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1.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37303, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341551

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la parálisis cerebral (PC) es la causa más frecuente de discapacidad motriz en niños y adolescentes. En el 85% de los casos, la manifestación motora predominante es la espasticidad. Las inyecciones de toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A) se han usado para reducir la espasticidad en niños con PC. No existen investigaciones a nivel nacional que comprueben si los resultados son comparables a los reportados en la literatura. Objetivo: determinar el efecto del tratamiento con TB-A en el tríceps sural en conjunto con la rehabilitación física en niños con PC espástica durante los años 2017-2018 en el Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón, Uruguay. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de cohorte histórica única con seguimiento longitudinal, mediante la revisión de historias clínicas de los pacientes con PC con marcha independiente o asistida que recibieron tratamiento con TB-A para el tratamiento de la espasticidad del tríceps sural durante el período 2017-2018. Resultados: se analizaron 40 procedimientos de inyección de TB-A. Se observó una buena respuesta al mes y a los 3 meses del tratamiento con TB-A, con mejoría del ángulo de dorsiflexión del pie con la rodilla en flexión y en extensión, mejoría del puntaje de la escala de espasticidad de Ashworth modificada y, en el 95% de los procedimientos, de la percepción subjetiva de los padres. Se observó una disminución del efecto hacia los 6 meses de la aplicación. Conclusión: la aplicación de TB-A en el Centro Teletón muestra resultados positivos, comparables con los reportados en la bibliografía internacional.


Abstract: Introduction: cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common source of motor disability in children and adolescents. In 85% of cases, the prevailing motor manifestation is spasticity. Botulinum toxin Type A injections (TB-A) have been used to reduce spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). There are no studies at the national level that show whether the results are comparable to those reported in literature. Objective: to determine the effect of TB-A therapy in the triceps surae along with the physical rehabilitation in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) during 2017-2018 at the Teleton Children´s Rehabilitation Center, Uruguay. Method: retrospective, descriptive study of a single cohort with a longitudinal follow-up was conducted, through the review of medical records belonging to patients with CP with independent or assisted gait, who received TB-A therapy to treat sural triceps spasticity during 2017-2018. Results: 40 TB-A injection procedures were analysed. A good response was observed one month and three months after being treated with TB-A, evidencing improvement in the dorsiflexion angle between the foot and the knee in flexion and extension, improvement on the modified Ashworth spasticity scale score and, in 95% of procedures, the subjective perception of parents. The effect was observed to decrease towards 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: application of TB-A at the Teletón Center shows positive results, comparable to those reported by international blibliography.


Resumo: Introdução: a paralisia cerebral (PC) é a causa mais freqüente de deficiência motora em crianças e adolescentes. Em 85% dos casos, a manifestação motora predominante é a espasticidade. As injeções de toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A) têm sido usadas para reduzir a espasticidade em crianças com PC. Não há pesquisas nacionais que verifiquem se os resultados são comparáveis aos relatados na literatura. Objetivo: determinar o efeito do tratamento da TB-A no tríceps sural em conjunto com a reabilitação física em crianças com PC espástica durante os anos 2017-2018 no Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón, Uruguai. Métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, com coorte histórica única com acompanhamento longitudinal, realizado por meio da revisão de prontuários de pacientes com PC com deambulação independente ou assistida que receberam tratamento com TB-A para o tratamento da espasticidade do tríceps sural, no período 2017-2018. Resultados: 40 procedimentos de injeção de TB-A foram analisados. Observou-se boa resposta um mês e três meses após o tratamento com TB-A, com melhora no ângulo de dorsiflexão do pé com o joelho em flexão e extensão, melhora no escore da escala de espasticidade de Ashworth modificada e, em 95% dos procedimentos, a partir da percepção subjetiva dos pais. Uma diminuição no efeito foi observada 6 meses após a aplicação. Conclusão: a aplicação do TB-A no Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón apresentou resultados positivos, comparáveis aos relatados na literatura internacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/therapy , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Muscle Spasticity
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(2): 244-250, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251349

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To perform a retrospective and cross-sectional assessment to determine the pain and positional improvement of all patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and severe hip deformity who underwent a McHale procedure in our center. A second objective was to analyze the potential complications from the procedure. Methods All consecutive patients treated between 1995 and 2017 were analyzed. Clinically, the patients should present pain on hip mobilization, difficulty in positioning for sitting and hygiene care, and medical records with complete data; functionally was assessed through the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). In the preoperative radiographs, we analyzed the migration percentage (MP), the type of deformity according to the Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification Scale (MCPHCS), and the type of deformity of the femoral head. After the surgery, we assessed the proximal migration of the proximal femoral fragment, implant changes and/or failure, and potential heterotopic ossification. The outcomes were reported as successful (D1) in patients presenting remission of pain, painless mobility, and improved positioning, or unsuccessful (D2) in those presenting procedural failure that required a new surgery. Results In total, 47 patients (53 hips) were treated. Functionally, 43 patients were classified as GMFCS V (91%), 3 as GMFCS IV patients (6%), and 1 as GMFCS III (2%). The mean age was 13 years and 2 months. The follow-up ranged from 1 year to 15 years and 4 months, with an average of 4 years and 8 months. A total of 36 patients (41 hips) presented successful (D1) outcomes after the McHale procedure, corresponding to 77% of our cases, whereas 11 (23%) cases had unsuccessful (D2) outcomes. Conclusion The McHale procedure is a treatment option for GMFCS IV and V, but we must be aware of the potential complications.


