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Ludovica pediátr ; 26(2): 18-27, dic.2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531124


La espasticidad es uno de los principales factores de riesgo que predispone a la luxación de cadera en los niños con parálisis cerebral (PC). La aplicación de toxina botulínica (BTX A) en los músculos aductores de caderas reduce este riesgo

Spasticity is one of the main risk factors predisposing to hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP), Botulinum toxin A (BTX A) injection in hip adductor muscles reduces this risk

Child , Muscle Spasticity , Cerebral Palsy , Hip Dislocation
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 121-124, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970891


Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a rare and early-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by variants of the SACS gene which maps to chromosome 13q11 and encodes sacsin protein. Sacsin is highly expressed in large motor neurons, in particular cerebellar Purkinje cells. This article has provided a review for the structure and function of sacsin protein and the mechanisms underlying abnormalities of sacsin in ARSACS disease.

Humans , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/pathology , Ataxia/genetics , Muscle Spasticity/genetics
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 79-85, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970824


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the relationship among the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS)and the development of hip joint and lumbar spine in children with spastic cerebral palsy.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 125 children with spastic cerebral palsy admitted from January 2018 to July 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 85 males and 40 females, aged from 4 to 12 years old with an average of (8.4±2.9) years. According to GMFCS, the patients were divided into gradeⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ groups. There were 27 cases in gradeⅠgroup, 40 cases in gradeⅡgroup, 35 cases in grade Ⅲ group and 23 cases in grade Ⅳ group. The migration percentage(MP), central edge angle(CE), neck-shaft angle(NSA), acetabular index(AI) were measured by the radiograph of pelvis, abnormal parameters were selected to evaluate the relationship between different GMFCS grades and hip joint development. Lumbar sagittal Cobb angle, lumbar sacral angle, lumbar lordosis index and apical distance were measured by lateral lumbar radiographs to evaluate the relationship between different GMFCS grades and lumbar spine development.@*RESULTS@#①Among the 125 spastic cerebral palsy children, there were 119 cases of pelvic radiographs that met the measurement standards. In the four groups with gradeⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, MP was (22.72±3.88), (26.53±4.36), (33.84±4.99), and (49.54±7.87)%, CE was(30.10±6.99) °, ( 22.92±4.19) °, ( 17.91±5.50) °, and (-0.70±17.33)°, AI was (16.41±2.77) °, (20.46±4.63) °, (23.76±5.10) °, and ( 29.15±7.35)°, respectively, there were significant differences between the two comparisons (P<0.05). And the higher GMFCS grade, the greater MP and AI, and the smaller CE.The NSA was(142.74±10.03) °, (148.66±9.09) °, (151.66±10.52) °, and (153.70±8.05)° in four groups with gradeⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, respectively. The differences between the two comparisons of the GMFCS gradeⅠgroup and the other three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). NSA of GMFCSⅠgroup was significantly lower than that of the others, there was no significant difference among other groups(P>0.05). ② Among the 125 spastic cerebral palsy children, there were 88 cases of lumbar spine radiographs that met the measurement standards. ③The lumbar sagittal Cobb angle was(32.62±11.10) °, (29.86±9.90) °, (31.70±11.84) °, and (39.69±6.80)° in the four groups with gradeⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, respectively;GMFSS of grade Ⅳ group was significantly higher than that of other three groups, there was significant difference between the two comparisons (P<0.05);there were no significant differences between other groups (P>0.05). In the four groups with gradeⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, the lumbosacral angle was (31.02±9.91) °, ( 26.57±9.41) °, (28.08±8.56) °, and ( 27.31±11.50)°, the lumbar lordosis index was (4.14±12.89), (8.83±13.53), (13.00±11.78), and (10.76±9.97) mm, the arch apex distance was (9.50±6.80), (6.68±3.20), (7.16±4.94), and (6.62±4.13) mm, respectively, there were no significant differences between the two comparisons(P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#①In children with GMFCS gradeⅠ-Ⅳ, the higher the GMFCS grade, the worse the hip develops. ② Children with GMFCS grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ may be at greater risk for lumbar kyphosis.

Male , Female , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Lordosis , Retrospective Studies , Cerebral Palsy , Hip Dislocation , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Muscle Spasticity
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 558-562, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981788


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical feature and genetic variant of a child with autosomal recessive Charlevoix-Saguenay type spastic ataxia (ARSACS).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of a child who was admitted to the West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University on April 30, 2021 was collected. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the child and his parents. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG).@*RESULTS@#The child, a 3-year-and-3-month-old female, had a complain of "walking instability for over a year". Physical and laboratory examination revealed progressive and aggravated gait instability, increased muscle tone of the right limbs, peripheral neuropathy of the lower limbs, and thickening of retinal nerve fiber layer. The results of WES revealed that she has harbored a maternally derived heterozygous deletion of exons 1 to 10 of the SACS gene, in addition with a de novo heterozygous c.3328dupA variant in exon 10 of the SACS gene. Based on the ACMG guidelines, the exons 1-10 deletion was rated as likely pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_Supporting), and the c.3328dupA was rated as a pathogenic variant (PVS1_Strong+PS2+PM2_Supporting). Neither variant was recorded in the human population databases.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.3328dupA variant and the deletion of exons 1-10 of the SACS gene probably underlay the ARSACS in this patient.

Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Muscle Spasticity/genetics , Mutation , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/pathology
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 163-169, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969966


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical efficacy of scalp acupuncture for spastic cerebral palsy (CP), and to explore its possible mechanism based on brain white matter fiber bundles, nerve growth related proteins and inflammatory cytokines.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 children with spastic CP were randomly divided into a scalp acupuncture group and a sham scalp acupuncture group, 45 cases in each group. The children in the two groups were treated with conventional comprehensive rehabilitation treatment. The children in the scalp acupuncture group were treated with scalp acupuncture at the parietal temporal anterior oblique line, parietal temporal posterior oblique line on the affected side, and parietal midline. The children in the sham scalp acupuncture group were treated with scalp acupuncture at 1 cun next to the above point lines. The needles were kept for 30 min, once a day, 5 days a week, for 12 weeks. Before and after treatment, the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indexes of magnetic resonance (FA values of corticospinal tract [CST], anterior limb of internal capsule [ICAL], posterior limb of internal capsule [ICPL], genu of internal capsule [ICGL], genu of corpus callosum [GCC], body of corpus callosum [BCC] and splenium of corpus callosum [SCC]), serum levels of nerve growth related proteins (neuron-specific enolase [NSE], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], myelin basic protein [MBP], ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1]) and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 33 [IL-33], tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), cerebral hemodynamic indexes (mean blood flow velocity [Vm], systolic peak flow velocity [Vs] and resistance index [RI], pulsatility index [PI] of cerebral artery), surface electromyography (SEMG) signal indexes (root mean square [RMS] values of rectus femoris, hamstring muscles, gastrocnemius muscles, tibialis anterior muscles), gross motor function measure-88 (GMFM-88) score, modified Ashworth scale (MAS) score, ability of daily living (ADL) score were observed in the two groups. The clinical effect of the two groups was compared.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the FA value of each fiber bundle, Vm, Vs, GMFM-88 scores and ADL scores in the two groups were higher than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the above indexes in the scalp acupuncture group were higher than those in the sham scalp acupuncture group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum levels of NSE, GFAP, MBP, UCH-L1, IL-33, TNF-α as well as RI, PI, MAS scores and RMS values of each muscle were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the above indexes in the scalp acupuncture group were lower than those in the sham scalp acupuncture group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 95.6% (43/45) in the scalp acupuncture group, which was higher than 82.2% (37/45) in the sham scalp acupuncture group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Scalp acupuncture could effectively treat spastic CP, improve the cerebral hemodynamics and gross motor function, reduce muscle tension and spasticity, and improve the ability of daily life. The mechanism may be related to repairing the white matter fiber bundles and regulating the levels of nerve growth related proteins and inflammatory cytokines.

Child , Humans , Cerebral Palsy/therapy , Interleukin-33 , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Scalp , Muscle Spasticity , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Acupuncture Therapy , Cytokines
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1081-1085, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007446


Acupuncture and moxibustion has certain advantages in the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis,but the treatment methods and diagnosis and treatment ideas are complicated. This paper sortes out the representative contemporary acupuncture and moxibustion schools in the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis, analyzes their academic origins,summarizes and compares the theory,acupoint selection and technique characteristics of different schools in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease,so as to provide some references for guiding optimal treatment schemes selection in clinic.

Humans , Moxibustion , Muscle Spasticity/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Schools , Acupuncture Points , Stroke/therapy
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 876-880, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007411


Jingjin (muscle region of meridian) is a distal diagnosis and treatment system of the sinew/fascia disorders on the base of the concept of jin in TCM. Jin should be a particular palpable structure rather than a single anatomic structure with a specific distributing course. Yizhi weishu refers to a idea running through the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of sinew/fascia disorders, in which, the results, obtained by the overall observation and palpation of patient's sinew/fascia structure, are taken as the criteria of treatment. Yitong weishu (taking the sites of sensitivity or tenderness as the points) verifies this idea in practice. Under the guidance of yizhi weishu, through identifying the primary from the secondary, and regulating yin and yang, the spasticity and flaccidity of sinews/fascia can be cured and the induced diseases treated. The diagnosis and treatment system of jingjin, based on yizhi weishu, develops the original jingjin theory with vague concept involved, formulates a systematic thinking of treatment for sinew/fascia disorders and provides a new approach to clinical treatment.

