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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1210-1215, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975684

ABSTRACT

El entrenamiento de fuerza, especialmente con alta intensidad de carga, permite aumentar la fuerza y trofismo muscular, pero también se asocia a daño muscular inducido por ejercicio (DMIE). Una nueva modalidad de entrenamiento, combina una baja intensidad de carga con la restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo (RPFS) alrededor del músculo, siendo prometedor en cuanto el desarrollo de la fuerza y trofismo muscular. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el rendimiento de fuerza máxima de los músculos cuádriceps e isquiotibiales (FM-Q y FM-I) y marcadores de daño muscular (CK) e inflamación sistémica (PCRus) entre un entrenamiento de baja intensidad de carga con RPFS, versus uno de alta y otro de baja intensidad de carga sin RPFS en jóvenes físicamente activos durante cuatro semanas de entrenamiento. Veintitrés participantes midieron la FM-Q y FM-I previo y al término de la intervención; además, antes del inicio de la primera sesión, y antes y después del término de la última sesión se midió la CK y PCRus. En los tres tipos de entrenamiento se produjeron aumentos equivalentes en la fuerza máxima, a excepción de la FM-Q del entrenamiento con baja intensidad sin RPFS. Solo en el entrenamiento con RPFS la CK y PCRus se modifican al finalizar la intervención, y aun cuando el estrés miocelular parece ser más alto que en los otros tipos de entrenamiento, no indicaría daño muscular.


Strength training, especially with high load intensity, allows increasing muscle strength and trophism, but it is also associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). A new training modality, a combination of loading with the partial restriction blood flow (PRBF) around the muscle, being promising in the development of strength and muscular trophism. The aim of the study was to compare the maximum strength (MS) performance of quadriceps and hamstrings (MS-Q and MS-I) and muscle damage biomarkers (Creatine Kinase, CK) and systemic inflammation (high sensitivity - CRP, hs-CRP) between a low intensity load training with PRBF, versus one high and another low load intensity without PRBF in physically active youngsters during four weeks of training. Twenty-three participants measured MSQ and MS-I and the intervention term. In addition, before the start of the first session, before and after the end of the last session, CK and hsCRP were measured. In the three types of training the equivalent benefits in MS are produced, an exception of the MS-Q of low intensity training without PRBF. Only in the training with PRBF, the CK and hsCPR are modified at the end of the intervention, and even though the myocellular stress seems to be higher than in the other types of training, it would not indicate muscle damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Exercise/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Muscle Strength/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , C-Reactive Protein , Biomarkers , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Inflammation Mediators , Creatine Kinase
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 848-853, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954196

ABSTRACT

Fibularis brevis grafts have been extensively used, especially as distally-based grafts, to cover defects in the lower leg and foot. The study has contributed to analyze the blood supply of the fibularis brevis muscle and the vascular basis of its possible different grafts. Both legs of twelve preserved cadavers, without congenital vascular anomalies, were utilized in the study. Fibularis brevis was exposed in all selected legs along with the verification of different arterial pedicles. The total means and standard deviations of the length and width of the muscle together with diameters of major vessels were calculated. Total length and width of middle portion of fibularis brevis were at means of 28.7±0.4 cm and 3±0.02 cm respectively. The upper and middle portions of the muscle were supplied by the fibular and the anterior tibial artery. The middle portion was supplemented by the upper perforating branch of the posterior tibial artery. The lower portion of the muscle was supplied by the lower perforating branch of the posterior tibial and the periosteal arteries. The muscle could be used as a proximally or distally based flap, free vascularized muscle graft, free vascularized osteo-muscular flap, and distally-based split flap. It can be split completely into two flaps; each of which can be used as a proximally or distally.