Resumo Objetivo Fazer uma avaliação retrospectiva e transversal quanto à melhora da dor e do posicionamento de todos os pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral (PC) espástica com deformidade grave no quadril submetidos ao procedimento de McHale em nosso centro. Secundariamente, objetivou-se analisar as possíveis complicações do procedimento. Métodos Foram analisados todos os pacientes consecutivos tratados no período entre 1995 e 2017. Clinicamente, os pacientes deveriam apresentar dor à mobilização do quadril, dificuldade de posicionamento para se sentar e para os cuidados de higiene, e prontuário médico com dados completos; quanto ao grau de função motora, utilizou-se o Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (Gross Motor Function Classification System, GMFCS, em inglês). A avaliação radiográfica no período pré-operatório analisou a porcentagem de migração (PM), o tipo de deformidade de acordo com a Escala de Classificação de Quadril na Paralisia Cerebral de Melbourne (Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification Scale, MCPHS), e a deformidade da cabeça femoral. No período pós-operatório, analisaram-se a presença de migração proximal do fragmento do fêmur proximal, as alterações e/ou a falha do implante utilizado, e a possível ossificação heterotópica. Consideraram-se como desfechos: D1- satisfatório: remissão da dor, mobilidade indolor, melhora do posicionamento; e D2- insatisfatório: falha no procedimento, que necessitou de reabordagem cirúrgica. Resultados No total, 47 pacientes (53 quadris) foram tratados. Funcionalmente, quanto à classificação no GMFCS, 43 pacientes eram GMFCS V (91%), 3 pacientes eram GMFCS IV (6%), e 1 paciente era GMFCS III (2%). A média da idade foi de 13 anos e 2 meses. O tempo de seguimento variou de 1 ano a 15 anos e 4 meses, com média de 4 anos e 8 meses. Quanto ao desfecho da cirurgia de McHale, ele foi satifatório (D1) em 36 pacientes (41 quadris), perfazendo 77% dos nossos casos, e insatisfatório (D2) em 11 (23%) casos. Conclusão A cirurgia de McHale é uma opção no tratamento para os níveis IV e V, mas devemos estar alertas para as possíveis complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Period , Congenital Abnormalities , Cerebral Palsy , Retrospective Studies , Hip/abnormalities , Hip/surgery , Muscle Spasticity
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(6): 619-624, Jan 6, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283772

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As injúrias neurológicas apresentam distúrbios de movimentos que prejudicam a funcionalidade e independência desses pacientes. A espasticidade é um dos distúrbios mais frequentes e acarreta complicações secundárias com interferência negativa nas funções físicas e motoras desempenhadas na vida cotidiana. O objetivo do presente estudo foi revisar na literatura evidências que expõem o efeito da vibração focal na espasticidade de pacientes com injúrias neurológicas. Metodologia: Realizou-se uma busca nas bases e banco de dados Pubmed, PEDro, Scopus e Web of Science utilizando os descritores "focal vibration" AND "spasticity" estipulando critérios de inclusão e de qualidades metodológicas. No total cinco artigos foram incluídos e compuseram a revisão. Resultados: Os resultados evidenciaram melhoras significativas na redução da espasticidade e em parâmetros funcionais que influenciam na qualidade de vida destes pacientes. Conclusão: Conclui-se então que a vibração focal é uma intervenção eficaz na redução da espasticidade de pacientes com injúrias neurológicas. (AU)


Introduction: Neurological injuries present movement disorders that impair the independence of these patients. Spasticity is one of the most frequent disorders and results in secondary complications with negative interference in physical and motor functions performed in daily life. The purpose of this study was to review evidence in the literature that exposes the effect of focal vibration on spasticity in patients with neurological injuries. Methodology: A search was performed in the databases Pubmed, PEDro, Scopus and Web of Science using the descriptors "focal vibration" AND "spasticity" stipulating inclusion criteria and methodological qualities. 5 articles were included and made up the review analysis. Results: The results showed significant improvements in the reduction of spasticity and in functional parameters that influence the quality of life of these patients. Conclusion: We concluded that the focal vibration is an effective intervention in reducing spasticity in patients with neurological injuries. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Muscle Spasticity
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 417-423, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126181