Humans , Meridians , Acupuncture Therapy , Muscle Spasticity
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378020


Objetivo:El riesgo de desarrollar escoliosis de comienzo temprano es alto en niños con parálisis cerebral espástica, nivel IV y V del GMFCS. No hay acuerdo sobre el tratamiento para niños <5-6 años y esta revisión sistemática se centra en este tópico. Materiales y Métodos:Búsqueda en PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, BVS/BIREME, LILACS y SciELO, entre enero de 2009 y noviembre de 2020, con los descriptores: "cerebral palsy, scoliosis, early-onset, treatment". Se eliminaron los artículos duplicados, no relacionados con la investigación, sin texto completo, con pocos pacientes con parálisis cerebral espástica, sin discriminación etiológica, sin resultados y con edad avanzada. Evaluaciones: nivel de evidencia, edad, nivel del GMFCS, tipo de deformidades, tratamientos, seguimiento, resultados y complicaciones. Resultados:Se incluyeron 10 de 6770 artículos: 8 con nivel de evidencia IV, edad: 3.2-10 años, deformidad predominante: escoliosis, seguimiento: 1.5-9.8 años. Tratamientos: barras de crecimiento tradicionales o magnéticas, fusión instrumentada precoz, yesos, ortesis y prótesis costal expandible de titanio. La fusión precoz instrumentada logra una corrección ≥75% del ángulo de Cobb; las barras de crecimiento, las ortesis o la prótesis costal expandible de titanio, el 25-50%, y los yesos solo logran mantenerla. La tasa de complicaciones es menor en los tratamientos incruentos (5,8-36%) que en los quirúrgicos (21,5-73,1%). Las tasas de complicaciones quirúrgicas y de muerte poscirugía en espásticos son mayores que en hipotónicos. Conclusiones: La cirugía no es una buena opción inicial para las escoliosis de comienzo temprano en niños pequeños con parálisis cerebral espástica, nivel IV y V del GMFCS. Nivel de Evidencia: III

Introduction: Children with GMFCS IV and V spastic cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of developing early-onset scoliosis (EOS). There is no agreement about treatment for very young children (less than 5 or 6 years old). This systematic review focuses on this problem. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search in the PubMed, Scholar Google, Cochrane Library, BVS/BIREME, LILACS, and SCIELO databases from 1/2009 to 11/2020, using the following keywords: "cerebral palsy", "scoliosis", "early-onset", "treatment". We eliminated duplicated articles, those with unrelated research, without complete text, with very few spastic CP patients or patients aged over 6, and without clear etiology or results. The variables evaluated in the selected articles were: level of evidence, average age, GMFCS level, deformity types, treatments, follow-up, outcomes, and complications. Results: From the 6770 articles retrieved, only 10 were included: 8/10 with evidence level IV, average ages 3.2 to 10 years old, scoliosis as prevalent deformity, average follow-up 1.5 to 9.8 years. Treatment: traditional growing rods (3), magnetic growing rods (1), early instrumented fusion (2), casting (1), orthotics (2), and VEPTR (1). Early instrumented fusion provides ≥75% of Cobb correction; growing rods, orthotics, and VEPTR, between 25 and 50%, and plaster casts only prevent progression. Non-surgical treatments have a lower rate of complications (5.8%-36%) than surgical ones (21.5% - 73.1%). Surgical complications and postoperative mortality are higher in spastic than in hypotonic patients. Conclusions: Surgery is not a good initial option in very young children with spastic, GMFCS IV-V CP. Level of Evidence: III

Child , Scoliosis , Cerebral Palsy , Muscle Spasticity
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1100-1107, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405225


SUMMARY: This study aimed to accurately localize the location and depth of the centre of the highest region of muscle spindle abundance (CHRMSA) of the triceps brachii muscle. Twenty-four adult cadavers were placed in the prone position. The curve connecting the acromion and lateral epicondyle of the humerus close to the skin was designed as the longitudinal reference line (L), and the curve connecting the lateral and the medial epicondyle of the humerus was designed as the horizontal reference line (H). Sihler's staining was used to visualize the dense intramuscular nerve region of the triceps brachii muscle. The abundance of muscle spindle was calculated after hematoxylin and eosin stain. CHRMSA was labelled by barium sulphate, and spiral computed tomography scanning and three- dimensional reconstruction were performed. Using the Syngo system, the projection points of CHRMSA on the posterior and anterior arm surface (P and P' points), the position of P points projected to the L and H lines (PL and PH points), and the depth of CHRMSA were determined. The PL of the CHRMSA of the long, medial, and lateral heads of the triceps brachii muscle were located at 34.83 %, 75.63 %, and 63.93 % of the L line, respectively, and the PH was located at 63.46 %, 69.62 %, and 56.07 % of the H line, respectively. In addition, the depth was located at 34.73 %, 35.48 %, and 35.85 % of the PP' line, respectively. These percentage values are all the means. These body surface locations and depths are suggested to be the optimal blocking targets for botulinum toxin A in the treatment of triceps brachii muscle spasticity.

RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo localizar con precisión la ubicación y la profundidad del centro de la región más alta del huso muscular (CHRMSA) del músculo tríceps braquial. Se colocaron veinticuatro cadáveres adultos en posición prona y se designó la curva que conecta el acromion y el epicóndilo lateral del húmero cerca de la piel como la línea de referencia longitudinal (L), y la curva que conecta los epicóndilos lateral y medial del húmero fue designada como la línea de referencia horizontal (H). Se usó la tinción de Sihler para visualizar la región nerviosa intramuscular densa del músculo tríceps braquial. La abundancia de huso muscular se calculó después de la tinción con hematoxilina y eosina. CHRMSA se marcó con sulfato de bario y se realizó una tomografía computarizada espiral y una reconstrucción tridimensional. Usando el sistema Syngo, fueron determinados los puntos de proyección de CHRMSA en la superficie posterior y anterior del brazo (puntos P y P'), la posición de los puntos P pro- yectados en las líneas L y H (puntos PL y PH) y la profundidad de CHRMSA. Los PL de la CHRMSA de las cabezas larga, medial y lateral del músculo tríceps braquial se ubicaron en el 34,83 %, 75,63 % y 63,93 % de la línea L, respectivamente, y el PH se ubicó en el 63,46 %, 69,62 %, y 56,07 % de la línea H, respectivamente. La profundidad se ubicó en el 34,73 %, 35,48 % y 35,85 % de la línea PP', respectivamente. Estos valores porcentuales son todas las medias. Se sugiere que estas ubicaciones y profundidades de la superficie corporal son los objetivos de bloqueo óptimos para la toxina botulínica A en el tratamiento de la espasticidad del músculo tríceps braquial.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle Spasticity , Arm/innervation , Cadaver , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Humerus
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 755-761, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939808


OBJECTIVES@#Stroke patients may have various sensory-motor disorders, such as spasticity, muscle weakness or sensory damage. Spasticity affects 20% to 40% of stroke patients. Patients with spasticity may have problems such as pain, motor function damage, and the decreased range of motion, which leads to decline of activity and quality of daily life. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a technique that can improve post-stroke spasticity. Whole body vibration (WBV), as a passive neuromuscular muscle stimulation technique, can improve the posture control, muscle strength, and muscle work of different people. At present, there are still few studies using WBV combined with ESWT for the treatment of hemiplegic patients with stroke. This study aims to explore the effects of WBV combined with ESWT on spasticity of the affected lower limb and gait function in stroke patients.@*METHODS@#From March 2020 to March 2021, 50 hemiplegic patients with stroke were treated in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the First Hospital of Changsha and they were assigned into a control group and a combined group, 25 cases per group. Both groups carried out conventional treatment, while the control group undertook the ESWT and fake WBV based on conventional treatment, and the combined group undertook ESWT after WBV and conventional treatment. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Lower Extremity portion of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and parameters of three-dimensional gait analysis including kinematic parameters (peak value of hip flexion and knee flexion) and spatiotemporal parameters (velocity, cadence and stride length) were assessed before and after 4-week treatment between the 2 groups.@*RESULTS@#After 4 weeks of treatment, MAS scores in 2 groups were lower than before (both P<0.05), and the combined group was lower than the control group (P<0.001); BBS and FMA-LE scores were higher than those before treatment (both P<0.05), and the combined group was higher than the control group (both P<0.001); in the control group, the walking speed, stride frequency, and stride length were higher than those before treatment (all P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the peak value of flexion hip and peak value of flexion knee (both P<0.05); the peak value of hip flexion, peak value of knee flexion, step speed, step frequency, and stride length in the combined group were higher than those before treatment (all P<0.05), and were higher than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#WBV combined with ESWT can improve the spasticity and motor function of the affected lower extremity, balance, and gait in hemiplegic patients with stroke.

Humans , Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy , Gait , Hemiplegia/therapy , Muscle Spasticity/therapy , Stroke/complications , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Vibration/therapeutic use
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 803-806, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939536


This paper reviews the application of "co-regulation of body and mind" of acupuncture for post-stroke spasticity. It is found that acupoints on the head and the back of the governor vessel, as well as Jiaji (Ex-B 2) points are mainly used for regulating the mind, and the local sites of spastic muscles and the points on the antagonistic muscles are for regulating the body specially. It is believed that regulating the mind should be integrated with regulating the body, while, the acupoint selection be associated with needling methods so as to fully achieve the "co-regulation of body and mind" and enhance the practical value of acupuncture for post-stroke spasticity. It is proposed that the classical anti-spastic needling techniques, such as huici (relaxing needling) and guanci (joint needling), should be more considered.

Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Muscle Spasticity/therapy , Muscles , Stroke/therapy
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 381-384, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927392


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the improvement effect between simultaneous electroacupuncture at antagonistic muscle and agonistic muscle and simple electroacupuncture at antagonistic muscle on spasticity degree, upper-extremity motor function and activity of daily living in patients with upper-extremity spasticity after stroke.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with upper-extremity spasticity after stroke were randomized into a comprehensive group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off) and an antagonistic muscle group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the antagonistic muscle group, acupuncture was applied at Jianyu (LI 15), Binao (LI 14), Zhouliao (LI 12), Shousanli (LI 10), Waiguan (TE 5) and Houxi (SI 3), electric stimulation was attached to Jianyu (LI 15)-Binao (LI 14), Zhouliao (LI 12)-Shousanli (LI 10) and Waiguan (TE 5)-Houxi (SI 3), with discontinuous wave, 15 Hz in frequency. On the basis of the treatment in the antagonistic muscle group, acupuncture was applied at Tianquan (PC 2), Chize (LU 5), Jianshi (PC 5) and Daling (PC 7) in the comprehensive group, electric stimulation was attached to Tianquan (PC 2)-Chize (LU 5) and Jianshi (PC 5)-Daling (PC 7), with continuous wave, 5 Hz in frequency. The treatment was given once a day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks in the two groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of modified Ashworth scale (MAS), Fugl-Meyer assessment upper extremity scale (FMA-UE) and modified Barthel index (MBI) scale were observed in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the MAS scores of elbow flexors and wrist flexors after treatment were decreased (P<0.05), the scores of FMA-UE and MBI scale after treatment were increased in the two groups (P<0.05). The scores of FMA-UE and MBI scale after treatment in the comprehensive group were higher than those in the antagonistic muscle group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Simultaneous electroacupuncture at antagonistic muscle and agonistic muscle and simple electroacupuncture at antagonistic muscle can both improve the spasticity degree in patients with upper-extremity spasticity after stroke, however, the former can better restore motor function and improve activity of daily living.

