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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 98-102, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156116

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction When a person is in a standing position, the plantar flexor muscles are involved in most static and dynamic body movements. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the trial to trial and factorial reliability of measuring the contractile characteristics of PF muscles using a simple novel field test. Methods The sample consisted of 452 healthy subjects, 120 male and 332 female. The research was conducted by means of the trial to trial testing method, using isometric dynamometry performed in field conditions. ANOVA was used to estimate the differences among the trials, Cronbach's alpha and interclass correlation to estimate the correlations among the trials, and principal component analysis to evaluate the contribution of each trial to overall variability. Results The main findings of this study are that trials differed significantly (p<0.000) for maximal force (Fmax) and maximal rate of force development (RFDmax), indicating that the three procedural trials were necessary. The trials were highly correlated (Fmax, RFDmax, r>0.9), proving that measuring was reliable, and the factorial analysis separated the second and third trials, the second trial accounting for most of the total variability. Conclusions The simple novel field test for the measurement of plantar flexor contractile characteristics recommended by this study proved to be as highly reliable as laboratory testing, but was easy to perform in conditions outside of scientific or diagnostic institutions, which greatly facilitates the work of scientists, coaches and professionals. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a diagnostics test.


RESUMO Introdução Quando uma pessoa está em pé, os músculos flexores plantares são envolvidos na maioria dos movimentos corporais estáticos e dinâmicos. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a confiabilidade teste-reteste e fatorial da mensuração das características contráteis dos músculos plantares, usando um novo teste de campo simples. Métodos A amostra consistiu em 452 indivíduos saudáveis, 120 homens e 332 mulheres. O estudo foi realizado pelo método de teste-reteste, com dinamometria isométrica conduzida em condições de campo. Empregou-se a ANOVA para estimar a diferença entre os testes o alfa de Cronbach e a correlação interclasse para estimar a correlação entre os testes e análise de componentes principais , para avaliar a contribuição de cada teste para a variabilidade global. Resultados Os principais achados deste estudo são que os testes diferiram significativamente (p < 0,000) para a força máxima (Fmáx) e a taxa máxima de desenvolvimento de força (TDFmáx), indicando que os três testes de procedimento foram necessários. Os testes foram altamente correlacionados (Fmáx, TDFmáx, r > 0,9), provando que a medição era confiável, e a análise fatorial separou o segundo e o terceiro testes, sendo que o segundo teste apresentou a maior parte da variabilidade total. Conclusões O novo teste de campo simples para medição das características contráteis dos flexores plantares recomendado por este estudo provou ser tão confiável quanto os testes de laboratório e, ao mesmo tempo, mais fácil de realizar fora das instituições científicas ou de diagnóstico, o que facilita muito o trabalho de cientistas, treinadores e profissionais. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos Diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Introducción Cuando una persona está de pie, los músculos flexores plantares son involucrados en la mayoría de los movimientos corporales estáticos y dinámicos. Objetivos El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la confiabilidad test-retest y factorial de la medición de las características contráctiles de los músculos plantares, usando un nuevo test de campo simple. Métodos La muestra consistió en 452 individuos saludables, 120 hombres y 332 mujeres. El estudio fue realizado a través del método de test-retest, con dinamometría isométrica conducida en condiciones de campo. Se empleó ANOVA para estimar la diferencia entre los tests, alpha de Crombach y la correlación interclase para estimar la correlación entre los tests y el análisis de componentes principales, para evaluar la contribución de cada test para la variabilidad global. Resultados Los principales hallazgos de este estudio son que los tests difirieron significativamente (p<0,000) para la fuerza máxima (Fmáx) y la tasa máxima de desarrollo de fuerza (TDFmáx) indicando que los tres tests de procedimiento fueron necesarios. Los tests fueron altamente correlacionados (Fmáx, TDFmáx, r>0,9) probando que la medición era confiable, y el análisis factorial separó el segundo y tercer test, siendo que el segundo test presentó la mayor parte de variabilidad total. Conclusiones El nuevo test de campo simple para medición de las características contráctiles de los flexores plantares recomendado por este estudio probó ser tan confiable como los tests de laboratorio y, al mismo tiempo, más fácil de realizar fuera de las instituciones científicas o de diagnóstico, lo que facilita mucho el trabajo de científicos, entrenadores y profesionales. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios diagnósticos - Investigación de un examen para diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 60-64, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156109