Los injertos de músculo fibularis brevis son usados ampliamente, especialmente como injertos de base distal, para cubrir defectos en la parte inferior de la pierna y el pie. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el suministro de sangre del músculo fibularis brevis y la base vascular de los posibles diferentes injertos. Para el estudio se utilizaron ambas piernas de 12 cadáveres preservados, sin anomalías vasculares congénitas. El músculo fibularis brevis fue encontrado en todas las piernas junto con los diferentes pedículos arteriales. Se calcularon las medias totales y las desviaciones estándar de la longitud y el ancho del músculo, junto con los diámetros de los vasos principales. La longitud y el ancho totales de la porción media del músculo fibularis brevis fueron de 28,7±0,4 cm y 3±0,02 cm, respectivamente. Las partes superior y media del músculo estaban suplidas vascularmente por la arteria fibular y la arteria tibial anterior. La parte media se complementó con la rama perforante superior de la arteria tibial posterior. La parte inferior del músculo fue suplida por una rama perforante inferior de la arteria tibial posterior y las arterias periósticas. El músculo podría usarse como un colgajo de base proximal o distal, injerto de músculo vascularizado libre, colgajo osteomuscular vascularizado libre y colgajo dividido distal. Se puede dividir por completo en dos colgajos; cada uno de estos puede ser utilizado como proximal o distal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Surgical Flaps , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Fibula/blood supply , Cadaver
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1370-1376, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893144

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El pudú (Pudu puda) pertenece a la familia Cervidae y se estima que su población actual total es menor a 10.000 ejemplares, razón por la cual se encuentra en la categoría de "Casi Amenazado" y dentro de la lista roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). La causa de la reducción de su población, es la pérdida y la fragmentación de los bosques del sur de Chile, caza, depredación, atropellos, entre otros. En las últimas situaciones mencionadas, es frecuente observar lesiones en la zona corporal caudal y miembros pélvicos del animal. Debido a lo anterior, se considera importante generar estudios morfológicos en el pudú que puedan ser un aporte en el conocimiento de ésta especie en particular. El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo anatómico del miembro pélvico de un ejemplar de pudú hembra. Se describió la musculatura y sus principales relaciones con vasos sanguíneos y nervios desde proximal hacia distal, dividiendo al miembro pélvico en cuatro regiones topográficas: cintura pélvica, femoral, crural y del pie. Además, se realizó de forma complementaria un estudio morfométrico de cada región topográfica y cada músculo que la compone. Los resultados fueron comparados con rumiantes domésticos, en relación a lo descrito en la bibliografía anatómica clásica, observando que el ejemplar analizado posee características anatómicas similares a lo descrito para pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, existen diferencias importantes de tomar en consideración, tales como: el m. de la fascia lata presenta dos porciones sobrepuestas; el m. sóleo presenta un mayor desarrollo; el paquete vasculo nervioso femoral se observa atravesando la porción craneal del m. sartorio y el m. gracilis forma parte del tendón calcáneo común. La información entregada en este estudio corresponde a un aporte anatómico que permite ampliar el conocimiento científico de ésta especie poco estudiada, protegida y vulnerable.


SUMMARY: The Pudu (Pudu puda) belongs to the family Cervidae and it is estimated that its total current population is less than 10,000 specimen, which is why it is part of the "Near Threatened" category and on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The cause of the reduction of its population is the loss and the fragmentation of the forests of the south of Chile, hunting, predation, crashes, among others. In the latter situations, it is common to observe injuries in the caudal area and pelvic limbs of the animal. Due to the above, it is considered important to generate morphological studies in the Pudú that can be a contribution in the knowledge of this particular species. The present study corresponds to an anatomical descriptive study of the pelvic limb of a female Pudú. Musculature and its main relationships with blood vessels and nerves were described from proximal to distal, dividing the pelvic limb into four topographic regions: pelvic waist, femoral, crural and foot. In addition, a morphometric study of each topographic region and each muscle was performed as complementary analysis. The results were compared to domestic ruminants, in relation to those described in the classic anatomical bibliography, observing that the analyzed specimen has anatomical characteristics similar to that described for small ruminants, however, several important differences were observed and should be taken into consideration: the M. tensor fascia latae presents two overlapping portions; the M. soleus is more developed; the vasculature of the femoral nerve is observed through the cranial portion of the M. sartorius and M. gracilis is part of the common calcaneus tendon. The information provided in this study corresponds to an anatomical contribution that allows furthering scientific knowledge of this protected and vulnerable species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Deer/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Pelvis/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Pelvis/blood supply , Pelvis/innervation
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 624-628, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893031