Humans , Electroacupuncture , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Muscle Spasticity/therapy , Muscles , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 23-27, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927329


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect on motor function, spasticity degree, muscle strength and the relevant parameters of three-dimensional gait analysis in the patients with post-stroke spasticity in the lower limbs treated with the combined therapy of electroacupuncture (EA) and muscle electricity biofeedback or the simple muscle electricity biofeedback therapy on the base of rehabilitation medicine.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with post-stroke spasticity in the lower limbs were randomized into an EA + biofeedback group, a biofeedback group and a rehabilitation group, 20 cases in each one. In the rehabilitation group, the basic rehabilitation training was provided, 45 min each time. In the biofeedback group, on the base of the treatment as the rehabilitation group, the biofeedback therapy was added, 30 min each time. In the EA + biofeedback group, besides the treatment as the biofeedback group, acupuncture was supplemented at Futu (ST 32), Liangqiu (ST 34), Zusanli (ST 36) and Fenglong (ST 40), etc, and EA was applid at Zusanli (ST 36) and Taichong (LR 3) with continuous wave and 5 Hz in frequency. In each group, the treatment was given once daily, 5 times a week, for 6 weeks totally. Separately, before and after treatment, the score of Fugle-Meyer assessment (FMA), the score of clinical spasticity index (CSI) in the lower limbs and the strength of the anterior tibial muscle on the affected side were assessed, and the spatial-temporal parameters (step frequency and steep speed) in the three-dimensional gait analysis and the kinematic parameters (maximum dorsal flexion and maximum plantar flexion of ankle joint on the affected side) were measured in the patients of three groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, FMA score was increased as compared with that before treatment in all of three groups (P<0.05). FMA score in the EA + biofeedback group and the biofeedback group was higher than the rehabilitation group respectively (P<0.05). CSI score in the EA + biofeedback group and the biofeedback group was lower than that before treatment respectively (P<0.05), and lower than the rehabilitation group (P<0.05). After treatment, the step frequency and speed were all improved and the angles of maximum dorsal flexion and maximum plantar flexion of ankle joint on the affected side were all increased as compared with those before treatment in the patients of three groups separately (P<0.05). The step frequency and speed, as well as the angles of maximum dorsal flexion and maximum plantar flexion of ankle joint on the affected side in either the EA + biofeedback group or the biofeedback group were all higher than the rehabilitation group (P<0.05), and the step speed in the EA + biofeedback group was higher than the biofeedback group (P<0.05). After treatment, the strength of the anterior tibial muscle on the affected side was increased as compared with that before treatment in the patients of each group (P<0.05); and the strength of the anterior tibial muscle in the EA + biofeedback group and the biofeedback group was larger than the rehabilitation group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#On the base of rehabilitation treatment, the combined regimen of EA and muscle electricity biofeedback therapy and the simple muscle electricity biofeedback therapy all effectively strengthen the motor functions and reduce spasticity as well as improve step frequency, step speed and the range of motion of ankle joint in the patients with post-stroke spasticity in the lower limbs. Regarding the gait improvement, the combined regimen of EA and muscle electricity biofeedback is better than the simple muscle electricity biofeedback.

Humans , Electroacupuncture , Gait , Lower Extremity , Muscle Spasticity/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37303, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341551


Resumen: Introducción: la parálisis cerebral (PC) es la causa más frecuente de discapacidad motriz en niños y adolescentes. En el 85% de los casos, la manifestación motora predominante es la espasticidad. Las inyecciones de toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A) se han usado para reducir la espasticidad en niños con PC. No existen investigaciones a nivel nacional que comprueben si los resultados son comparables a los reportados en la literatura. Objetivo: determinar el efecto del tratamiento con TB-A en el tríceps sural en conjunto con la rehabilitación física en niños con PC espástica durante los años 2017-2018 en el Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón, Uruguay. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de cohorte histórica única con seguimiento longitudinal, mediante la revisión de historias clínicas de los pacientes con PC con marcha independiente o asistida que recibieron tratamiento con TB-A para el tratamiento de la espasticidad del tríceps sural durante el período 2017-2018. Resultados: se analizaron 40 procedimientos de inyección de TB-A. Se observó una buena respuesta al mes y a los 3 meses del tratamiento con TB-A, con mejoría del ángulo de dorsiflexión del pie con la rodilla en flexión y en extensión, mejoría del puntaje de la escala de espasticidad de Ashworth modificada y, en el 95% de los procedimientos, de la percepción subjetiva de los padres. Se observó una disminución del efecto hacia los 6 meses de la aplicación. Conclusión: la aplicación de TB-A en el Centro Teletón muestra resultados positivos, comparables con los reportados en la bibliografía internacional.