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction The squat is an exercise that is widely used for the development of strength in sports. However, considering that not all sports gestures are vertical, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of propulsive force stimuli applied in different planes. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine the influence of maximum isometric force (MIF) exerted on starting blocks over performance in 5, 10 and 20-meter sprints. Methods Seven high-level male sprinters (mean age ± SD = 28 ± 5.77 years) participated in this study. The variables were: a) MIF in squats and on starting blocks (measured using a functional electromechanical dynamometer [FEMD]), b) time in 5, 10 and 20-m sprints and c) jump height (measured by the squat jump test). For data analysis, a Pearson correlation was performed between the different variables. The criteria for interpreting the strength of the r coefficients were as follows: trivial (<0.1), small (0.1−0.3), moderate (0.3−0.5), high (0.5−0.7), very high (0.7−0.9), or practically perfect (>0.9). The level of significance was p < 0.05. Results There was very high correlation between MIF exerted on starting blocks and performance in the first meters of the sprint (5-m: r = -0.84, p = 0.01). However, there was small correlation between MIF in squats and performance in the first meters of the sprint (5-m: r = -0.22, p < 0.62). Conclusion The MIF applied on starting blocks correlates very high with time in the first meters of the sprint in high-level athletes. In addition, the use of the FEMD provides a wide range of possibilities for evaluation and development of strength with a controlled natural movement. Level of evidence IV; Prognostic Studies - Case series.


RESUMO Introdução O agachamento é um exercício amplamente utilizado para o desenvolvimento de força nos esportes. No entanto, considerando que nem todos os gestos esportivos são verticais, é importante investigar a eficácia dos estímulos de força propulsiva em diferentes planos. Objetivo O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a influência da força isométrica máxima (FIM) exercida em os blocos de largada sobre o desempenho em sprints de 5, 10 e 20 metros. Métodos Sete velocistas de alto nível do sexo masculino (média ± DP = 28,0 ± 5,77 anos) fizeram parte deste estudo. As variáveis foram: a) FIM no agachamento e nos blocos de largada (avaliados com um dinamômetro eletromecânico funcional (DEF)), b) tempo de sprints de 5, 10 e 20 metros e c) altura do salto (medida pelo teste de squat jump). Para análise dos dados, foi usada a correlação de Pearson entre as diferentes variáveis. Os critérios para interpretar o coeficiente r foi: nulo (< 0,1), pequeno (0,1 a 0,3), moderado (0,3 a 0,5), alto (0,5 a 0,7), muito alto (0,7 a 0,9) ou praticamente perfeito (> 0,9). O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. Resultados Houve correlação muito alta entre a FIM exercida nos blocos de largada e o desempenho nos primeiros metros do sprint (5-m: r = -0,84, p = 0,01). No entanto, a correlação entre o agachamento da FIM e os primeiros metros de sprint foi pequena (5-m: r = -0,22, p < 0,62). Conclusão A FIM aplicada aos blocos de largada teve uma correlação muito alto com o tempo nos primeiros metros de sprint em atletas de alto nível. Além disso, o uso de um DEF oferece uma ampla gama de possibilidades para avaliar e desenvolver força com um movimento natural controlado. Nível de evidência IV; Estudos Prognósticos - Série de casos.


