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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 17-20, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528819

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Variations in the triceps brachii muscle are uncommon, and especially limited reports exist on the accessory heads of tendinous origin that attach near the upper medial part of the humerus. During anatomical training at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, the accessory head of the triceps brachii muscle was observed on the right upper arm of a 72-year-old Japanese female. It arose tendinously from the medial side of the upper humerus, then formed a muscle belly and joined the distal side of the long head. This accessory head had independent nerve innervation, and the innervating nerve branched from a bundle of the radial nerve, which divided the nerve innervating the long head and the posterior brachial cutaneous nerve. The origin of the innervation of the accessory head was the basis for determining that this muscle head was an accessory muscle to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle. Embryologically, we discuss that part of the origin of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle was separated early in development by the axillary nerve and the posterior brachial circumflex artery, and it slipped into the surgical neck of the humerus and became fixed there. The accessory head crossed the radial nerve and deep brachial artery. When clinicians encounter compression of the radial nerve or profunda brachii artery, they should consider the presence of accessory muscles as a possible cause.


Las variaciones en el músculo tríceps braquial son poco comunes y existen informes especialmente limitados sobre las cabezas accesorias de origen tendinoso que se insertan cerca de la parte medial superior del húmero. Durante un entrenamiento anatómico en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Nagasaki, se observó la cabeza accesoria del músculo tríceps braquial en la parte superior del brazo derecho de una mujer japonesa de 72 años. Se originaba tendinosamente desde el lado medial de la parte superior del húmero, luego formaba un vientre muscular y se unía al lado distal de la cabeza larga. Esta cabeza accesoria tenía inervación nerviosa independiente, cuyo nervio se ramificaba a partir de un ramo del nervio radial, que dividía el nervio que inervaba la cabeza larga y el nervio cutáneo braquial posterior. El origen de la inervación de la cabeza accesoria fue la base para determinar que esta cabeza muscular era un músculo accesorio de la cabeza larga del músculo tríceps braquial. Embriológicamente, discutimos que parte del origen de la cabeza larga del músculo tríceps braquial se separó temprananamente en el desarrollo por el nervio axilar y la arteria circunfleja braquial posterior, y se deslizó hacia el cuello quirúrgico del húmero y quedó fijado allí. La cabeza accesoria cruzaba el nervio radial y la arteria braquial profunda. Cuando los médicos encuentran compresión del nervio radial o de la arteria braquial profunda, deben considerar la presencia de mús- culos accesorios como una posible causa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities , Anatomic Variation , Radial Nerve , Cadaver
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 166-172, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528834

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve injury is an extremely important medical and socio-economic problem. It is far from a solution, despite on rapid development of technologies. To study the effect of long-term electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, we used a domestically produced electrical stimulation system, which is approved for clinical use. The study was performed on 28 rabbits. Control of regeneration was carried out after 3 month with morphologic techniques. The use of long-term electrostimulation technology leads to an improvement in the results of the recovery of the nerve trunk after an injury, both directly at the site of damage, when stimulation begins in the early period, and indirectly, after the nerve fibers reach the effector muscle.


La lesión de los nervios periféricos es un problema médico y socioeconómico extremadamente importante. Sin embargo, y a pesar del rápido desarrollo de las tecnologías, aún no tiene solución. Para estudiar el efecto de la estimulación eléctrica a largo plazo de los nervios periféricos, utilizamos un sistema de estimulación eléctrica de producción nacional, que está aprobado para uso clínico. El estudio se realizó en 28 conejos. El control de la regeneración se realizó a los 3 meses con técnicas morfológicas. El uso de tecnología de electro estimulación a largo plazo conduce a una mejora en los resultados de la recuperación del tronco nervioso después de una lesión, tanto directamente en el lugar del daño, cuando la estimulación comienza en el período temprano, como indirectamente, después de que las fibras nerviosas alcanzan el músculo efector.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Electric Stimulation/methods , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Peripheral Nerves , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Recovery of Function , Nerve Regeneration
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1304-1309, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521013

ABSTRACT

Los trabajos realizados sobre batoideos han demostrado que existen grandes variaciones en la musculatura de la región cefálica ventral, estos cambios están asociados a los diferentes estilos de vida de los organismos y por tanto, a los mecanismos de alimentación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo un estudio comparativo de la morfología de la musculatura cefálica dorsal y ventral de dos especies de la familia Narcinidae: Narcine vermiculatus y Diplobatis ommata. Se observó que ambas especies comparten un patrón morfológico común. Los músculos que mostraron mayores variaciones en la región dorsal fueron el depresor rostral, el preorbital lateral y el elevador rostral. La diferencia más importante en esta región, entre ambas especies, fue la ausencia del músculo cucularis en D. ommata. En la región ventral las principales diferencias se observaron en los músculos depresor mandibular, preorbital medial, interbranquial y depresor hiomandibular. Este último músculo está formado por dos paquetes en D. ommata, en tanto que en N. vermiculatus por uno. Se puede concluir que la morfología de la musculatura cefálica es constante; sin embargo, se observan diferencias importantes en el grado de desarrollo de los músculos tanto en la región dorsal como en la ventral.