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La trombosis senovenosa cerebral neonatal (TSVC), es una patología rara y generalmente grave, de la cual se conoce poco sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos responsables y, aunque controvertido, se ha sugerido que la trombofilia genética, puede desempeñar un rol en la patogénesis. Debido a los temores de un sangrado intracraneal el tratamiento anticoagulante con heparina de bajo peso mole cular es controvertido. Objetivo: presentar un recién nacido con una trombosis senovenosa cerebral neonatal, discutir los factores de riesgo trombofílico, y el manejo con heparina de bajo peso molecu lar de la trombosis venosa cerebral. Caso Clínico: Recién nacido de término que debutó a los 8 días de vida con convulsiones clónicas, rechazo al pecho más hipoactividad motora. La neuroimagen con RM mostró una TSVC involucrando múltiples senos venosos, un infarto hemorrágico talámico dere cho y congestión venosa de la sustancia blanca frontal. El estudio de trombofilia puso de relieve una mutación homocigota del gen MTHFR C677T. El tratamiento con heparina de bajo peso molecular se asoció a repermeabilización del seno sagital superior a los 23 días de iniciada la terapia. Conclusio nes: La presentación clínica de la TSVC en el neonato es inespecífica, probablemente en relación con la extensión y gravedad de la lesión y el desarrollo de complicaciones asociadas, como infartos he morrágicos venosos intraparenquimatosos o hemorragia intraventricular. Estas complicaciones son detectables mediante Ecografia o Resonancia Magnética, y deben hacer sospechar una TSVC. En esta experiencia el tratamiento anticoagulante mostró ser seguro y prevenir la extensión de la trombosis.


Abstract: Introduction: Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSNT) is a rare and generally serious con dition about which there is little knowledge of the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms and, although controversial, it has been suggested that genetic thrombophilia may play a role in its patho genesis. Out of concern for intracranial bleeding, the anticoagulant treatment with low-molecular- weight heparin is controversial. Objective: To present a case of a newborn with neonatal CSNT, to analyze the thrombophilic risk factors, and the management of cerebral venous thrombosis with low-molecular-weight heparin. Clinical Case: Full-term newborn who presented at eight days of life breastfeeding rejection, clonic seizures, and locomotor hypoactivity. The MRI neuroimaging showed a CSNT involving multiple venous sinuses, a right thalamic hemorrhagic infarction, and venous congestion in frontal white matter. Thrombophilia study highlighted a homozygous MTHFR C677T mutation. Treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin was associated with repermeabilization of the superior sagittal sinus after 23 days of starting therapy. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of CSNT in the neonate is nonspecific, probably related to the extent and severity of the injury and the development of associated complications, such as venous hemorrhagic infarctions and intraparenchymal or intraventricular hemorrhage. These complications are detected through ultrasound or MRI, and they should make us suspect a CSNT. In this experience, the anticoagulant treatment proved to be safe and prevents thrombus propagation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/deficiency , Homocystinuria/diagnosis , Muscle Spasticity/diagnosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/genetics , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Genetic Markers , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Homocystinuria/complications , Homocystinuria/genetics , Homozygote , Muscle Spasticity/complications , Muscle Spasticity/genetics , Mutation
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 435-443, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056459

ABSTRACT

To accurately localize the centers of intramuscular nerve dense regions (CINDRs) of rotator cuff muscles. Twenty adult cadavers were used. The curves on skin connecting the superior angle of scapula with the acromion, and with the inferior angle of scapula were designed as the horizontal (H) and longitudinal (L) reference lines, respectively. One side of the rotator cuff muscles were removed and subjected to Sihler's staining to show intramuscular nerve dense regions, and the contralateral muscles' CINDRs were labeled with barium sulfate and scanned by computed tomography (to determine body surface projection points (P)). The intersection of the longitudinal line from point P to line H, and that of the horizontal line from point P to line L, were recorded as PH and PL, respectively. The projection of CINDRs on the anterior body surface across the saggital plane was defined as P' and the line connecting P to P' was recorded as Line PP'. Percentage positions of CINDRs of PH and PL on lines H and L, and the depths on line PP' were determined under the Syngo system. Two, four, one, and one CINDRs were identified in supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles, respectively. The positions of PH of these CINDRs on the H-line are as follows: supraspinatus, 25.43 % and 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53.85 %, 34.63 %, 35.96 % and 58.17 %; teres minor, 74.50 %; and subscapularis, 20.33 %. The PL on the L-line: supraspinatus, 11.09 % and 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21.59 %, 27.93 %, 48.55 % and 57.52 %; teres minor, 68.28 %; and subscapularis, 52.82 %. The depth on line PP': supraspinatus, 24.83 % and 25.40 %; infraspinatus, 21.55 %, 16.10 %, 10.01 % and 8.14 %; teres minor, 13.27 %; and subscapularis, 22.88 %. The identification of these CINDRs should provide the optimal target position for injecting botulinum toxin A to treat rotator cuff muscles spasticity accompanied by shoulder pain and to improve the efficiency and efficacy of blocking target localization.