RESUMEN Introducción La sentadilla es un ejercicio ampliamente usado para el desarrollo de fuerza en los deportes. Sin embargo, considerando que no todos los gestos deportivos son verticales, es importante investigar la eficacia de los estímulos de fuerza propulsiva en diferentes planos. Objetivo El principal objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia de la fuerza isométrica máxima (FIM) ejercida en los bloques de salida sobre el rendimiento en sprints de 5, 10 y 20 metros. Métodos Siete velocistas de alto nivel del sexo masculino (promedio ± SD = 28,0 ± 5,7 años) formaron parte de este estudio. Las variables fueron: a) FIM en la sentadilla y en los bloques de salida (evaluados con un dinamómetro electromecánico funcional [DEF]) b) tiempo de sprints de 5, 10 y 20-metros y c) altura del salto (medida a través del test de squat jump). Para el análisis de los datos se usó la correlación de Pearson entre las diferentes variables. Los criterios para interpretar el coeficiente r fueron: nulo (<0,1), pequeño (0,1 a 0,3), moderado (0,3 a 0,5), alto (0,5 a 0,7), muy alto (0,7 a 0,9) o prácticamente perfecto (>0,9). El nivel de significancia fue p < 0,05. Resultados Hubo correlación muy alta entre la FIM ejercida en los bloques de salida y el rendimiento en los primeros metros del sprint (5-m: r = -0,84, p = 0,01). Sin embargo, la correlación entre la FIM en sentadilla y los primeros metros de sprint fue pequeña (5-m: r = -0,22, p < 0,62). Conclusión La FIM aplicada a los bloques de salida tuvo una correlación muy alta con el tiempo en los primeros metros de sprint en atletas de alto nivel. Además, el uso de un DEF ofrece una amplia gama de posibilidades para evaluar y desarrollar fuerza con un movimiento natural controlado. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudios pronósticos: Serie de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Track and Field , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1039-1046, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124894

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of stretching exercise on soleus muscle histomorphology and histomorphometry of young and aged rats. Thirty-eight female rats were divided into young control group (YCG, n=10;274±50 g); young stretching group (YSG, n=8;274±12 g); aged control group (ACG, n=10;335±39 g); and aged stretching group (ASG, n=10;321±32g). A mechanical apparatus was used to stretch muscle in 4 repetitions, 60 s each, 30 s interval between repetitions in each session, 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last stretching session, soleus muscle was removed for micromorphology and immunostaining analysis. Data analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, or Kruskal-Wallis tests for parametric and nonparametric, respectively (p≤0.05). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (MFCSA) of ACG was lower (18 %) compared to the YCG. Stretching increased MFCSA comparing YSG to YCG (5,681.15± 1,943.61 µm2 vs 5,119.84±1,857.73 µm2, p=0.00), but decreased comparing ASG to ACG (3,919.54± 1,694.65 µm2 vs 4,172.82±1,446.08 µm2, p=0.00). More serial sarcomere numbers were found in the YSG than YCG (12,062.91±1,564.68 vs 10,070.39±1,072.38, p=0.03). Collagen I and collagen III were higher in YSG than ASG (7.44±7.18 % vs 0.07±0.09 %, p=0.04) and (14.37 %± 9.54 % vs 5.51 %±5.52 %, p=0.00), respectively. TNF-a was greater in ASG than YSG (43.42 %±40.19 % vs 1.72 ± 2.02 %, p=0.00). Epimysium was larger in the YSG compared to YCG (201.83±132.07 % vs 181.09±147.04 %, p=0.00). After 3-week stretching the soleus muscles from aged rats were smaller than their younger counter-parts. Interestingly, while stretching appeared to positively affect young soleus muscle, the opposite was detected in the muscle of the aged rats.