SUMMARY: Works conducted on batoids have revealed large variations in the musculature of the ventral cephalic region, associated to the different lifestyles of these organisms and, therefore, to their feeding mechanisms. This work aimed to conduct a comparative study of the dorsal and ventral cephalic muscular morphology of two species of the family Narcinidae: Narcine vermiculatus and Diplobatis ommata. It was observed that both species share a common morphological pattern. Muscles with larger variations in the dorsal region were the rostral depressor, the lateral preorbital and the rostral elevator. The most relevant difference in this region between both species was the absence of the cucularis muscle in D. ommata. In the ventral region, the main differences were observed in the mandibular depressor, medial preorbital, interbranchial and hyomandibular depressor muscles. In D. ommata, the latter is formed by two packages, and by one in N. vermiculatus. It can be concluded that the cephalic musculature is constant; however, significant differences are observed in the muscle development degree in both the dorsal and the ventral regions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Elasmobranchii/anatomy & histology , Head/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1445-1451, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521028

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The teres minor is one of the rotator cuff muscles that comprise the superior margin of the quadrangular space. Quadrangular space syndrome (QSS) refers to the entrapment or compression of the axillary nerve and the posterior humeral circumflex artery in the quadrangular space, often caused by injuries, dislocation of the shoulder joint, etc. Patients who fail the primary conservative treatments and have persistent symptoms and no pain relief for at least six months would be considered for surgical interventions for QSS. This cadaveric study of 17 cadavers (males: 9 and females: 8) was conducted in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. The cadavers were preserved in a 10 % formaldehyde solution and obtained ethical approval by the ethical commission of the Siriraj Institutional Review Board. The morphology of the teres minor muscle-tendon junction, the bifurcation type of the axillary nerve, and the length and number of the terminal branches of the nerve to the teres minor were documented. Specimens with quadrangular space contents and surrounding muscles that had been destroyed were excluded from the study. The results showed that 47.06 % of the specimens had type A bifurcation, 47.06 % had type B bifurcation, and the remaining 5.88 % had type C bifurcation. It was observed that 58.82 % had nonclassic muscle-tendon morphology, while 41.18 % were classic. The average length of the terminal branches of the nerve to the teres minor in males was 1.13 cm, with the majority having two branches. For females, many showed one terminal branch with an average length of 0.97 cm. Understanding the differences in anatomical variations can allow for a personalized treatment plan prior to quadrangular space syndrome surgical procedures and improve the recovery of postsurgical interventions for patients.


El músculo redondo menor es uno de los músculos del manguito rotador que comprende el margen superior del espacio cuadrangular. El síndrome del espacio cuadrangular (QSS) se refiere al atrapamiento o compresión del nervio axilar y la arteria circunfleja humeral posterior en el espacio cuadrangular, a menudo causado por lesiones, dislocación de la articulación humeral, entre otros. En los pacientes en los que fracasan los tratamientos conservadores primarios y presentan síntomas persistentes y ningún alivio del dolor durante al menos seis meses se considerarían para intervenciones quirúrgicas para QSS. Este estudio cadavérico de 17 cadáveres (hombres: 9 y mujeres: 8) se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Anatomía Macroscópica del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina del Hospital Siriraj de la Universidad Mahidol. Los cadáveres se conservaron en una solución de formaldehído al 10 % y obtuvieron la aprobación ética de la comisión ética de la Junta de Revisión Institucional de Siriraj. Se documentó la morfología de la unión músculo-tendón del músculo redondo menor, el tipo de bifurcación del nervio axilar y la longitud y el número de las ramas terminales del nervio para el músculo redondo menor. Se excluyeron del estudio los especímenes con contenido de espacios cuadrangulares y músculos circundantes que habían sido destruidos. Los resultados mostraron que el 47,06 % de los especímenes presentó bifurcación tipo A, el 47,06 % una bifurcación tipo B y el 5,88 % restante una bifurcación tipo C. Se observó que el 58,82 % presentaba una morfología músculo-tendinosa no clásica, mientras que el 41,18 % era clásica. La longitud pmedia de los ramos terminales del nervio hasta el músculo redondo menor en los hombres era de 1,13 cm, y la mayoría tenía dos ramos. En el caso de las mujeres, mostraron un ramo terminal con una longitud promedio de 0,97 cm. Comprender las diferencias en las variaciones anatómicas puede permitir un plan de tratamiento personalizado antes de los procedimientos quirúrgicos del síndrome del espacio cuadrangular y mejorar la recupe- ración de las intervenciones posquirúrgicas de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Axilla/innervation , Rotator Cuff/innervation , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Cadaver , Dissection , Anatomic Variation
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 689-697, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529939

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute distal biceps injuries clinically present with sudden pain and acute loss of flexion and supination strength. The main injury mechanism occurs during the eccentric load of the biceps. The hook test is the most significant examination test, presenting the highest sensibility and specificity for this lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging, the gold standard imaging test, can provide information regarding integrity and identify partial and/or complete tears. The surgical treatment uses an anterior or double approach and several reattachment techniques. Although there is no clinical evidence to recommend one fixation method over the other, biomechanical studies show that the cortical button resists better to failure. Although surgical treatment led to an 89% rate of return to work in 14 weeks, the recovery of high sports performance occurred in 1 year, with unsustainable outcomes.