Con el objetivo de localizar con precisión los centros de las regiones densas del nervio intramuscular (CRDNI) de los músculos del manguito rotador, se utilizaron veinte cadáveres adultos. Las curvas en la piel que conectan el ángulo superior de la escápula con el acromion y con el ángulo inferior de la escápula se determinaron como líneas de referencia horizontales (H) y longitudinales (L), respectivamente. Se extrajo de un lado los músculos del manguito rotador y se sometió a la tinción de Sihler para mostrar regiones densas de nervios intramusculares, y los CRDNI de los músculos contralaterales se marcaron con sulfato de bario y se escanearon mediante tomografía computarizada (para determinar los puntos de proyección de la superficie corporal (P)). La intersección de la línea longitudinal desde el punto P a la línea H, y de la línea horizontal desde el punto P a la línea L, se registraron como PH y PL, respectivamente. La proyección de CRDNI en la superficie del cuerpo anterior a través del plano sagital se definió como P 'y la línea que conecta P a P' se registró como Línea PP '. Las posiciones porcentuales de los CRDNI de PH y PL en las líneas H y L, y las profundidades en la línea PP 'se determinaron bajo el sistema Syngo. Se identificaron dos, cuatro, uno y un CINDR en los músculos supraespinoso, infraespinoso, redondo menor y subescapular, respectivamente. Las posiciones de PH de estos CRDNI en la línea H son las siguientes: supraespinoso, 25,43 % y 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53,85 %, 34,63 %, 35,96 % y 58,17 %; redondo menor, 74,50 %; y subescapular, 20,33 %. El PL en la línea L: supraespinoso, 11.09 % y 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21,59 %, 27,93 %, 48,55 % y 57,52 %; redondo menor, 68.28 %; y subescapular, 52,82 %. La profundidad en la línea PP ': supraespinoso, 24,83 % y 25,40 %; infraspinatus, 21,55 %, 16,10 %, 10,01 % y 8,14 %; redondo menor, 13.27 %; y subescapularis, 22,88 %. La identificación de estos CRDNI debería proporcionar la posición objetivo óptima para inyectar la toxina botulínica A para tratar la espasticidad de los músculos del manguito rotador acompañada de dolor en el hombro y para mejorar la eficiencia y la eficacia del bloqueo de la localización del objetivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Rotator Cuff/innervation , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Anatomic Landmarks , Muscle Spasticity
6.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(1): 69-76, mar 8, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282722

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O objetivo desta pesquisa é demonstrar a redução do tônus muscular utilizando a terapia extracorpórea por ondas de choque e promover o retorno dos movimentos normais. Métodos: Foram escolhidos 10 pacientes idosos que apresentavam espasticidade, faixa etária entre 50 e 80 anos. Este estudo piloto utilizou 3 métodos: a escala de Ashworth, goniometro digital e o deslocamento do ventre muscular, antes e após as aplicações das ondas de choque. Aplicou-se uma corrente de pulso para verificar o deslocamento do ventre muscular, por meio de um laser marca LTM 165 classe 2 Stanley. O deslocamento foi medido por um sensor a laser. O equipamento de ortolitotripsia foi a Direx Integra, cuja dose/intensidade foi entre 1000 ciclos por segundo e 0,030 mJ/mm de energia em 12 gpm. Resultados: Na escala de Ashworth os resultados foram significativos (= 0,05). Na goniometria digital a abdução do ombro evoluiu em média 35° em 7 pacientes e 15° em 3 pacientes. (p > 0,05). Conclusão: Observa se que as ondas de choque não deixam os músculos hipotônicos, mas com tônus adequado. Os pacientes que obtiveram pouca melhora (15° goniometria) apresentaram micro-encurtamentos e não apresentam história de participação na fisioterapia regularmente. (AU)


Introduction: This research aims to show the reduction of muscular tonus by using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in order to recover normal movements. Methods: 10 patients over 50 and under 80 years of age presenting spasticity participated in this pilot study, which used three methods: 1) the Ashworth scale, 2) the digital goniometer and 3) the dislocation of muscle tissue, before and after the shock waves. To check the dislocation of muscle tissue, a current pulse was applied, measured by a LTM 165 class 2 Laser. This approach is similar and consists of measuring the dislocation on a laser sensor basis. The Ortho-lithotripsy equipment used was a Direx Integra. The dose/intensity was 1000 cps ­ 0.030 mJ/mm². Results: We also observed a better quality of muscle contraction (Scale Ashworth p=0.05). At digital goniometry, the shoulder abduction developed 35° in 7 of the patients and 15° in 3 of them (p<0.05). Conclusion: The muscles do not become hypotonic with the shock waves treatment, (they present an adequate tonus). The patients who presented micro-shortening and did not undergo to regular physiotherapy showed a minor improvement (15° goniometry). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Muscle Spasticity , Lithotripsy , High-Energy Shock Waves
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828265