El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos crónicos del ejercicio de estiramiento sobre la histomorfología e histomorfometría del músculo sóleo de ratas jóvenes y envejecidas. Se dividieron 38 ratas hembras en un grupo control joven (YCG, n = 10; 274 ± 50 g); grupo de estiramiento joven (YSG, n = 8; 274 ± 12 g); grupo control de edad (ACG, n = 10; 335 ± 39 g); y grupo estiramiento envejecido (ASG, n = 10; 321 ± 32 g). Se usó un aparato mecánico para estirar el músculo en 4 repeticiones, 60 s cada una, intervalo de 30 s entre repeticiones en cada sesión, 3 veces por semana, durante 3 semanas. Veinticuatro horas después de la última sesión de estiramiento, se extrajo el músculo sóleo para análisis de micromorfología e inmunotinción. Los análisis de datos se realizaron con pruebas ANOVA de una vía, Tukey post-hoc o Kruskal-Wallis para pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas, respectivamente (p≤0,05). El área de la sección transversal de fibra muscular (MFCSA) de GCE fue menor (18 %) en comparación con el GCJ. El estiramiento aumentó ASTFM comparando GEJ con GCJ (5.681,15 ± 1.943,61 µm2 vs 5.119,84 ± 1.857,73 µm2, p = 0,00), pero disminuyó comparando GEE con GCE (3.919,54 ± 1.694,65 µm2 vs 4.172,82 ± 1.446,08 µm2, p = 0,00). Se encontraron más sarcómeros en serie en el GEJ que en el GCJ (12.062,91 ± 1.564,68 vs 10.070,39 ± 1,072.38, p = 0,03). El colágeno I y el colágeno III fueron más numerosos en GEJ que en GEE (7,44 ± 7.18 % vs 0,07 ± 0,09 %, p = 0,04) y (14,37 % ± 9,54 % vs 5,51 % ± 5,52 %, p = 0,00), respectivamente. TNF-α fue mayor en GEE que GEJ (43,42 % ± 40,19 % vs 1,72 ± 2,02 %, p = 0,00). El epimisio fue mayor en el GEJ en comparación con el GCJ (201,83 ± 132,07 % vs 181,09 ± 147,04 %, p = 0,00). Después de 3 semanas de estiramiento, los músculos sóleo de las ratas envejecidas eran más pequeños que sus contrapartes más jóvenes. Curiosamente, si bien el estiramiento pareció afectar positivamente el músculo sóleo joven, se detectó lo contrario en el músculo de las ratas envejecidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises , Adaptation, Physiological , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar
4.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 16-21, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090412