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular distribution after passing through the triangular space of the shoulder. Thirty-five specimens from 18 adult Korean cadavers (12 males and 6 females, age ranging from 42-102 years) were used in the study. This study analyzed the order in which the artery entered the muscle from that point the artery passed through the triangular space. The incidence of the first branch of the circumflex scapular artery was 11.4 % for infraspinatus, 5.7 % for teres major, 25.7 % for teres minor, 20.1 % for long head of biceps brachii, 25.7 % for subscapularis, and 11.4 % for subcutaneous tissue. This study investigated the incidence of lack of blood supply from the artery in the triangular space. This incidence was 27.8 % for infraspinatus, 13.0 % for teres major, 5.6 % for teres minor, 38.8 % for long head of triceps brachii, and 14.8 % for subscapularis. Four specimens showed arterial distribution in all surrounding muscles. One specimen identified the nerve branch to innervate teres minor of triangular space of shoulder. The results of this study will be helpful in clinical practice.


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la distribución neuromuscular después de pasar a través del espacio triangular del hombro. Para el estudio fueron utilizados treinta y cinco especímenes de 18 cadáveres adultos coreanos (12 varones y 6 mujeres, con una edad de 42-102 años). Se analizó el orden en que la arteria penetra en el músculo y continúa a través del espacio triangular. La incidencia de la primera rama de la arteria circunfleja escapular fue: 11,4 % en el músculo infraspinoso, 5,7 % en el músculo redondo mayor, 25,7 % en el músculo redondo menor, 20,1% en la cabeza larga del músculo bíceps braquial, 25,7 % en el músculo subescapular y 11,4 % en el tejido subcutáneo. Este estudio investigó la incidencia de la falta de suministro de sangre de la arteria en el espacio triangular. Se observó incidencia de 27,8 % para el músculo infraespinoso, 13,0 % para el músculo redondo mayor, 5,6 % para el músculo redondo menor, 38,8 %, para la cabeza larga del músculo tríceps braquial y 14,8 % para el músculo subescapular. Cuatro especímenes mostraron distribución arterial en todos los músculos circundantes. En un caso se identificó la rama nerviosa para el músculo redondo menor en espacio triangular del hombro. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles en anatomía clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Upper Extremity/innervation , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Shoulder , Cadaver
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 1034-1038, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828981

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to describe the intramuscular artery and nerve distribution in detail by different colors in the same whole mount gracilis muscle. Red latex injection into the external iliac artery was performed on 14 fresh human cadavers. Two weeks later, 28 gracilis muscles were harvested from the cadavers and during this course the number of the arterial pedicle of each specimen was counted. Then, the muscle specimens were fixed in 10 % formalin 4 weeks for fixation and Sihler's staining procedures was performed on each muscle specimens. After all of the procedures, the gracilis muscle appeared almost transparent, and the extra- and intramuscular artery and nerve branches, even the terminals, were clearly demonstrated in red and dark blue separately. Two of the 28 specimens were supplied by a single main arterial pedicle alone, 14 specimens by a main arterial pedicle and an accessory pedicle, 8 specimens by a main pedicle and 2 accessory pedicles, while 4 specimens by a main arterial pedicle and 3 accessory pedicles. Although the number of the arterial pedicles was inconsistent, the intramuscular artery branches anastomosed with each other and formed a whole arterial system in all specimens. The nerve innervating the gracilis muscle divided into two or three major branches, which directed distally and innervated the distal two thirds of the muscle, while running longitudinally and parallel to the muscle fibers. We found the innervation pattern was remarkably consistent from specimen to specimen. This study provided very detailed and useful information for anatomists, physiologists and reconstructive surgeons. Furthermore, we here also provided a new method to demonstrate the intramuscular artery and nerve distribution in the same whole mount muscle by different colors for other researchers to refer to.