ABSTRACT

Cerebral palsy is a common clinical syndrome of neurological disability in childhood, which seriously affects the quality of life of children and their families, and brings a heavy economic burden to the society. Domestic and foreign scholars had a long history of the application of selective posterior rhizotomy for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy or mixed cerebral palsy with limb paralysis. It is effective in improving the lower extremity spasm of patients with cerebral palsy, and there are few cases with recurrences. After rehabilitation therapy, the muscle strength of patients with cerebral palsy was significantly improved compared with the previous one. The range of motion was significantly improved after operation, and there is no rebounded in aspect of joint activety in the long-term follow-up. The overall gait of the patient was significant improved. The author thought that selective posterior rhizotomy is effective in improving the motor function of lower limbs in patients with cerebral palsy, and it is worth being spread. However, it has to follow the principle of selecting appropriate cases before surgery, precise operation during operation, and timely and effective rehabilitation treatment after surgery, in order to achieve a better curative effect.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Palsy , Humans , Lower Extremity , Muscle Spasticity , Quality of Life , Rhizotomy , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical therapeutic effect on post-stroke spastic paralysis of the upper extremity between the combination of kinematic-acupuncture therapy and rehabilitation training and the combined treatment of the conventional acupuncture with rehabilitation training.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients of post-stroke spastic paralysis of the upper extremity at the non-acute stage were randomized into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off). On the base of the routine western medication and rehabilitation treatment, the kinematic-acupuncture therapy was added in the observation group and the conventional acupuncture was used in the control group. Baihui (GV 20), Dazhui (GV 14), Jiaji (EX-B 2) from T to T, Tianzong (SI 11), Jianzhen (SI 9), Jianyu (LI 15) and Quyuan (SI 13) were selected in both groups. The treatment was given once daily and the treatment for 14 days was as one course. The one course of treatment was required in this research. Separately, before treatment and in 7 and 14 days of treatment, the score of simplified Fugl-Meyer scale of the upper extremity (FMA-UE), the grade of the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and the score of the modified Barthel index scale (MBI) were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, in 7 and 14 days of treatment, FMA-UE score was increased obviously in either group (<0.01). In 14 days of treatment, FMA-UE score in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (<0.05). In 7 and 14 days of treatment, MAS grades of shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were all improved markedly in the two groups (<0.05). Compared with the grades in 7 days of treatment, MAS grades of elbow joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were improved markedly in 14 days of treatment in the two groups (<0.05). Compared with the control group, MAS grades of elbow joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were improved more markedly in the observation group in 14 days of treatment (<0.05). Compared with the score before treatment, MBI score was increased in 7 and 14 days of treatment respectively in the observation group (<0.05, <0.01). In 14 days of treatment, MBI score was increased in the control group (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#For the patients with post-stroke spastic paralysis of the upper extremity at the non-acute stage, the combined treatment with kinematic-acupuncture therapy and rehabilitation training obviously improves the motor function of the upper extremity and the muscle tone of elbow joint and metacarpophalangeal joint. The therapeutic effect of this combination is better than that of the combined treatment of the conventional acupuncture with rehabilitation training. Additionally, this combined therapy improves the ability of daily life activity.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Biomechanical Phenomena , Humans , Muscle Spasticity , Therapeutics , Stroke , Therapeutics , Stroke Rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785548

ABSTRACT

Robots are being used to assist the recovery of walking ability for patients with neurologic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and functional improvement of training with robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using the Morning Walk®, an end-effector type robot using footplates and saddle seat support. A total of 189 individuals (65.1% men, 34.9% women; mean age, 53.2 years; age range: 5–87 years) with brain lesions, spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathies, and pediatric patients were involved in this retrospectively registered clinical trial. Each participant performed 30 minutes of RAGT, five times a week, for a total of 24 sessions. Failure was defined as an inability to complete all 24 sessions, and the reasons for discontinuation were analyzed. Parameters of Medical Research Council scales and Functional Ambulation Categories were analyzed before and after RAGT training. Among the 189 patients, 22 (11.6%) failed to complete the RAGT. The reasons included decreased cooperation, musculoskeletal pain, saddle seat discomfort, excessive body-weight support, joint spasticity or restricted joint motion, urinary incontinence from an indwelling urinary catheter, and fatigue. Comparison between the pre- and post-training motor and ambulatory functions showed significant improvement. The result of the study indicates that the Morning Walk® is feasible and safe and useful for functional improvement in patients with various neurologic disordersTRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003627


Subject(s)
Brain , Fatigue , Female , Gait , Humans , Information Services , Joints , Male , Muscle Spasticity , Musculoskeletal Pain , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries , Urinary Catheters , Urinary Incontinence , Walking , Weights and Measures
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5522, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We report a case of a 61-years-old woman in remission of psoriasis for 20 years. She presented recurrence of psoriasis in the form of plaques few days after taking L-methylfolate 15mg/day. The L-methylfolate was prescribed as an adjuvant for the treatment of depression in a patient with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism (MTHFR).


RESUMO Paciente do sexo feminino, 61 anos, em remissão da psoríase por 20 anos. Apresentou recidiva de psoríase em forma de placas poucos dias após início de tratamento L-metilfolato na dose diária de 15mg. O L-metilfolato foi prescrito como terapêutica coadjuvante para tratamento de depressão em paciente portadora do polimorfismo do gene metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Psoriasis/chemically induced , Quality of Life , Tetrahydrofolates/administration & dosage , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/deficiency , Depression/drug therapy , Homocystinuria/complications , Muscle Spasticity/complications , Polymorphism, Genetic , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Recurrence , Tetrahydrofolates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(3): 13-21, jul.-set. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022900

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A espasticidade pode ser considerada como uma das mais impactantes alterações secundárias à paralisia cerebral. Nos últimos anos, a Rizotomia Dorsal Seletiva (RDS) tem sido destacada como um procedimento cirúrgico eficaz para o tratamento da espasticidade dos membros inferiores de crianças com paralisia cerebral. OBJETIVOS: Verificar por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura os efeitos em médio e longo prazo, da RDS sobre a função motora grossa e a marcha em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral. Além de averiguar se existe um consenso na literatura sobre os critérios de indicação da RDS. MÉTODOS: Uma pesquisa foi realizada na rede internacional nos bancos de dados de acordo com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: (1) desenho: estudos envolvendo o acompanhamento pós-operatório longitudinal; (2) população: crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral espástica; (3) intervenção: RDS; (4) grupo controle com intervenção diferente ou sem intervenção; (5) desfecho: melhora da função motora, melhora da espasticidade e desempenho da marcha. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrado um total de seis artigos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e foram utilizados nesta revisão. Nos estudos analisados, foram observadas melhoras significativas na variável cinemática da marcha com diminuição da espasticidade no grupo RDS. CONCLUSÃO: A RDS diminui a espasticidade com efeitos positivos sobre a função motora grossa e a marcha de crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral, porém estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer a eficácia da RDS aplicada em grupos musculares de membros inferiores.