Abstract: Introduction: cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common source of motor disability in children and adolescents. In 85% of cases, the prevailing motor manifestation is spasticity. Botulinum toxin Type A injections (TB-A) have been used to reduce spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). There are no studies at the national level that show whether the results are comparable to those reported in literature. Objective: to determine the effect of TB-A therapy in the triceps surae along with the physical rehabilitation in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) during 2017-2018 at the Teleton Children´s Rehabilitation Center, Uruguay. Method: retrospective, descriptive study of a single cohort with a longitudinal follow-up was conducted, through the review of medical records belonging to patients with CP with independent or assisted gait, who received TB-A therapy to treat sural triceps spasticity during 2017-2018. Results: 40 TB-A injection procedures were analysed. A good response was observed one month and three months after being treated with TB-A, evidencing improvement in the dorsiflexion angle between the foot and the knee in flexion and extension, improvement on the modified Ashworth spasticity scale score and, in 95% of procedures, the subjective perception of parents. The effect was observed to decrease towards 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: application of TB-A at the Teletón Center shows positive results, comparable to those reported by international blibliography.

Resumo: Introdução: a paralisia cerebral (PC) é a causa mais freqüente de deficiência motora em crianças e adolescentes. Em 85% dos casos, a manifestação motora predominante é a espasticidade. As injeções de toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A) têm sido usadas para reduzir a espasticidade em crianças com PC. Não há pesquisas nacionais que verifiquem se os resultados são comparáveis aos relatados na literatura. Objetivo: determinar o efeito do tratamento da TB-A no tríceps sural em conjunto com a reabilitação física em crianças com PC espástica durante os anos 2017-2018 no Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón, Uruguai. Métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, com coorte histórica única com acompanhamento longitudinal, realizado por meio da revisão de prontuários de pacientes com PC com deambulação independente ou assistida que receberam tratamento com TB-A para o tratamento da espasticidade do tríceps sural, no período 2017-2018. Resultados: 40 procedimentos de injeção de TB-A foram analisados. Observou-se boa resposta um mês e três meses após o tratamento com TB-A, com melhora no ângulo de dorsiflexão do pé com o joelho em flexão e extensão, melhora no escore da escala de espasticidade de Ashworth modificada e, em 95% dos procedimentos, a partir da percepção subjetiva dos pais. Uma diminuição no efeito foi observada 6 meses após a aplicação. Conclusão: a aplicação do TB-A no Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón apresentou resultados positivos, comparáveis aos relatados na literatura internacional.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/therapy , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Muscle Spasticity
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 238-244, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362120


Spasticity is amotor disorder that leads to a resistance to passive jointmovement. Cerebral palsy is the most important cause of spasticity and can be caused by several factors, including multiple gestations, alcoholism, infections, hemorrhages, drowning, and traumatic brain injuries, among others. There aremany scales that help tomeasure andmonitor the degree of impairment of these patients. The initial treatment should focus on the causal factor, such as tumors, inflammation, degenerative diseases, hydrocephalus, etc. Subsequently, the treatment of spastic musculature includes oral or intrathecal myorelaxants, spinal cord electrostimulation, neurotomies, Lissauer tract lesion, dentatotomy and selective dorsal rhizotomy. The latter is a safetechnique, possibleto beperformed inmost centers with neurosurgical support, and it is effective in the treatment of severe spasticity. In this article, the authors describe the surgical technique and conduct a review the literature.

Motor Neuron Disease/surgery , Rhizotomy/rehabilitation , Muscle Spasticity/surgery , Muscle Spasticity/etiology , Cerebral Palsy/complications , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Rhizotomy/methods , Laminoplasty/methods , Muscle Relaxants, Central/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(3): 204-217, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388390


