes, while the dephosphorylation of HIRA is required for proficient H3.3 deposition and gene activation, demonstrating that the phosphorylation switch is exploited to modulate HIRA/H3.3-mediated muscle gene regulation during myogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Phospho-Specific , Chromatin , Histones , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Transcriptional Activation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137222

ABSTRACT

BCL-2 interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), which is ubiquitously expressed, has important roles in various cellular processes, such as apoptosis, the cellular stress response, migration and invasion and protein quality control. In particular, BIS is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, and BIS gene mutations result in human myopathy. In this study, we show that mRNA and protein levels of BIS were markedly increased during skeletal myogenesis in C2C12 cells and mouse satellite cells. BIS knockdown did not prevent the early stage of skeletal myogenesis, but did induce muscle atrophy and a decrease in the diameter of myotubes. BIS knockdown significantly suppressed the expression level of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) without changing the expression levels of myogenic marker proteins, such as Mgn, Cav-3 and MG53. In addition, BIS endogenously interacted with MyHC, and BIS knockdown induced MyHC ubiquitination and degradation. From these data, we conclude that molecular association of MyHC and BIS is necessary for MyHC stabilization in skeletal muscle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Death , Humans , Mice , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Muscular Diseases , Myocardium , Myosin Heavy Chains , Myosins , Quality Control , RNA, Messenger , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137219

ABSTRACT

BCL-2 interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), which is ubiquitously expressed, has important roles in various cellular processes, such as apoptosis, the cellular stress response, migration and invasion and protein quality control. In particular, BIS is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, and BIS gene mutations result in human myopathy. In this study, we show that mRNA and protein levels of BIS were markedly increased during skeletal myogenesis in C2C12 cells and mouse satellite cells. BIS knockdown did not prevent the early stage of skeletal myogenesis, but did induce muscle atrophy and a decrease in the diameter of myotubes. BIS knockdown significantly suppressed the expression level of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) without changing the expression levels of myogenic marker proteins, such as Mgn, Cav-3 and MG53. In addition, BIS endogenously interacted with MyHC, and BIS knockdown induced MyHC ubiquitination and degradation. From these data, we conclude that molecular association of MyHC and BIS is necessary for MyHC stabilization in skeletal muscle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Death , Humans , Mice , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Muscular Diseases , Myocardium , Myosin Heavy Chains , Myosins , Quality Control , RNA, Messenger , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
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