INTRODUCTION: Spasticity can be considered one of the most striking alterations secondary to cerebral palsy. In recent years, Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (SDR) has been highlighted as an effective surgical procedure for the treatment of lower limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVES: To verify through a systematic review of the literature the medium and long-term effects of SDR on gross motor function and gait in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Secondarily, to verify if there is a consensus in the literature on the criteria to indicate SDR. METHODS: A search was performed in the international network databases according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) design: studies involving longitudinal postoperative follow-up; (2) population: children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy; (3) intervention: SDR; (4) control group with different intervention or without intervention; (5) outcome: improvement of motor function, improvement of spasticity and gait performance. RESULTS: A total of six articles were found that met the inclusion criteria and were used in this review. In the studies analyzed, significant improvements were observed in the kinematic gait variable with decreased spasticity in the SDR group. CONCLUSION: SDR decreases spasticity with positive effects on gross motor function and gait of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy, but additional studies are needed to elucidate the efficacy of RDS applied to lower limb muscle groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/surgery , Cerebral Palsy/diagnosis , Cerebral Palsy/rehabilitation , Rhizotomy/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures , Muscle Spasticity/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gait Analysis
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 568-573, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019471

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Motor impairments in stroke survivors are prevalent and contribute to dependence in daily activities, pain and overall disability, which can further upper-limb disability. Treatment with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is indicated for focal spasticity and requires knowledge of biomechanics and anatomy to best select muscles to be injected in the limb. Objective: We aimed to describe the frequency of posture patterns in a Brazilian sample of stroke survivors and correlate them with recommendations of muscle selection for treatment with BoNT-A. Methods: Fifty stroke patients with spastic upper limbs scheduled for neuromuscular block were photographed and physically examined, to be classified by three independent evaluators according to Hefter's classification. Muscles that were injected with BoNT-A by their routine doctors were retrieved from medical charts. Results: Pattern III and IV were the most common (64.7%, 21.6%). We further subclassified pattern III according to the rotation of the shoulder, which effectively interfered in muscle choice. The muscles most frequently treated were shoulder adductors and internal rotators, elbow flexors and extensors, in forearm, the pronator teres and finger and wrist flexors, and, in the hand the adductor pollicis. Conclusion: Frequencies of upper-limb postures differed from previous reports. Other clinical features, besides spasticity, interfered with muscle choice for BoNT-A injection, which only partially followed the recommendations in the literature.


RESUMO As deficiências motoras que ocorrem nos indivíduos com doença cerebrovascular (DCV) são prevalentes e contribuem para dependência, dor e incapacidade, o que pode atrasar a reabilitação do membro superior e sua funcionalidade. O tratamento com toxina botulínica do tipo A (BoNT-A) é indicado para a espasticidade focal e requer conhecimento da biomecánica e anatomia para melhor selecionar os músculos a serem injetados. Objetivo: Descrever a frequência de padrões posturais numa amostra de brasileiros com sequelas de DCV e correlacioná-los com as recomendações de seleção de músculos. Métodos: Cinquenta pacientes com comprometimento do membro superior devido a DCV do ambulatório de bloqueios neuromusculares foram fotografados e examinados para categorização de acordo com a Classificação de Hefter. Os músculos tratados pelos seus médicos de rotina foram obtidos a partir dos prontuários. Resultados: Os padrões III e IV de Hefter foram mais comuns (64,7%; 21,6%). Nós propusemos a subclassificação do padrão III de acordo com a rotação do ombro, pois isso interferiu na escolha dos músculos tratados. Os músculos tratados com maior frequência foram os adutores e rotadores internos do ombro; flexores e extensores do cotovelo; no antebraço, o pronador redondo, flexores dos dedos e do carpo e na mão, o adutor do polegar. Conclusão: As frequências das posições do membro superior diferiram de relatos prévios. Além da espasticidade, outros fatores interferiram na escolha dos músculos tratados, que seguiram parcialmente as recomendações da literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Botulinum Toxins/administration & dosage , Upper Extremity , Patient Positioning/methods , Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Muscle Spasticity/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/complications , Injections, Intramuscular , Muscle Spasticity/etiology
14.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 185-189, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012133