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a formação do arco longitudinal do pé interfere na distribuição da pressão plantar e na flexibilidade dos músculos posteriores da coxa. O método de estudo foi transversal e as impressões plantares foram obtidas usando o plantígrafo e analisadas segundo o método Viladot. A distribuição plantar e a flexibilidade foram avaliadas pela baropodometria e pelo banco de Wells, respectivamente. Foi observado que crianças com pés cavos apresentam maior flexibilidade quando comparadas às que têm o pé normal (p=0,02); e também que pés cavos apresentam maior pressão, ou seja, maior sobrecarga em calcâneo quando comparados àqueles com o arco plantar normal (p=0,02 membro inferior direito e p=0,03 membro inferior esquerdo). A avaliação do arco longitudinal medial mostra que crianças com pés cavos apresentam maior flexibilidade dos músculos posteriores de membro inferior. Os pés cavos também estão associados com maior descarga de peso em região de calcâneo.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la formación del arco longitudinal del pie interfiere con la distribución de la presión plantar y la flexibilidad de los músculos posteriores del muslo. El método de estudio fue transversal y las huellas plantar se obtuvieron utilizando el plantigraph y se analizaron según el método de Viladot. La distribución plantar y la flexibilidad se evaluaron mediante baropodometría y el banco de Wells, respectivamente. Se observó que los niños con pies huecos tienen mayor flexibilidad en comparación con aquellos con pies normales (p=0,02); y también que los pies huecos tienen una mayor presión, es decir, una mayor sobrecarga del talón en comparación con aquellos con arco plantar normal (p=0,02 miembro inferior derecho y p=0,03 miembro inferior izquierdo). La evaluación del arco longitudinal medial muestra que los niños con pies huecos tienen una mayor flexibilidad en los músculos posteriores de la extremidad inferior. Los pies huecos también están asociados con una mayor descarga de peso en la región del talón.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether the formation of the longitudinal arch of the foot interferes with the distribution of plantar pressure and the pliability of the posterior thigh muscles. Methodology: a cross-sectional study and the footprints were obtained using the footprinting mat and analyzed according to the Viladot method. Plantar distribution and pliability were assessed by baropodometry and Wells' bank, respectively. Results: It was observed that children with cavus feet present greater pliability when compared to those with normal feet (p=0.02). Also, the cavus feet exhibit higher pressure, that is, a greater heel overload compared to those with normal plantar arch (p=0.02 lower right limb and p=0.03 lower left limb). Conclusions: The evaluation of the medial longitudinal arch shows that children with cavus feet have greater pliability of the lower limb posterior muscles. The cavus feet are also associated with higher pressure in the calcaneal region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Thigh/physiology , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Foot/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Body Height , Body Weights and Measures , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Weight-Bearing/physiology , Postural Balance/physiology , Talipes Cavus/physiopathology
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 358-368, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To establish percentile curves for measures and indices of body composition by age and sex and compare them with data from other ethnic groups. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study with adults aged 20-59 years (n = 689). Percentile curves adjusted by a third degree polynomial function were constructed for skeletal mass index (SMI), fat mass index, body fat, and load-capacity metabolic indices (LCMI) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results SMIweight and SMIBMI showed decline from the third decade of life in both sexes, whereas SMIheight was not able to identify lean mass loss over the ages studied. There was a slight drop at the end of the fifth decade (50-59 years) in men. Among Americans and Chinese, the 50th percentile curve of SMIheight showed an earlier decline. The estimates of adiposity and LCMI curves peaked between 40-49 years and Americans and Chinese maintained an upward curve throughout adulthood. Conclusion The data and curves showed that the SMI adjusted for BMI and body weight were more adequate in detecting the decline of lean mass in adults due to aging. In contrast, SMIheight had a positive correlation with age and its curve increased throughout the evaluated age groups. The results contribute to the evaluation to the nutritional status of adults and to the prevention and treatment of outcomes related to adiposity and deficit lean mass.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Reference Values , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight , Brazil , Ethnic Groups , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Adiposity/physiology , Growth Charts
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 75-81, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004737

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Sports participation plays an important role in bone gain during childhood and adolescence. The aim here was to identify sex-related determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) differences between male and female adolescents, with emphasis on the role of sports participation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study conducted in a public university in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. METHODS: The sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 11-17 years, of both sexes, who were matched according to sex, age and sports participation. BMD was the main outcome, while muscle mass, sports participation, calendar age and biological maturation were treated as covariates. Participants were followed up after nine months. RESULTS: At baseline, BMD values were similar between the sexes. However, adjustment for covariates showed that BMD was higher among girls at all sites, with a contribution from lean soft tissue (LST) in the model (partial eta-squared, ES-r = 0.619 in upper limbs; 0.643 in lower limbs; 0.699 in spine; and 0.599 in whole body). Sports participation only explained the upper-limb variance (ES-r = 0.99). At the follow-up, the results resembled the baseline except in the lower limbs (P = 0.109), in which BMD was similar between the groups. BMD gain over time was similar between girls and boys in all segments, and baseline LST affected upper-limb and whole-body BMD accrual (ES-r = 0.396 and 0.107, respectively). CONCLUSION: Whole-body and specific-site BMD differed between baseline and follow-up. However,BMD accrual was similar between the sexes, given that muscle mass constituted the most relevant determinant of the difference between them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Sports/physiology , Bone Density/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Absorptiometry, Photon , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Adolescent Development/physiology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900304, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989064

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate if the type of electrode (needle vs. surface) affects the electromyoneurography parameters in rats. Methods: Twenty male rats were anesthetized, then compound muscle action potential were recorded using a Neuropack S1 MEB- 9400©. All animals were submitted to two electroneuromyography analysis: first with surface electrode and then by needle electrode. We evaluated the latency, amplitude, duration and area of the negative peak of the gastrocnemius and cranial tibial muscles. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in the mean of duration, latency, amplitude or area of the negative peak in gastrocnemius and cranial tibial muscles. Conclusion: The type of electrode does not affect the electroneuromyography parameters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Action Potentials/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Electrodes , Electromyography/instrumentation , Neural Conduction/physiology , Reaction Time , Rats, Wistar
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7830, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974266