Resumo As lesões agudas do tendão distal do bíceps se apresentam, clinicamente, com uma dor súbita associada a perda aguda de força de flexão e supinação. Seu principal mecanismo de lesão ocorre durante contração excêntrica do bíceps. O "Hook Test" é o principal teste semiológico, sendo o mais sensível e específico. A ressonância magnética, exame padrão ouro para o diagnóstico, pode fornecer informações sobre a integridade, identificando as lesões parciais e/ou completas. O tratamento cirúrgico pode ser realizado por duas vias principais: anterior e por dupla via porém as técnicas de reinserção tendínea são diversas não havendo evidência clínica que recomende um método de fixação em detrimento ao outro; embora o botão cortical apresente maior resistência a falha nos estudos biomecânicos. Com o tratamento cirúrgico o retorno as atividades laborais foi de 89% em 14 semanas (média) porém ao esporte de alto rendimento o prazo foi longo, média de 1 ano, e não duradouro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tendon Injuries , Tendon Injuries/therapy , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Elbow Joint/injuries
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1135-1145, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514341

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The human soleus muscle has attracted attention in the fields of sport science, rehabilitation medicine, etc. for improving exercise performance in training, preventing injuries, and rehabilitation. The sagittal tendon plate of the soleus muscle is particularly important in rehabilitation. Few studies, however, have evaluated the shape of the sagittal tendon plate in the human soleus muscle in detail and attempted to classify its variations based on its morphology. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the morphology of the sagittal tendon plates in soleus muscle specimens from Japanese cadavers and constructed a morphology-based classification system and evaluated their frequencies of occurrence. First, the specimens were divided into those with a sagittal tendon plate that was visible on the anterior surface (pennate muscle group) and those without (non-pennate muscle group). Next, based on the "number" and "breadth" of the sagittal tendon plates, the pennate muscle group specimens were further classified into four classes: Class I (one tendon, thin), Class II (one tendon, slightly broad), Class III (one tendon, very broad), and Class IV (two tendons, thin). Subsequently, the specimens were further divided into three types based on the position where the sagittal tendon plate joined the Achilles tendon: median tendon type, lateral tendon type, and medial tendon type (a total 13 divisions). When 458 Japanese soleus muscle specimens were classified into these divisions, the occurrence frequencies of Class I-IV were 80.57 %, 4.59 %, 5.46 %, and 1.09 %, respectively. In Class I, the median tendon type was more frequent than the lateral and medial tendon types, accounting for 48.47 % overall. The classification types of the sagittal tendon plate and their respective occurrence frequencies shown in this study are expected to serve as fundamental data in implementing rehabilitation of soleus muscle.


El músculo sóleo humano ha atraído la atención de la ciencia del deporte, la medicina de rehabilitación, etc. para mejorar el rendimiento del ejercicio en el entrenamiento, prevenir las lesiones y rehabilitación. La lámina tendinosa sagital del músculo sóleo es particularmente importante en la rehabilitación. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han evaluado en detalle la forma de la placa lámina sagital en el músculo sóleo humano y han intentado clasificar sus variaciones en función de su morfología. Realizamos un análisis detallado de la morfología de las láminas de los tendones sagitales en muestras de músculo sóleo de cadáveres japoneses y construimos un sistema de clasificación basado en la morfología y, además, evaluamos su frecuencia de aparición. Los especímenes se dividieron en aquellos con una lámina de tendón sagital que era visible en la superficie anterior (grupo muscular pennado) y aquellos sin (grupo muscular no pennado). A continuación, según el "número" y el "ancho" de las láminas de los tendones sagitales, las muestras del grupo de músculos pennados se clasificaron en cuatro clases: Clase I (un tendón, delgado), Clase II (un tendón, ligeramente ancho), Clase III (un tendón, muy ancho) y Clase IV (dos tendones delgados). Posteriormente, las muestras se dividieron en tres tipos, según la posición donde la lámina del tendón sagital se unía al tendón calcáneo: tipo de tendón mediano, tipo de tendón lateral y tipo de tendón medial (un total de 13 divisiones). En estas divisiones se clasificaron 458 especímenes de músculo sóleo de indiviuos japoneses, las frecuencias de ocurrencia de Clase I-IV fueron 80,57 %, 4,59 %, 5,46 % y 1,09 %, respectivamente. En la Clase I, el tipo de tendón mediano era más frecuente que los tipos de tendón lateral y medial, representando el 48,47 % del total. Se espera que los tipos de clasificación de la lámina del tendón sagital y sus respectivas frecuencias de aparición, que se reportan en este estudio, sirvan como datos fundamentales para implementar la rehabilitación del músculo sóleo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tendons/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Japan
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1254-1260, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514348