El objetivo de este estudio fue describir en detalle la distribución intramuscular de la arteria y el nervio del músculo grácil por diferentes colores en un solo montaje. Se realizó inyección de látex rojo en la arteria ilíaca externa en 14 cadáveres humanos frescos. Dos semanas más tarde se retiraron 28 músculos grácil de los cadáveres y se realizó un conteo del número de pedículos arteriales de cada muestra. Las muestras de músculo se fijaron en formalina al 10 % durante 4 semanas para los procedimientos de tinción de Sihler. Al término de todos los procedimientos, el músculo grácil parecía casi transparente, y las ramas extra e intramusculares de las arterias y los nervios, incluso los terminales, se observaron en azul y rojo oscuro por separado. Dos de los 28 especímenes presentaron por pedículo arterial principal único, 14 muestras un pedículo arterial principal y un pedículo accesorio, 8 de las muestras un pedículo principal y dos pedículos accesorios, mientras que 4 muestras un pedículo arterial principal y tres pedículos accesorios. Aunque el número de los pedículos arteriales era inconsistente, las ramas de la arteria intramuscular se anastomosaban entre sí y formaban un sistema arterial conjunto en todos los especímenes. El nervio que inerva el músculo grácil se encontró dividido en dos o tres ramos principales, dirigidos distalmente e inervaron los dos tercios distales del músculo, mientras que otro discurre longitudinalmente y en paralelo a las fibras musculares. Encontramos que el patrón de inervación fue notablemente consistente de un espécimen a otro. Este estudio proporciona información muy detallada y útil para los anatomistas, fisiólogos y cirujanos. Además, también se proporcionó un método innovador para demostrar la distribución intramuscular de la arteria y el nervio en un mismo músculo, entero, y con diferentes colores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Thigh , Staining and Labeling
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 264-270, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781326

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluated the potential antioxidant agent Legalon (r) SIL (silibinin-C-2',3-bis(hydrogensuccinat)) in the skeletal muscle of rats. METHODS: IRI was achieved via tourniquet application in Wistar-albino rats. Experimental groups were chosen as (i) sham control, (ii) IRI (3+2 h), (iii) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-50 (50 mg/kg/i.p.), (iv) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-100 (100 mg/kg/i.p.), and (v) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-200 (200 mg/kg/ i.p.). Muscle viability (evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride dye method), malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed in muscle samples using a spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Although viability of the injured limb non-significantly declined in the IRI group, administration of Legalon (r) SIL did not prevent injury. However, dramatic increase observed in malondialdehyde levels in the IRI group was prohibited by Legalon (r) SIL in a statistically significant manner. In comparison with the sham-control group, IRI and Legalon (r) SIL administration did not cause any significant alterations in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSION: Although Legalon (r) SIL was not sufficient to prevent muscle injury in terms of viability, it is found to be an effective option to reduce reactive oxygen species-induced cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Silymarin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Ischemia/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Tissue Survival/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Catalase/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
8.
Clinics ; 70(8): 544-549, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation, the limited caliber of the dominant vascular pedicle increases the complexity of the anastomosis and the risk of vascular compromise. The purpose of this study was to characterize the results of using a T-shaped vascular pedicle for flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with brachial plexus injury who received gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation with either conventional end-to-end anastomosis or flow-through anastomosis from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively compared. In the flow-through group, the pedicle comprised a segment of the profunda femoris and the nutrient artery of the gracilis. The recipient artery was interposed by the T-shaped pedicle. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients received flow-through anastomosis, and 25 patients received conventional end-to-end anastomosis. The surgical time was similar between the groups. The diameter of the arterial anastomosis in the flow-through group was significantly larger than that in the end-to-end group (3.87 mm vs. 2.06 mm, respectively, p<0.001), and there were significantly fewer cases of vascular compromise in the flow-through group (2 [4.35%] vs. 6 [24%], respectively, p=0.019). All flaps in the flow-through group survived, whereas 2 in the end-to-end group failed. Minimal donor-site morbidity was noted in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury can decrease the complexity of anastomosis, reduce the risk of flap loss, and allow for more variation in muscle placement. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps/transplantation , Muscle, Skeletal/transplantation , Arteries/surgery , Brachial Plexus/blood supply , Free Tissue Flaps/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Operative Time , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Thigh , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 34-41, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741528

ABSTRACT

Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE(c)). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Exercise , Muscle Contraction , Muscle Fatigue , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Regional Blood Flow
10.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 16-21, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741542

ABSTRACT

Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Endothelins/blood , Hypercholesterolemia/metabolism , Lung/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Vasodilation
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 119-124, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741172

ABSTRACT

Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia) over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing) revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045), 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001) and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027). UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027) and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015). Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia. .