ABSTRACT

Exercise can prevent and improve the pathophysiology of diseases and promote healthy aging. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate the beneficial effects of exercise may lead to the development of new strategies to enhance quality of life and to counteract chronic diseases. Voluntary wheel running is an interesting model to study the effects of exercise in mice. Compared to forced treadmill exercise, voluntary wheel running presents several advantages such as: 1) running pattern is similar to natural running behavior of mice; 2) it is performed under non-stressed conditions, according to the rhythmicity of the animal; 3) it does not require direct interference from the researcher, and can be easily applied in long-term studies. Mice run spontaneously when given access to running wheels, for a total distance of ∼4 to 20 km per day and a total activity time of ∼3 to 7 hours a day. Hence, voluntary wheel running can result in robust endurance-like adaptation in skeletal and cardiac muscles and protect from sarcopenia. However, due to the lack of control over exercise parameters in voluntary exercise models, it is important for the researcher to understand the patterns and variability of wheel running in mice, as well as the factors that can affect voluntary running activity. Overall, voluntary wheel running in mice is a very interesting approach to study the chronic adaptation to exercise, analyze the effects of exercise, and test exercise capacity in different experimental models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/psychology , Running/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121941

ABSTRACT

Con el propósito de discutir los efectos del entrenamiento concurrente sobre las características del músculo esquelético mediadas por la plasticidad muscular, así como los aspectos relacionados con la prescripción de este tipo de ejercicio, se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema. Se utilizaron catorce referencias obtenidas de las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO y Schoolar Google a través de las siguientes palabras clave: "entrenamiento concurrente, ejercicio concurrente, plasticidad muscular, ejercicio f ísico". La plasticidad muscular puede reducir las adaptaciones inducidas por las modalidades que conforman el entrenamiento concurrente. Por lo tanto, al planificar el programa de entrenamiento, es necesario observar estrategias que busquen minimizar este efecto.