ANTECEDENTES: la evidencia sobre personas que presentan daño de motoneurona superior y desarrollan un patrón de espasticidad en extremidad superior (EES) es limitada. Este signo positivo de disfunción o secundario al daño de la motoneurona superior se asocia con pérdida de función y disminución de la independencia, provocando discapacidad y alterando la calidad de vida. OBJETIVO: determinar la distribución de frecuencias de los patrones de EES, muñeca, dedos y pulgar posterior a un daño de motoneurona superior. MÉTODO: diseño descriptivo de corte transversal prospectivo. Se realizó una medición a 206 sujetos pertenecientes a 17 centros de salud, quienes cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y firmaron el consentimiento. La evaluación incluyó datos clínicos y la evaluación del patrón de EES (Clasificación de Hefter), muñeca, dedos (Zancolli adaptado) y pulgar (Clasificación de House). RESULTADOS: El análisis consideró cada una de las taxonomías de los patrones de EES evaluados (Hefter I a V). La distribución de frecuencias fue investigada mediante la prueba χ2 de bondad de ajuste, seguida de la inspección post hoc de los residuos estandarizados (z) en cada celda. Se identificaron frecuencias significativamente mayores en: el patrón III de extremidad superior, el patrón cubitalizado neutro de muñeca, el patrón del flexor profundo y mixto de Zancolli adaptado, y en los patrones 3, 4 del pulgar. Ninguna taxonomía se asoció al tiempo de evolución y tipo de ACV. CONCLUSIÓN: El estudio aporta evidencia relevante sobre la distribución frecuencia de patrones espásticos, posterior a un daño de motoneurona superior. La información proporcionada busca apoyar el proceso de decisión terapéutica potenciando la recuperación funcional de la extremidad superior.

BACKGROUND: The evidence regarding people who present superior motor neuron damage and develop a pattern of spasticity in the upper limb (SUL) is limited. This positive sign of the superior motor neuron is associated with both the loss of function and the decreased independence, causing disability and altering life quality. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency distribution of SUL, wrist, finger and thumb patterns after superior motor neuron damage. METHOD: prospective cross-sectional descriptive design, the sample consisted of 206 patients belonging to 17 health centers, who met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent, approved by the committee of ethics. The study considered a measurement, including clinical data and evaluation of the pattern of SUL (Hefter´s classification), wrist, fingers (adapted Zancolli) and thumb (House Classification). RESULTS: The analysis considered each of the taxonomies of evaluated patterns (Hefter´s I-V). Frequency distribution was investigated by χ2 goodness of fit tests, followed by post hoc inspection of standardized residues (z) in each cell. Significantly higher frequencies were identified in the upper limb pattern III, the neutral cubitalized wrist pattern, the adapted Zancolli deep flexor pattern and in the thumb patterns 3, 4. No taxonomy was associated with the evolution time and type of stroke. CONCLUSION: The study provides with relevant scientific evidence regarding the frequency distribution of spasticity patterns after superior motor neuron damage. The information provided can support the therapeutic decision process by enhancing the functional recovery of upper limb.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke/physiopathology , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Muscle Spasticity/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Motor Neurons
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(2): 244-250, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251349


Abstract Objective To perform a retrospective and cross-sectional assessment to determine the pain and positional improvement of all patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and severe hip deformity who underwent a McHale procedure in our center. A second objective was to analyze the potential complications from the procedure. Methods All consecutive patients treated between 1995 and 2017 were analyzed. Clinically, the patients should present pain on hip mobilization, difficulty in positioning for sitting and hygiene care, and medical records with complete data; functionally was assessed through the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). In the preoperative radiographs, we analyzed the migration percentage (MP), the type of deformity according to the Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification Scale (MCPHCS), and the type of deformity of the femoral head. After the surgery, we assessed the proximal migration of the proximal femoral fragment, implant changes and/or failure, and potential heterotopic ossification. The outcomes were reported as successful (D1) in patients presenting remission of pain, painless mobility, and improved positioning, or unsuccessful (D2) in those presenting procedural failure that required a new surgery. Results In total, 47 patients (53 hips) were treated. Functionally, 43 patients were classified as GMFCS V (91%), 3 as GMFCS IV patients (6%), and 1 as GMFCS III (2%). The mean age was 13 years and 2 months. The follow-up ranged from 1 year to 15 years and 4 months, with an average of 4 years and 8 months. A total of 36 patients (41 hips) presented successful (D1) outcomes after the McHale procedure, corresponding to 77% of our cases, whereas 11 (23%) cases had unsuccessful (D2) outcomes. Conclusion The McHale procedure is a treatment option for GMFCS IV and V, but we must be aware of the potential complications.

Resumo Objetivo Fazer uma avaliação retrospectiva e transversal quanto à melhora da dor e do posicionamento de todos os pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral (PC) espástica com deformidade grave no quadril submetidos ao procedimento de McHale em nosso centro. Secundariamente, objetivou-se analisar as possíveis complicações do procedimento. Métodos Foram analisados todos os pacientes consecutivos tratados no período entre 1995 e 2017. Clinicamente, os pacientes deveriam apresentar dor à mobilização do quadril, dificuldade de posicionamento para se sentar e para os cuidados de higiene, e prontuário médico com dados completos; quanto ao grau de função motora, utilizou-se o Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (Gross Motor Function Classification System, GMFCS, em inglês). A avaliação radiográfica no período pré-operatório analisou a porcentagem de migração (PM), o tipo de deformidade de acordo com a Escala de Classificação de Quadril na Paralisia Cerebral de Melbourne (Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification Scale, MCPHS), e a deformidade da cabeça femoral. No período pós-operatório, analisaram-se a presença de migração proximal do fragmento do fêmur proximal, as alterações e/ou a falha do implante utilizado, e a possível ossificação heterotópica. Consideraram-se como desfechos: D1- satisfatório: remissão da dor, mobilidade indolor, melhora do posicionamento; e D2- insatisfatório: falha no procedimento, que necessitou de reabordagem cirúrgica. Resultados No total, 47 pacientes (53 quadris) foram tratados. Funcionalmente, quanto à classificação no GMFCS, 43 pacientes eram GMFCS V (91%), 3 pacientes eram GMFCS IV (6%), e 1 paciente era GMFCS III (2%). A média da idade foi de 13 anos e 2 meses. O tempo de seguimento variou de 1 ano a 15 anos e 4 meses, com média de 4 anos e 8 meses. Quanto ao desfecho da cirurgia de McHale, ele foi satifatório (D1) em 36 pacientes (41 quadris), perfazendo 77% dos nossos casos, e insatisfatório (D2) em 11 (23%) casos. Conclusão A cirurgia de McHale é uma opção no tratamento para os níveis IV e V, mas devemos estar alertas para as possíveis complicações.

Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Period , Congenital Abnormalities , Cerebral Palsy , Retrospective Studies , Hip/abnormalities , Hip/surgery , Muscle Spasticity
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(1): [1-14], jan.-mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348181


O objetivo desse artigo foi analisar criticamente a literatura a respeito da ativação muscular pelo uso do Conceito Bobath em indivíduos com Paralisia Cerebral. As bases de dados consultadas foram Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Lilacs, PEDro e ResearchGate, não limitando o período de publicação, sendo incluídos artigos publicados até maio de 2020. Foram encontrados na literatura 827 estudos, destes apenas cinco foram incluídos nessa revisão. Os artigos inclusos, a partir de critérios pré-estabelecidos, avaliaram através da eletromiografia diferentes musculaturas pelo uso de manuseios do Conceito Bobath. As musculaturas avaliadas estão relacionadas ao controle de cervical e de tronco, além dos músculos oblíquo interno, transverso do abdome e reto abdominal. A ativação muscular foi avaliada nas posturas de decúbito lateral, decúbito ventral e sedestação. Os artigos revisados identificaram através da eletromiografia que ocorre ativação muscular durante alguns manuseios do Conceito Bobath em indivíduos com paralisia cerebral, contudo as pesquisas são escassas, já que os estudos apresentam limitações nos desenhos experimentais e amostras pequenas. Isso reforça a importância de ampliar a investigação acerca da ativação muscular durante os manuseios com esta abordagem, o que poderá contribuir efetivamente na tomada de decisão dos profissionais que atuam nesta área, visando maior eficácia no tratamento e qualidade de vida desta população.AU)

The aim of this article was to critically analyze the literature on muscle activation by the use of the Bobath Concept in individuals with Cerebral Palsy. The databases consulted were Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Lilacs, PEDro and ResearchGate, not limiting the publication period, including articles published until May 2020. A total of 827 studies were found in the literature, and of these only five were included in this review. The included articles, based on pre-established criteria, evaluated through electromyography different muscles using the Bobath Concept handling. The muscles evaluated are related to cervical and trunk control, in addition to the internal oblique, transverse muscles of the abdomen and rectum. Muscle activation was evaluated in lateral decubitus postures, ventral decubitus and sedestation. The reviewed articles identified, through electromyography, that muscle activation occurs during some handling of the Bobath Concept in individuals with cerebral palsy, however research is scarce, since studies have limitations in experimental designs and small samples. This reinforces the importance of expanding the investigation about muscle activation during handling with this approach, which can effectively contribute to the decision making of professionals working in this area, aiming at greater efficiency in the treatment and quality of life of this population.(AU)

Humans , Cerebral Palsy/rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Electromyography , Muscle Spasticity/rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37069, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359942


Spasticity is a motor condition present in 75 to 88% of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). One form of treatment is called punctual mechanical oscillation (PO). The current study aimed to study different protocols for the application of PO and the magnitude of their effects. In total, 7children with medical diagnosis of CP and ICD (International Classification of Diseases) were included. The first intervention protocol (Int1) consisted of the application of PO to the spastic muscle tendon and the second intervention protocol (Int2) to the muscle belly ofthe spastic antagonist muscle. For evaluation, the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used, while simultaneously capturing the mechanomyography (MMG) signals. Data were collected pre-intervention and 1 (Post1), 15 (Post15), 30 (Post30), 45 (Post45), and60 (Post60) minutes after the interventions. The MAS values (median ± interquartile range) post intervention were statistically lower when compared to the pre values in the 2 protocols studied; in Int1between Pre (2 ± 0) andPost15 (0 ± 1.75), Post30 (0 ± 1), Post45 (1 ± 1),and Post60 (1 ± 1), and in Int2only between Pre (2 ± 1) and Post1 (0 ± 1).The values found in the MMG in both its temporal and spectral domains did not follow a pattern (p>0.05). The comparison between the protocols did not demonstrate statistical differences in any characteristics (MAS, MMGMF, and MMGRMS). However, PO was shown to be a therapeutic resource that modulated spasticity for up to 60 minutes after its application, and PO could contribute as a tool to aid the treatment of spasticity.

Cerebral Palsy , Muscle Spasticity