Doenças neurológicas são comuns em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), mas sua prevalência exata é desconhecida. Métodos Nós estudamos prospectivamente a presença de distúrbios neurológicos em 121 pacientes com DII [51 com doença de Crohn (DC) e 70 com colite ulcerativa (RCU)] e 50 controles (gastrite e dispepsia) ao longo de 3 anos. Resultados A avaliação neurológica padronizada (que incluiu testes eletrodiagnósticos) demonstrou que pacientes com DC foram 7,4 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver neuropatias de fibras grossas do que os controles (p = 0,045), 7,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,001) e 5,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver queixas autonômicas (p = 0,027). Pacientes com RCU foram 5 vezes mais propensos de desenvolver neuropatia de fibras grossas (p = 0,027) e 3,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,015). Conclusão Em resumo, este é o primeiro estudo prospectivo a estabelecer que os pacientes tanto com DC quanto de RCU são mais propensos a doenças neuromusculares do que os pacientes com gastrite e dispepsia. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Microcirculation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Femoral Artery/drug effects , Femoral Artery/embryology , Microcirculation/embryology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Sheep , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(4): 1436-1443, Dec. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734695

ABSTRACT

The subclavian-axillary arterial tree is responsible for the arterial supply to the rotator cuff muscles as well as other shoulder muscles. This study comprised the bilateral dissection of the shoulder and upper arm region in thirty-one adult and nineteen fetal cadaveric specimens. The variable origins and branching patterns of the axillary, subscapular, circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral and suprascapular arteries identified in this study corroborated the findings of previous studies. In addition, unique variations that are unreported in the literature were also observed. The precise anatomy of the arterial distribution to the rotator cuff muscles is important to the surgeon and radiologist. It will aid proper interpretation of radiographic images and avoid injury to this area during surgical procedures.


El árbol arterial subclavio-axilar, es responsable del suministro arterial de los músculos correspondientes al manguito de los músculos rotadores, así como de otros músculos del hombro. Este estudio comprende la disección bilateral del hombro y la región superior del brazo en 31 cadáveres adultos y 19 fetos. Las variables y patrones del origen, ramificación de las arterias axilar, subescapular, circunfleja escapular, toracodorsal, circunfleja humeral posterior y supraescapular, identificados en este estudio, corroboran los hallazgos de estudios anteriores. Además, se observaron variaciones únicas no comunicadas previamente en la literatura. La anatomía precisa de la distribución arterial de los músculos del manguito de los músculos rotadores es importante para el cirujano y el radiólogo. Esta información constituirá una ayuda para la adecuada interpretación de imágenes radiológicas y para evitar lesiones en esta área durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Subclavian Artery/anatomy & histology , Axillary Artery/anatomy & histology , Rotator Cuff/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Cadaver , Fetus , Anatomic Variation
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 886-894, 10/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722168

ABSTRACT

Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF). After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC), MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC), MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001); however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008) and microvessel density (P<0.001). Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Extremities/blood supply , /metabolism , Gene Expression , Ischemia/physiopathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Antigens, Surface/analysis , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Disease Models, Animal , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Ischemia/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transplantation, Homologous , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
14.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(7): 750-757, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-726262