In order to discuss the effects of concurrent training on skeletal muscle characteristics mediated by muscle plasticity, as well as aspects related to the prescription of this type of exercise, a review of the literature on the subject was made. Fourteen references obtained f rom the PubMed, SciELO and Schoolar Google databases following the keywords "concurrent training, concurrent exercise, muscular plasticity, physical exercise" were used. Muscle plasticity can reduce the adaptations induced by the modalities that make up concurrent training. Therefore, when planning the training program, it is necessary to observe strategies that seek to minimize this effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Adaptation, Physiological
11.
Clinics ; 74: e629, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: How much force is needed to stretch skeletal muscle is still unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a device that mechanically stretches rat muscle to compare the force (N) required to stretch the soleus muscle of young and aged rats and the tibio-tarsal angle joint at neutral and stretched positions. METHODS: Twelve female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a young group (YG, n=6, 311±11 g) of rats 3 months old and an aged group (AG, n=6, 351±43 g) of rats 15 months old. The left soleus muscle was mechanically held in full dorsal flexion and submitted to mechanical passive stretching: 1 bout of 10 repetitions, each repetition lasted 60 seconds with an interval of 45 seconds between repetitions, performed once a day, twice a week, for 1 week. The force required during stretching was measured by a load cell, and the tibio-tarsal angle joint was measured by photometry. RESULTS: The load cell calibration showed excellent reliability, as confirmed by the intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.93. A decrease in delta force was found in the comparison between YG and AG (0.11±0.03 N vs 0.08±0.02 N, p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). There was no difference between the YG and the AG in the tibio-tarsal angle at resting position (87.1±3.8° vs 87.1±3.5°, p=0.35, Kruskal Wallis) and at the end of the stretching protocol (43.9±4.4° vs 42.6±3.4°, p=0.57, Kruskal Wallis). CONCLUSION: The device presented in this study is able to monitor the force necessary to stretch hindlimb rat muscles. Aged rats required less force than young rats to stretch the soleus muscle, and there was no difference regarding the tibio-tarsal angle between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena , Body Weight , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
12.
Clinics ; 74: e1334, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of strength training (ST) combined with whole-body electrical stimulation (EMS) on morphofunctional adaptations in active individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly distributed into the following groups: an untrained control (UN) group (n=16), an ST group (n=21) or an ST combined with EMS (ST+EMS) group (n=21). Both intervention groups (the ST and ST+EMS groups) performed 3 exercises (biceps curl, back squats and high-pulley tricep extensions) twice a week for 8 weeks. The subjects performed 3 sets of 8 to 12 maximum repetitions (MRs) with a 90-second rest duration between sets. The ST+EMS group performed the resistance training exercises wearing a whole-body suit that provided electrical stimulation at frequencies between 80-85 Hz, with a continuously bipolar impulse duration and pulse breadth of 350 µs. The intensity for each muscle group was controlled by Borg's category ratio (CR)-10 scale; the intensity started at 5-6 and eventually reached 7-8. One-repetition maximum strength (1RM) and muscle thickness (MT) were measured before and after the training intervention. MT was evaluated in the biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), and vastus lateralis (VL). RESULTS: No differences (p>0.05) were found between the ST and ST+EMS groups. Improvements (p<0.05) in the absolute values of the morphofunctional parameters after the training protocol were observed. Significant differences were found between both the intervention groups and the UN group (p<0.05). The ST+EMS group presented high percentage changes (p<0.05) in muscular strength for the 1RMsquat (43.2%, ES=1.64) and the MT of the BB (21.6%, ES=1.21) compared to the ST (20.5%, ES=1.43, 11.9%, ES=0.77) group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the combination of ST+EMS may promote alterations in muscle strength and MT in healthy active subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Random Allocation
13.
Clinics ; 74: e1158, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Kinesio tape (KT) is a visible adhesive restorative tape that has typically been utilized for injury prevention, recovery, and even performance improvement, but limited studies have assessed the effect of KT on muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of KT on muscle performance in healthy young soccer players. METHODS: Between 25 March and 21 April 2017, sixteen healthy soccer players with a mean age of 20±2.17 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. All participants were selected from the college football team of Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University. The muscle performance of the players was evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer for the following three conditions: without tape, immediately after applying KT, and 8 hrs post-KT application while the tape remained on the same site. RESULTS: The differences in peak torque and total work among the three conditions were nonsignificant (p>0.05). Additionally, applying KT to the thigh muscles did not decrease or increase the performance of non injured healthy soccer players (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: KT does not lead to beneficial outcomes of muscle performance in healthy young soccer players.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Soccer/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletic Tape , Prospective Studies , Electromyography
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8551, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019565

ABSTRACT

Fibroblasts are a highly heterogeneous population of cells, being found in a large number of different tissues. These cells produce the extracellular matrix, which is essential to preserve structural integrity of connective tissues. Fibroblasts are frequently engaged in migration and remodeling, exerting traction forces in the extracellular matrix, which is crucial for matrix deposition and wound healing. In addition, previous studies performed on primary myoblasts suggest that the E3 ligase MuRF2 might function as a cytoskeleton adaptor. Here, we hypothesized that MuRF2 also plays a functional role in skeletal muscle fibroblasts. We found that skeletal muscle fibroblasts express MuRF2 and its siRNA knock-down promoted decreased fibroblast migration, cell border accumulation of polymerized actin, and down-regulation of the phospho-Akt expression. Our results indicated that MuRF2 was necessary to maintain the actin cytoskeleton functionality in skeletal muscle fibroblasts via Akt activity and exerted an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling in the skeletal muscle tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Fibroblasts/physiology , Muscle Proteins/physiology , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Muscle Proteins/metabolism
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(2): 133-139, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896425