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A espasticidade causada pelo acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) é uma das principais causas de incapacidade funcional no membro superior. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito da crioterapia associada à cinesioterapia e da estimulação elétrica na capacidade de preensão palmar do membro espástico de pacientes com AVE na fase crônica. Participaram do estudo 40 pacientes com idade média de 60,5 (±9,45) anos e hemiparesia espástica, divididos aleatoriamente em grupo A (GA): submetidos à crioterapia nos músculos flexores de punho e cinesioterapia nos músculos flexores e extensores de punho; e grupo B (GB): submetidos à estimulação elétrica nos músculos extensores de punho. A capacidade de preensão palmar foi avaliada por meio de um dinamômetro de bulbo antes, depois de 16 atendimentos e um mês após o término do tratamento. Os resultados demonstraram que houve aumento da capacidade de preensão palmar no GA (p=0,0244) e GB (p=0,0144) após o tratamento, com manutenção um mês após seu término (p=0,6002 e 0,3066 respectivamente), sem diferença estatística entre estes. Os achados apontam que ambos os recursos terapêuticos foram eficazes para o aumento da capacidade de preensão palmar dos participantes do estudo.


RESUMEN La espasticidad causada por el accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) es una de las principales causas de incapacidad funcional en el miembro superior. El objetivo del estudio fue verificar el efecto de la crioterapia asociada a la cinesioterapia y de la estimulación eléctrica en la capacidad de prensión palmar del miembro espástico de pacientes con ACV en fase crónica. Participaron del estudio 40 pacientes con edad media de 60,5 (±9,45) años y hemiparesia espástica, divididos aleatoriamente en grupo A (GA) -sometidos a la crioterapia en los músculos flexores del puño y cinesioterapia en los músculos flexores y extensores del puño - y grupo B (GB) - sometidos a la estimulación eléctrica en los músculos extensores del puño. Se evaluó la capacidad de prensión palmar por medio de un dinamómetro neumático antes del tratamiento, después de 16 atendimientos y un mes después del término del tratamiento. Los resultados demostraron un aumento de la capacidad de prensión palmar en el GA (p=0,0244) y en el GB (p=0,0144) después del tratamiento, con mantenimiento un mes después de su término (p=0,6002 y 0,3066 respectivamente), sin diferencia estadística entre éstos. Los hallazgos apuntan que ambos recursos terapéuticos fueron eficaces para aumentar la capacidad de prensión palmar de los participantes del estudio.


ABSTRACT Spasticity caused by stroke is a cause of functional disability of the upper extremity. The aim of this study was to check the effect of cryotherapy associated with kinesiotherapy and electrical stimulation on the palmar grip strength of the spastic limb of stroke patients in the chronic phase. Forty patients whose mean age was 60.5 (±9.45) years old and who had spastic hemiparesis participated in the study, having been randomly sorted into group A (GA): submitted to cryotherapy on the wrist flexors and kinesiotherapy on the wrist flexors and wrist extensors, and Group B (GB): submitted to electrical stimulation on the wrist extensors. Palmar grip strength was evaluated by a bulb dynamometer before, after 16 sessions and one month after the end of treatment. The results showed that there was an increase in palmar grip strength in GA (p=0.0244) and GB (p=0.0144) after treatment, with maintenance one month after its completion (p=0.6002 and 0.3066, respectively), and no statistical difference was observed between them. The findings indicate that both therapeutic resources were effective in increasing the study participants' palmar grip strength.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cryotherapy , Electric Stimulation , Exercise Therapy , Muscle Spasticity/rehabilitation , Paresis/rehabilitation , Wrist Joint , Physical Therapy Modalities , Stroke/therapy
16.
Acta fisiátrica ; 26(1): 59-65, mar. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046649

ABSTRACT

A síndrome piramidal ocorre nas lesões do sistema nervoso central que afetam as vias corticoespinhais e são definidas pela tríade de fraqueza muscular, aumento dos reflexos miotáticos e espasticidade, que é definida pelo aumento involuntário da resistência ao movimento passivo cuja intensidade varia com a velocidade do movimento. Quando a espasticidade interfere na funcionalidade do paciente, dificultando o movimento ativo, causando dor ou dificultando a prestação de cuidados por terceiros, há necessidade de iniciar seu tratamento. Para o tratamento da espasticidade generalizada ou de grandes porções do corpo, a intervenção medicamentosa ocorre por via oral ou intratecal, conforme os recursos disponíveis, mas efeitos colaterais de intensidade variável e indesejáveis podem ocorrer, especialmente o comprometimento da atenção ou da consciência, que prejudicam o processo de reabilitação. O tratamento focal da espasticidade utiliza a toxina botulínica ou os bloqueios nervosos com fenol ou álcool. Este artigo revisa a literatura sobre as técnicas mais adequadas para realizar a neurólise com fenol. Os bloqueios neuromusculares com fenol são um tratamento efetivo, de ação imediata, baixo custo, duração prolongada e de poucos efeitos adversos quando são respeitados os cuidados regulares de aplicação.