ABSTRACT

La evaluación de la calidad y la arquitectura muscular son importantes para comprender y cuantificar los cambios musculares asociados con el envejecimiento y el estilo de vida sedentario, además nos facilita información de la capacidad del músculo para generar fuerza, potencia o funcionalidad. los objetivos del estudio fueron (I) determinar la asociación entre los parámetros de la arquitectura muscular y el índice de calidad muscular (MQI) y (II) determinar la asociación entre los parámetros de la arquitectura muscular y la potencia media relativa del sit to stand test (STS). Únicamente el grosor muscular (MT) mostró una asociación moderada con el MQI (r = 0,545). En contraste, tanto la longitud del fascículo (FL) como el ángulo de penación (PA) exhibieron asociaciones "muy bajas", las cuales no resultaron significativas con el MQI. Al examinar la relación de los parámetros de la arquitectura muscular con la potencia media relativa de STS, MT presentó una asociación "moderada" (r = 0,444). Sin embargo, tanto FL como PA mostraron asociaciones "muy bajas" y "bajas", respectivamente, con la potencia media relativa al STS. En conclusión, estos hallazgos refuerzan la idea de que MT puede ser un indicador relevante de la calidad muscular y la capacidad de generar potencia en la prueba de STS. Específicamente, se observó que un aumento en MT estaba asociado con una mejora en MQI y la potencia media relativa de STS.


SUMMARY: Assessment of muscle quality and architecture is important for understanding and quantifying muscle changes associated with aging and a sedentary lifestyle and provides information on the muscle's ability to generate strength, power, or function. The aims of the study were (I) to determine the association between muscle architecture parameters and muscle quality index (MQI) and (II) to determine the association between muscle architecture parameters and mean relative power in the sit-to-stand test (STS). Only muscle thickness (MT) showed a moderate association with MQI (r = 0.545). In contrast, both fascicle length (FL) and penile angle (PA) exhibited "very low" associations, which were not significant with the MQI. When examining the relationship between muscle architecture parameters and mean relative STS power, MT presented a "moderate" association (r = 0.444). However, both LF and PA showed "very low" and "low" associations, respectively, with a mean power relative to STS. In conclusion, these findings reinforce the idea that MT may be a relevant indicator of muscle quality and ability to generate power in the STS test. Specifically, an increase in MT was associated with an improvement in MQI and mean power relative to STS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Sedentary Behavior
8.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 145-152, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439583

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic, hereditary and autosomal dominant syndrome triggered by halogenates/succinylcholine. The In Vitro Contracture Test (IVCT) is the gold standard diagnostic test for MH, and it evaluates abnormal skeletal muscle reactions of susceptible individuals (earlier/greater contracture) when exposed to caffeine/halothane. MH susceptibility episodes and IVCT seem to be related to individual features. Objective To assess variables that correlate with IVCT in Brazilian patients referred for MH investigation due to a history of personal/family MH. Methods We examined IVCTs of 80 patients investigated for MH between 2004‒2019. We recorded clinical data (age, sex, presence of muscle weakness or myopathy with muscle biopsy showing cores, genetic evaluation, IVCT result) and IVCT features (initial and final maximum contraction, caffeine/halothane concentration triggering contracture of 0.2g, contracture at caffeine concentration of 2 and 32 mmoL and at 2% halothane, and contraction after 100 Hz stimulation). Results Mean age of the sample was 35±13.3 years, and most of the subjects were female (n=43 or 54%) and MH susceptible (60%). Of the 20 subjects undergoing genetic investigation, 65% showed variants in RYR1/CACNA1S genes. We found no difference between the positive and negative IVCT groups regarding age, sex, number of probands, presence of muscle weakness or myopathy with muscle biopsy showing cores. Regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of positive IVCT were male sex (+12%), absence of muscle weakness (+20%), and personal MH background (+17%). Conclusions Positive IVCT results have been correlated to male probands, in accordance with early publications. Furthermore, normal muscle strength has been confirmed as a significant predictor of positive IVCT while investigating suspected MH cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Contracture/diagnosis , Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis , Malignant Hyperthermia/diagnosis , Brazil , Caffeine , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscle Weakness , Halothane , Muscle Contraction
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 640-645, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440314