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Testar a hipótese de que mulheres com hipotireoidismo subclínico (HSC) possuem condutância vascular do antebraço (CVA) prejudicados durante estresse mental. Sujeitos e métodos Foram avaliadas 20 mulheres com HSC e 21 eutireoidianas (Grupo Controle), pareadas por idade (p = 0,699) e índice de massa corporal (p = 0,462). O fluxo sanguíneo muscular (FSM), avaliado pela pletismografia de oclusão venosa, e a pressão arterial, medida pelo Dixtal2023, foram registrados simultaneamente durante 3 minutos de basal, seguidos de 3 minutos de estresse mental. A CVA foi calculada pela divisão do FSM pela pressão arterial média. Foi adotada significância de p < 0,05. Resultados O grupo HSC apresentou maior concentração do hormônio tireoestimulante (7,57 ± 3,17 vs. 2,10 ± 0,88 mU/L, p < 0,001). No basal, os grupos HSC e Controle foram semelhantes respectivamente para FSM (2,50 ± 0,79 vs. 2,55 ± 0,71 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0,905) e CVA (2,80 ± 0,90 vs. 2,92 ± 0,88 unidades, p = 0,952). Durante todo o estresse mental, os grupos HSC e Controle aumentaram significativamente o FSM (efeito tempo, p < 0,001) e CVA (efeito tempo, p < 0,001) em relação ao basal. Porém, essas variáveis foram significativamente menores no grupo HSC durante o primeiro (FSM: 3,66 ± 0,96 vs. 4,66 ± 1,61 mL/ min/100 mL, p = 0,018; CVA: 3,95 ± 1,08 vs. 5,19 ± 1,96 unidades, p = 0,010) e segundo (FSM: 3,55 ± 1,01 vs. 4,62 ± 2,27 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0,018; CVA: 3,75 ± 1,07 vs. 4,92 ± 2,37 unidades, p = 0,020) minutos do teste de estresse mental. Conclusão Mulheres com HSC possuem comportamento vasodilatador prejudicado durante o estresse mental. .


Objective To test the hypothesis that women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) have forearm vascular conductance (FVC) impaired during mental stress. Subjects and methods We evaluated 20 women with SH and 21 euthyroid (Control group), matched for age (p = 0.699) and body mass index (p = 0.462). Muscle blood flow (MBF) was assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography and blood pressure by Dixtal2023. Both variables were recorded simultaneously for 3 minutes of baseline followed by 3 minutes of mental stress. The FVC was calculated by dividing MBF by mean arterial pressure. Significant differences were assumed at p < 0.05. Results The SH group had higher concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (7.57 ± 3.17 vs. 2.10 ± 0,88 mU/L, p < 0.001). At baseline, the SH and control groups were similar for MBF (2.50 ± 0.79 vs. 2.55 ± 0,71 mL/ min/100 mL, p = 0.905, respectively) and FVC (2.80 ± 0.90 vs. 2.92 ± 0.88 units, p = 0.952, respectively). Throughout the mental stress test the SH and Control groups increased the MBF (time effect, p < 0.001) and FVC (time effect, p < 0.001) compared to baseline protocol. However, these variables were lower in SH group during the first (MBF: 3.66 ± 0.96 vs. 4.66 ± 1,61 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.018, FVC: 3.95 ± 1.08 vs. 5.19 ± 1,96 units, p = 0.010) and second (MBF: 3.55 ± 1.01 vs. 4.62 ± 2,27 mL/min/100 ml, p = 0.018; FVC: 3.75 ± 1.07 vs. 4.92 ± 2,37 units, p = 0.020) minutes of mental stress test. Conclusion Women with SH have reduced muscle vasodilatatory response during mental stress. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Vasodilation/physiology , Body Mass Index , Blood Pressure/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Forearm , Hemodynamics , Heart Rate/physiology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(9): 738-745, 09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719313

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is one of the most potent angiogenic growth factors. It improves angiogenesis and tissue perfusion in ischemic skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ischemic postconditioning is effective for salvaging ischemic skeletal muscle resulting from limb ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that the mechanism involves expression of HIF-1α. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=36 each): sham-operated (group S), hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (group IR), and ischemic postconditioning (group IPO). Each group was divided into subgroups (n=6) according to reperfusion time: immediate (0 h, T0), 1 h (T1), 3 h (T3), 6 h (T6), 12 h (T12), and 24 h (T24). In the IPO group, three cycles of 30-s reperfusion and 30-s femoral aortic reocclusion were carried out before reperfusion. At all reperfusion times (T0-T24), serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations, were measured in rats after they were killed. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess the skeletal muscle damage and HIF-1α expression in skeletal muscle ischemia. In groups IR and IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were all significantly increased compared to group S, and HIF-1α expression was up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In group IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were significantly decreased, IL-10 concentration was increased, HlF-1α expression was down-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the pathological changes were reduced compared to group IR. The present study suggests that ischemic postconditioning can reduce skeletal muscle damage caused by limb ischemia-reperfusion and that its mechanisms may be related to the involvement of HlF-1α in the limb ischemia-reperfusion injury-triggered inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Extremities/blood supply , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Ischemic Postconditioning , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Blotting, Western , Creatine Kinase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , /blood , /blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Up-Regulation
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(1): 136-140, Mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708736