The pyramidal syndrome occurs in central nervous system injuries that affect the corticospinal pathways and are defined by the triad of muscular weakness, increased myotatic reflexes and spasticity, which is defined by the involuntary increase in resistance to passive movement that varies in intensity according to the velocity of joint movement. When spasticity interferes with the patient's functioning, making it difficult to actively move, causing pain, or making it difficult to receive care from others, treatment must be stated. For the treatment of generalized spasticity or for large portions of the body, drug intervention may be used either orally or intrathecally, depending on available resources, but undesirable and variable intensity side effects may occur, especially impairment of attention or awareness, which further delays the rehabilitation process. Focal treatment of spasticity utilizes botulinum toxin or nerve blocks with phenol or alcohol. This article reviews the literature on the most suitable techniques for performing phenol neurolysis. Neuromuscular blockade with phenol is an effective treatment, with immediate action, low cost, prolonged duration and few adverse effects when the regular care of application is respected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenol/therapeutic use , Muscle Spasticity , Nerve Block
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 119-129, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739526

ABSTRACT

Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a progressive degenerative white matter disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the CSF1R gene. ALSP is often misdiagnosed as other diseases due to its rarity and various clinical presentations such as Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric symptoms. We describe an autopsy case of ALSP with a CSF1R mutation. A 61-year-old woman presented insidious-onset gait difficulty for 12 years since her age of 49, and premature ovarian failure since her age of 35. At initial hospital visit, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus. Initially, Parkinson's syndrome was diagnosed, and she was prescribed L-dopa/carbidopa because of spasticity and rigidity of extremities, which had worsened. Subsequently, severe neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment developed and radiologically, features of leukoencephalopathy or leukodystrophy were detected. She showed a down-hill course and died, 12 years after initial diagnosis. At autopsy, the brain showed severe symmetric atrophy of bilateral white matter, paper-thin corpus callosum, thin internal capsule, and marked hydrocephalus. Microscopically, diffuse loss of white matter, relatively preserved subcortical U-fibers, and many eosinophilic bulbous neuroaxonal spheroids were noted, but there was no calcification. Pigmented glia with brown cytoplasmic pigmentation were readily found in the white matter, which were positive for Periodic acid-Schiff, p62, and CD163 stains, but almost negative for CD68. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed a CSF1R mutation (c.2539G>A, p.Glu847Lys) which was reported in prior one ALSP case. This example demonstrates that ALSP could be associated with premature ovarian failure.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Autopsy , Axons , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Coloring Agents , Corpus Callosum , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Extremities , Female , Gait , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Internal Capsule , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Muscle Spasticity , Neuroglia , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pigmentation , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , White Matter
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719404

ABSTRACT

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a progressive and degenerative chromosomal disorder of the central nervous system caused by defective myelin production. Few case reports have been issued on the anesthetic management of PMD, because of its extremely low incidence. We anesthetized a 13-year-old female patient diagnosed with PMD for ophthalmic surgery because of intermittent exotropia. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and sevoflurane in air and oxygen. Rocuronium was administered to facilitate orotracheal intubation, and residual neuromuscular blockage was reversed with pyridostigmine. Between emergence to 24 hours postoperatively, her muscle power completely recovered and no unpredictable events occurred. Summarizing, anesthesiologists should be concerned about the high possibility of aspiration, spasticity, and seizure during the perioperative period in patients with even mild PMD. Appropriate preoperative evaluation, intraoperative monitoring, and choice of proper anesthetic drugs enable safe anesthesia in patients with PMD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Central Nervous System , Chromosome Disorders , Exotropia , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intubation , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Muscle Spasticity , Myelin Sheath , Oxygen , Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease , Perioperative Period , Propofol , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Seizures
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766742

ABSTRACT

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), which is caused by mutations in SACS gene, is a very rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the clinical triad of early onset cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract features, and sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Herein, we report a 35-year-old Korean male who presented with gait disturbance and lower extremity weakness. Neuroimaging and ophthalmologic evaluation revealed features consistent with ARSACS. Mutation in SACS gene was demonstrated in clinical exome sequence analysis and the patient was finally diagnosed as ARSACS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ataxia , Cerebellar Ataxia , Exome , Gait , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Muscle Spasticity , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroimaging , Polyneuropathies , Pyramidal Tracts , Sequence Analysis , Spinocerebellar Degenerations
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765625

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of microelectric treatment by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on functional recovery and histological changes in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The effects of TENS on spasticity and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SCI was induced by a 1.5-mm impactor with 200,000–260,000 dyne after laminectomy. Rats were divided into the following groups: group I (normal control), group II (microelectric treatment of 0 A), group III (microelectric treatment of 100 µA for 1 hr/day), group IV (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 1 hr/day), and group V (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 24 hr/day). After inducing SCI, rats were assessed by a sensory test with von Frey filaments and the locomotor recovery test (BBB rating scale) at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. To evaluate spinal cord damage, histopathological studies were performed with hematoxylin and eosin. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB immunohistochemistry studies were performed at 28 days. RESULTS: In groups IV and V, the BBB score had significantly improved on days 21 and 28 after SCI, and the TENS-treated groups showed significant neuronal recovery. After SCI, groups IV and V showed a significant recovery of locomotor function and the motor sensory response of the withdrawal threshold to 3.5 g. In addition, necrotic tissue and cystic spaces in the spinal cord were significantly reduced and BDNF/TrkB-positive cells were highly expressed in groups III, IV, and V. CONCLUSIONS: Microelectric treatment can play a role in facilitating the recovery of locomotion following SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Immunohistochemistry , Laminectomy , Locomotion , Models, Animal , Muscle Spasticity , Neurons , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
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