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Skeletal muscles play a fundamental role in people's lives and their evaluation provides significant information on health. Different tools have been used to evaluate muscle mass, and the evaluation of muscle thickness (MT) using ultrasound has been included as an alternative, which can be performed with the probe in different positions; however, these could present differences. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are differences in the measurement of MT in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle using the probe in the longitudinal or transverse position, and to determine its association with the lean mass of the lower limbs. The results indicated no significant differences between MT measurements with the probe in the longitudinal and transverse positions (p =0.084). However, when associating these measurements with lower limb lean mass, it was found that transverse measurements had a strong association (r =0.547; p < 0.001), while longitudinal measurements had a moderate association (r =0.351; p =0.007). This suggests that measurements with the probe positioned transversely to measure the MT would be the best option. Therefore, it could be useful as an indicator of lower limb lean mass in the absence of tools, such as bioelectrical bioimpedance or magnetic nuclear resonance.


El músculo esquelético cumple un rol fundamental en la vida de las personas, y su evaluación entrega mucha información de la salud. Se han utilizado diferentes herramientas para evaluar la masa muscular, y el último tiempo se ha incluido la evaluación del grosor muscular (MT) a través de la ecografía como una alternativa para estimarla, las cuales se pueden realizar con la sonda en distintas posiciones, sin embargo, estas podrían presentar diferencias. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar si existen diferencias en la medición de MT en el músculo vasto lateral (VL) utilizando la sonda en posición longitudinal o transversal y determinar su asociación con la masa magra de los miembros inferiores. Los resultados indican que no existen diferencias significativas entre las mediciones de MT con la sonda en posición longitudinal y transversal (valor p: 0.084). Sin embargo, al asociar estas mediciones con la masa magra de los miembros inferiores, se encontró que las mediciones transversales poseen una asociación fuerte (r: 0.547; valor p < 0.001), mientras que las mediciones longitudinales presentan una asociación moderada (r: 0.351; valor p: 0.007). Esto sugiere que las mediciones con la sonda posicionada transversal para medir MT serían la mejor opción. Por lo tanto, podría ser de utilidad como un indicador de masa magra de los miembros inferiores en caso de no contar con herramientas como la bioimpedancia bioeléctrica o resonancia nuclear magnética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonics , Anthropometry , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal , Quadriceps Muscle/anatomy & histology , Patient Positioning
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 591-599, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440342

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is commonly associated with chronic tissue inflammation and skeletal muscle dysfunction. The study aimed to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval training (HIIT) on myokines and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress of diet- induced obese (DIO) mice. Three-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a control (C) diet (n=20) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n=20) for 16 weeks. Then, half of the groups underwent HIIT (treadmill running) for an additional four weeks. HIIT increased calf muscles' contribution to BW (+24 %) and reduced weight gain in HF/HIIT than in HF (-120 %). Intramuscular fat accumulation was observed in HF and HF/ HIIT. Peak velocity was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+26 %). Plasma insulin did not change, but glycemia was lower in HF/HIIT than in HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) and Irisin (+72 %) were higher in HF/HIIT than in HF. Muscle Fgf21 was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+30 %). In addition, NfKb (-53 %) and Tnfa (-63 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. However, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (- 48 %), Il7 (-76 %), and Il15 (-21 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. Finally, HIIT reduced ER stress in HF/HIIT compared to HF: Atf4, -61 %; Chop, -61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. In conclusion, HIIT leads to weight loss and avoids muscle depletion. HIIT improves blood glucose, Irisin-Fndc5, and peak velocity. In addition, HIIT mitigates muscle inflammation and ER stress.


La obesidad es asociada comúnmente con inflamación tisular crónica y disfunción del músculo esquelético. El estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) en las mioquinas y el estrés del retículo endoplásmico (ER) de ratones obesos inducidos por dieta (DIO). Se alimentó a ratones macho C57BL/6 de tres meses de edad con una dieta control (C) (n=20) o una dieta rica en grasas (HF) (n=20) durante 16 semanas. Luego, la mitad de los grupos se sometieron a HIIT (carrera en una trotadora) durante cuatro semanas más. HIIT aumentó la contribución de los músculos de la pantorrilla al BW (+24 %) y redujo el aumento de peso en HF/HIIT en HF (-120 %). Se observó acumulación de grasa intramuscular en HF y HF/HIIT. La velocidad máxima fue mayor en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF (+26 %). La insulina plasmática no cambió, pero la glucemia fue menor en HF/HIIT que en HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) e Irisin (+72 %) fueron mayores en HF/HIIT que en HF. El Fgf21 muscular fue mayor en HF/ HIIT en comparación con HF (+30 %). Además, NfKb (-53 %) y Tnfa (-63 %) fueron menores en HF/HIIT que en HF. Sin embar- go, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (-48 %), Il7 (-76 %) e Il15 (-21 %) fueron más bajos en HF/HIIT que en HF. Finalmente, HIIT redujo el estrés de RE en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF: Atf4, -61 %; Picar, - 61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. En conclusión, HIIT conduce a la pérdida de peso y evita el agotamiento muscular. HIIT mejora la glucosa en sangre, Irisin-Fndc5 y la velocidad máxima. Además, HIIT mitiga la inflamación muscular y el estrés ER.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cytokines/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Obesity , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Biology
11.
Femina ; 51(2): 114-119, 20230228. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428710