ABSTRACT

The arterial supply to the rotator cuff muscles is generally provided by the subscapular, circumflex scapular, posterior circumflex humeral and suprascapular arteries. This study involved the bilateral dissection of the scapulohumeral region of 31 adult and 19 fetal cadaveric specimens. The subscapularis muscle was supplied by the subscapular, suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were supplied by the suprascapular artery. The infraspinatus and teres minor muscles were found to be supplied by the circumflex scapular artery. In addition to the branches of these parent arteries, the rotator cuff muscles were found to be supplied by the dorsal scapular, lateral thoracic, thoracodorsal and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. The variations in the arterial supply to the rotator cuff muscles recorded in this study are unique and were not described in the literature reviewed. Due to the increased frequency of operative procedures in the scapulohumeral region, the knowledge of variations in the arterial supply to the rotator cuff muscles may be of practical importance to surgeons and radiologists.


El suministro arterial a los músculos del manguito rotador generalmente es proporcionado por las arterias subescapular, circunfleja escapular, circunfleja humeral posterior y supraescapular. Se realizó la disección bilateral de la región escapulo humeral de 31 especímenes cadavéricos adultos y 19 fetos. El músculo subescapular estaba irrigado por las arterias subescapular, supraescapular y circunfleja escapular. Por otra parte, la arteria supraescapular irrigaba a los músculos supra e infraespinoso. Observamos que los músculos infraespinoso y redondo menor fueron irrigados por la arteria circunfleja escapular. Además de las arterias de origen y sus ramas, observamos que los músculos del manguito rotador son irrigados por la arteria escapular dorsal y las arterias torácica lateral, toracodorsal y circunfleja humeral posterior. Las variaciones en la irrigación de los músculos del manguito rotador registrados en este estudio son únicos y no existe una descripción referente a ellos en la literatura revisada. Debido a la mayor frecuencia de los procedimientos quirúrgicos en la región escápulohumeral, el conocimiento de las variaciones de la irrigación de los músculos del manguito rotador puede ser de importancia práctica para cirujanos y radiólogos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Rotator Cuff/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Cadaver , Anatomic Variation
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.3): 17-21, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of ischemic preconditioning and Cilostazol on muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to muscle ischemic and reperfusion injury (4h of the left common iliac artery occlusion followed by 1h of reperfusion). Five experimental groups were constituted: Control group (n=4); Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR, n=5); Ischemic preconditioning group (IP, n=6); Ischemia-Reperfusion group treated with cilostazol (IRCi, n=6) and Ischemic preconditioning group treated with cilostazol (IPCi, n=6). At the end, left gracile muscle was removed and embedded in paraffin. Histopathology, neutrophil infiltration, myocyte necrosis and edema were analyzed. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, IR group showed increased neutrophil infiltration, severe necrosis and edema. There was significant difference between myocytes necrosis of IR group and IP group. There was no difference between the histopathological changes between IP, IRCi and IPCi groups. CONCLUSIONS: The model of IR caused severe muscle injury in the rat hind limb and ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect, reducing myocyte necrosis, however, treatment with cilostazol and also the association between cilostazol and preconditioning has no protective effect on the skeletal muscle subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ischemia/therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Hindlimb , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning/adverse effects , Models, Animal , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , /pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(6): 441-446, June 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675579