ABSTRACT

As pílulas anticoncepcionais consistem na formulação combinada de um estrogênio e um progestagênio ou em apresentações simples de progestagênio isolado com a finalidade de bloquear a ovulação e alterar as condições do útero e das tubas uterinas, bloqueando parcialmente a foliculogênese e a inibição do pico de gonadotrofinas. Desse modo, no que concerne à temática, diversas publicações na mídia de ampla divulgação afirmam que os anticoncepcionais orais têm papel importante na sarcopenia e na hipotrofia, incluindo perda de força muscular e redução do desempenho físico. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar, por meio de pesquisas de artigos, a correlação entre anticoncepcionais hormonais orais e hipotrofia muscular. Foi concluído que os artigos científicos especializados no tema são ainda bastante inconclusivos, sugerindo que há indicações de que usuárias de anticoncepcional oral sejam mais suscetíveis ao dano muscular induzido por exercícios, contudo ainda não há consenso.


Anticonception pills consist of a combined formulation of an estrogen and a progestogen or simple presentations of progestogen alone with the purpose of blocking ovulation and altering the conditions of the uterus and uterine tubes, partially blocking folliculogenesis and inhibiting the gonadotropin peak. Thus, with regard to the subject, several widely publicized media publications claim that oral contraceptives play an important role in sarcopenia and hypotrophy, including loss of muscle strength and reduced physical performance. So, the present work aims to evaluate through article searches the correlation between oral hormonal contraceptives and muscle hypotrophy. It was concluded that scientific articles specialized on the subject are still quite inconclusive, suggesting that there are indications that oral contraceptive users are more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage, however there is still no consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Progestins/adverse effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Ovulation Inhibition/drug effects , Physical Functional Performance
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 22-24, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430511

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The axilla is the main communication channel connecting the upper limbs, the neck and chest. Stabilization of the internal structure is essential for upper limb and shoulder mobility. In this case, we observed and recorded the characteristics of the variation of the radial nerve as well as the intercalated ectopic muscle from latissimus dorsi muscle. The position relationship between both, was also particularly noted by us. In view of the presence of the variation we reported, related clinical research, surgery and disease diagnosis are expected to take this case into account.


La axila es el principal canal de comunicación que conecta los miembros superiores, el cuello y el tórax. La estabilización de la estructura interna es fundamental para la movilidad del miembro superior y del hombro. En este caso observamos y registramos las características de la variación del nervio radial así como del músculo ectópico intercalado del músculo latísimo del dorso. La relación de posición entre ambas también fue significativa en este estudio. En vista de la presencia de la variación que informamos, se espera que la investigación clínica relacionada con la cirugía y el diagnóstico de la enfermedad tengan en cuenta este caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities , Anatomic Variation , Axilla/innervation , Cadaver , Choristoma
13.
Singapore medical journal ; : 415-422, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984192

ABSTRACT

Muscle fibres are multinuclear cells, and the cytoplasmic territory where a single myonucleus controls transcriptional activity is called the myonuclear domain (MND). MND size shows flexibility during muscle hypertrophy. The MND ceiling hypothesis states that hypertrophy results in the expansion of MND size to an upper limit or MND ceiling, beyond which additional myonuclei via activation of satellite cells are required to support further growth. However, the debate about the MND ceiling hypothesis is far from settled, and various studies show conflicting results about the existence or otherwise of MND ceiling in hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to summarise the literature about the MND ceiling in various settings of hypertrophy and discuss the possible factors contributing to a discrepancy in the literature. We conclude by describing the physiological and clinical significance of the MND ceiling limit in the muscle adaptation process in various physiological and pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/physiology , Hypertrophy/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 445-448, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986150

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia has attracted increasing attention with the study of nutrition in patients with liver disease. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis of liver disease and is becoming increasingly common in patients with liver disease. Studies have shown that patients with liver disease and sarcopenic obesity have a worse prognosis than patients with liver disease and simple sarcopenia or obesity. In clinical practice, it is easy to recognize patients with malnutrition and decreased muscle mass, but we often ignore those patients with normal body weight or even obesity who will likewise experience muscle mass loss. Simply relying on the monitoring of body mass and body mass index to assess the nutritional and muscle status of patients with liver disease is not accurate. At present, our understanding of the relationship between chronic liver disease and sarcopenic obesity is still poorly understood. In this paper, the research progress on chronic liver disease, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity in recent years is reviewed so as to provide a theoretical basis for improving the clinical prognosis of patients with liver disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcopenia/complications , Body Composition/physiology , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Liver Diseases/complications , Muscle, Skeletal
15.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 504-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986059

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the protective effect of parachute ankle brace on ankle joint during simulated parachuting landing. Methods: In August 2021, 30 male paratroopers were selected as the test subjects by simple random sampling method. They jumped from the 1.5 m and 2.0 m height platforms respectively with and without parachute ankle brace, and landed on the sandy ground in a semi-squat parachute landing position. The experiment was divided into 1.5 m experimental group and control group and 2.0 m experimental group and control group. Angle sensor and surface electromyograph were used to measure and analyze the coronal tilt range of the ankle joint and the percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVE%) of the muscles around the ankle joint, respectively, to evaluate the protective effect of the parachute ankle brace. Results: At the same height, the tilt range of coronal plane of ankle in experimental group was significantly reduced compared with control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Under the same protection state, the tilt range of the coronal plane of the ankle in the 1.5 m group was significantly reduced compared with that in the 2.0 m group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The coronal plane inclination range of the ankle in 2 m experimental group was significantly lower than that in 1.5 m control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with 1.5 m control group, MVE% of right tibialis anterior muscle and bilateral lateral gastrocnemius decreased in 1.5 m experimental group, while MVE% of bilateral peroneus longus increased, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Compared with 2.0 m control group, the MVE% of bilateral tibialis anterior muscle and right lateral gastrocnemius decreased in 2.0 m experimental group, while the MVE% of bilateral peroneus longus increased, with statistical significance (P<0.05). The MVE% of bilateral tibialis anterior muscle, bilateral lateral gastrocnemius muscle and right peroneus longus muscle in 1.5 m experimental group decreased compared with 2.0 m experimental group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with 2.0 m control group, the MVE% of bilateral tibialis anterior muscle, right lateral gastrocnemius muscle and right peroneus longus muscle in 1.5 m control group decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Wearing parachute ankle brace can effectively limit the coronal plane inclination range of ankle joint, improve the stability of ankle joint and reduce the load on the muscles around ankle joint by landing. Reducing the height of the jumping platform can reduce the coronal plane incline range of the ankle and the muscle load around the ankle during landing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Ankle , Ankle Joint/physiology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Electromyography
16.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 447-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, and treatment methods of finger flexion contracture caused by three kinds of forearm flexor diseases.@*METHODS@#Between December 2008 and August 2021, 17 patients with finger flexion contracture were treated, including 8 males and 9 females, aged 5-42 years, with a median of 16 years. The disease duration ranged from 1.5 months to 30 years, with a median of 13 years. The etiology included 6 cases of Volkmann's contracture, all of which were flexion deformity of the 2nd to 5th fingers, accompanied by limitation of thumb dorsiflexion in 3 cases and limitation of wrist dorsiflexion in 3 cases; 3 cases of pseudo-Volkmann's contracture, including 2 cases of flexion deformity of middle, ring, and little fingers, and 1 case of flexion deformity of ring and little fingers; 8 cases of ulnar finger flexion contracture caused by forearm flexor disease or anatomical variations, all of which were flexion deformity of middle, ring, and little fingers. Operations such as slide of flexor and pronator teres origin, excision of abnormal fibrous cord and bony prominence, and release of entrapped muscle (tendon) were performed. Hand function was evaluated according to WANG Haihua's hand function rating standard or modified Buck-Gramcko classification standard, and muscle strength was evaluated according to British Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle strength rating standard.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up 1-10 years (median, 1.5 years). At last follow-up, 8 patients with contracture caused by forearm flexor disease or anatomical variations and 3 patients with pseudo-Volkmann's contracture achieved excellent hand function, with muscle strength of grade M5 in 6 cases and grade M4 in 5 cases. One patient with mild Volkmann's contracture and 3 patients with moderate Volkmann's contracture without severe nerve damage had excellent hand function in 2 cases and good in 2 cases, with muscle strength of grade M5 in 1 case and grade M4 in 3 cases. Two patients with moderate or severe Volkmann's contracture had poor hand function, with 1 case of muscle strength of grade M3 and 1 case of grade M2, which improved when compared with those before operation. The overall excellent and good rate of hand function and the proportion of patients with muscle strength of grade M4 and above were 88.2% (15/17), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The finger flexion contracture caused by different etiology can be differentiated by analyzing the history, physical examination, radiographs, and intraoperative findings. After different surgical treatments, such as resection of contracture band, release of compressed muscle (tendon), and downward movement of flexor origin, most patients have a good outcome.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Forearm/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Ischemic Contracture/surgery , Fingers/surgery , Muscle, Skeletal/surgery
17.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 558-562, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986890