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effects of ischemic pre and postconditioning, as well as the association of both methods, in skeletal muscle injury produced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats. METHODS: An experimental study was designed using 40 Wistar rats divided in four groups (n=10): Control - rats submitted to ischemia for 240 minutes (min) and reperfusion for 60 min; Ischemic preconditioning (Pre) - animals submitted to three cycles of clamping and releasing the aorta for five min before being submitted to the ischemia/reperfusion procedure; Ischemic postconditioning (Post) - rats submitted to three cycles of clamping and releasing the aorta for one min after the 240-minute ischemic phase; Ischemic pre and postconditioning (Pre-post) - animals submitted to the same procedures of Pre and Post groups. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK); and muscular levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glycogen. RESULTS: AST levels were significantly higher in Pre and Pre-post groups (P<.01). There were no differences in LDH and CPK levels. Muscular MDA levels were similar. Glycogen levels were significantly higher in Pre and Pre-post groups (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both preconditioning and its association with postconditioning had a protective effect by avoiding glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle in rats submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. Association of pre and postconditioning did not show advantage compared to preconditioning alone. Postconditioning alone did not show protective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Creatine Kinase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Glycogen/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Time Factors
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(4): 434-439, June-August/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tramadol has a protective effect against lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar male rats were allocated to one of two groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemia-reperfusion + tramadol (IR+T). The animals were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of ketamine and xylazine (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively). All of the animals underwent 2-h ischemia by occlusion of the femoral artery and 24-h reperfusion. Prior to the occlusion of the femoral artery, 250 IU heparin were administered via the jugular vein in order to prevent clotting. The rats in the IR+T group were treated with tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) immediately before reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, the animals were euthanized with pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), the lungs were carefully removed, and specimens were properly prepared for histopathological and biochemical studies. RESULTS: Myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the IR+T group (p = 0.001 for both). Histological abnormalities, such as intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, were significantly more common in the IR group than in the IR+T group. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that tramadol prevents lung tissue injury after skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. .


OBJETIVO: Investigar se o tramadol tem um efeito protetor contra a lesão pulmonar induzida por isquemia-reperfusão de músculo esquelético. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo isquemia-reperfusão (IR) e grupo isquemia-reperfusão + tramadol (IR+T). Os animais foram anestesiados com cetamina e xilazina (i.m., 50 mg/kg e 10 mg/kg, respectivamente). Todos os animais foram submetidos a 2 h de isquemia por oclusão da artéria femoral e 24 h de reperfusão. Antes da oclusão da artéria femoral, foram administrados 250 UI de heparina pela veia jugular para impedir a coagulação. Os ratos do grupo IR+T foram tratados com tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) imediatamente antes da reperfusão. Após o período de reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados com pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), os pulmões foram removidos cuidadosamente, e os espécimes foram preparados adequadamente para estudos histopatológicos e bioquímicos. RESULTADOS: A atividade de mieloperoxidase e os níveis de óxido nítrico foram significativamente maiores no grupo IR que no grupo IR+T (p = 0,001 para ambos). Anormalidades histológicas, como edema intra-alveolar, hemorragia intra-alveolar e infiltração neutrofílica, foram significativamente mais frequentes no grupo IR que no grupo IR+T. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nos resultados histológicos e bioquímicos ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Femoral Artery , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/pathology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Reperfusion Injury/pathology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(4): 282-287, Apr. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670254

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC) on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: vehicle-treated control (CTG), sildenafil citrate-treated (SCG), and sham group (SG). CTG and SCG had femoral artery occluded for 6 hours. Saline or 1 mg/kg of SC was given 5.5 hours after occlusion. SG had a similar procedure without artery occlusion. Soleus muscle samples were acquired 4 or 24h after the reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry caspase-3 analysis was used to estimate apoptosis using the apoptotic ratio (computed as positive/negative cells). Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Eighteen animals were included in the 4h reperfusion groups and 21 animals in the 24h reperfusion groups. The mean apoptotic ratio was 0.18±0.1 for the total cohort; 0.14±0.06 for the 4h reperfusion groups and 0.19±0.08 for the 24h groups (p<0.05). The SCG had lower caspase-3 ratio compared to the control groups at the 24h reperfusion time point (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate administration after the onset of the ischemic injury reduces IR-induced cellular damage in skeletal muscle in this rat hindlimb ischemia model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Disease Models, Animal , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , /pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Sulfones/pharmacology , /analysis , Extremities/pathology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
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