ABSTRACT

The patient was a 55-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with "progressive myalgia and weakness for 4 months, and exacerbated for 1 month". Four months ago, he presented with persistent shoulder girdle myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) at routine physical examination, which fluctuated from 1 271 to 2 963 U/L after discontinuation of statin treatment. Progressive myalgia and weakness worsened seriously to breath-holding and profuse sweating 1 month ago. The patient was post-operative for renal cancer, had previous diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease medical history, had a stent implanted by percutaneous coronary intervention and was on long-term medication with aspirin, atorvastatin and metoprolol. Neurological examination showed pressure pain in the scapularis and pelvic girdle muscles, and V- grade muscle strength in the proximal extremities. Strongly positive of anti-HMGCR antibody was detected. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted image and short time inversion recovery sequences (STIR) showed high signals in the right vastus lateralis and semimembranosus muscles. There was a small amount of myofibrillar degeneration and necrosis, CD4 positive inflammatory cells around the vessels and among myofibrils, MHC-Ⅰ infiltration, and multifocal lamellar deposition of C5b9 in non-necrotic myofibrils of the right quadriceps muscle pathological manifestation. According to the clinical manifestation, imageological change, increased CK, blood specific anti-HMGCR antibody and biopsy pathological immune-mediated evidence, the diagnosis of anti-HMGCR immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy was unequivocal. Methylprednisolone was administrated as 48 mg daily orally, and was reduced to medication discontinuation gradually. The patient's complaint of myalgia and breathlessness completely disappeared after 2 weeks, the weakness relief with no residual clinical symptoms 2 months later. Follow-up to date, there was no myalgia or weakness with slightly increasing CK rechecked. The case was a classical anti-HMGCR-IMNM without swallowing difficulties, joint symptoms, rash, lung symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, heart failure and Raynaud's phenomenon. The other clinical characters of the disease included CK as mean levels >10 times of upper limit of normal, active myogenic damage in electromyography, predominant edema and steatosis of gluteus and external rotator groups in T2WI and/or STIR at advanced disease phase except axial muscles. The symptoms may occasionally improve with discontinuation of statins, but glucocorticoids are usually required, and other treatments include a variety of immunosuppressive therapies such as methotrexate, rituximab and intravenous gammaglobulin.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies , Myositis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Necrosis/pathology , Muscular Diseases/drug therapy
18.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 436-439, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981288

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical value of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of pronator teres syndrome (PTS). Methods The high-frequency ultrasound was employed to examine and measure the median nerve of the pronator teres muscle in 30 patients with PTS and 30 healthy volunteers (control group).The long-axis diameter (LA),short-axis diameter (SA) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve were measured.The receiver operating characteristic curve of the median nerve ultrasonic measurement results was established,and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated.The diagnostic efficiency of each index for PTS was compared with the surgical results as a reference. Results The PTS group showed larger LA[(5.02±0.50) mm vs.(3.89±0.41) mm;t=4.38,P=0.013],SA[(2.55±0.46) mm vs.(1.70±0.41) mm;t=5.19,P=0.009],and CSA[(11.13±3.72) mm2 vs.(6.88±2.68) mm2;t=8.42,P=0.008] of the median nerve than the control group.The AUC of CSA,SA,and LA was 94.3% (95%CI=0.912-0.972,Z=3.586,P=0.001),77.7% (95%CI=0.734-0.815,Z=2.855, P=0.006),and 78.8% (95%CI=0.752-0.821,Z=3.091,P=0.004),respectively.With 8.63 mm2 as the cutoff value,the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in diagnosing PTS were 93.3% and 90.0%,respectively. Conclusion High-frequency ultrasound is a practical method for diagnosing PTS,and the CSA of median nerve has a high diagnostic value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forearm/innervation , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Median Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1514-1524, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981151

ABSTRACT

The growth and development of skeletal muscle is an important factor affecting pork production and quality, which is elaborately regulated by many genetic and nutritional factors. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a non-coding RNA with a length of about 22 nt, which binds to the 3'UTR sequence of the mRNA of the target genes, and consequently regulates its post-transcriptional expression level. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in various life processes such as growth and development, reproduction, and diseases. The role of miRNAs in the regulation of porcine skeletal muscle development was reviewed, with the hope to provide a reference for the genetic improvement of pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle Development/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1502-1513, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981150

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle is one of the most important organs in animal, and the regulatory mechanism of skeletal muscle development is of great importance for the diagnosis of muscle-related diseases and the improvement of meat quality of livestock. The regulation of skeletal muscle development is a complex process, which is regulated by a large number of muscle secretory factors and signaling pathways. In addition, in order to maintain steady-state and maximum use of energy metabolism in the body, the body coordinates multiple tissues and organs to form the complex and sophisticated metabolic regulation network, which plays an important role for the regulation of skeletal muscle development. With the development of omics technologies, the underlying mechanism of tissue and organ communication has been deeply studied. This paper reviews the effects of crosstalk among adipose tissue, nerve tissue and intestinal tissue on skeletal muscle development, with the aim to provide a theoretical basis for targeted regulation of skeletal muscle development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Signal Transduction
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