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The aim of our study was to assess body composition status and its association with inflammatory profile and extent of intestinal damage in ulcerative colitis patients during clinical remission. Method: This is a cross-sectional study in which body composition data (phase angle [PhA], fat mass [FM], triceps skin fold thickness [TSFt], mid-arm circumference [MAC], mid-arm muscle circumference [MAMC], adductor pollicis muscle thickness [APMt]), inflammatory profile (C-reactive protein [CRP], a1-acid glycoprotein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and disease extent were recorded. Results: The mean age of the 59 patients was 48.1 years; 53.3% were women. Most patients were in clinical remission (94.9%) and 3.4% was malnourished according to body mass index. PhA was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers such as CRP (R=-0.59; p<0.001) and ESR (R=-0.46; p<0.001) and directly correlated with lean mass: MAMC (R=0.31; p=0.01) and APMt (R=0.47; p<0.001). Lean mass was inversely correlated with non-specific inflammation marker (APMt vs. ESR) and directly correlated with hemoglobin values (MAMC vs. hemoglobin). Logistic regression analysis revealed that body cell mass was associated with disease extent (OR 0.92; 95CI 0.87-0.97; p<0.01). Conclusion: PhA was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers and directly correlated with lean mass. Acute inflammatory markers were correlated with disease extent. Body cell mass was associated with disease extent.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a composição corporal de pacientes portadores de retocolite ulcerativa em remissão clínica e sua associação com o perfil inflamatório e a extensão da lesão intestinal. Método: Foi realizado um estudo transversal. Os dados relacionados à composição corporal foram ângulo de fase (AF), massa adiposa (MA), dobra cutânea triciptal (DCT), circunferência do braço (CB), circunferência muscular do braço (CMB) e espessura do músculo adutor do polegar (EMAP). O perfil inflamatório foi avaliado através da dosagem da proteína-C reativa (PCR), a1-glicoproteína ácida e velocidade de hemossedimentação (VHS) e a extensão da doença foi avaliada de acordo com o exame endoscópico. Resultados: Foram avaliados 59 pacientes. A média de idade foi de 48,1 anos e 53,3% eram mulheres. A maioria dos pacientes (94,9%) estava em remissão clínica da doença e 3,4% foi classificada como desnutrida de acordo com o IMC. Observou-se uma correlação inversa entre AF e marcadores inflamatórios como a PCR (R=-0,59; p<0,001) e VHS (R=-0,46; p<0,001) e uma correlação direta entre AF e os indicadores de massa magra como CMB (R=0,31; p=0,01) e EMAP (R=0,47; p<0,001). A massa magra foi inversamente correlacionada com marcadores inflamatórios não específicos, como a VHS, e diretamente correlacionada com a hemoglobina. De acordo com a análise de regressão logística, a massa celular corporal foi associada com extensão da lesão intestinal (OR 0,92; IC95% 0,87-0,97; p<0,01). Conclusão: AF foi inversamente correlacionado com marcadores inflamatórios e diretamente correlacionado com a massa magra. Marcadores inflamatórios de fase aguda e massa celular corporal foram correlacionados com extensão da lesão intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Severity of Illness Index , Body Composition/physiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/physiopathology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Hemoglobins/analysis , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Assessment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Middle Aged
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(1): 74-83, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Maintenance of orthostatism requires the interaction of autonomic and muscle responses for an efficient postural control, to minimize body motion and facilitate venous return in a common type of syncope called neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS). Muscle activity in standing position may be registered by surface electromyography, and body sway confirmed by displacement of the center of pressure (COP) on a force platform. These peripheral variables reflect the role of muscles in the maintenance of orthostatism during the active tilt test, which, compared with muscle activity during the passive test (head-up tilt test), enables the analyses of electromyographic activity of these muscles that may anticipate the clinical effects of CNS during these tests. Objective: to evaluate and compare the effects of a standardized protocol of active and passive tests for CNS diagnosis associated with the effects of Valsalva maneuver (VM). Methods: twenty-thee clinically stable female volunteers were recruited to undergo both tests. EMG electrodes were placed on muscles involved in postural maintenance. During the active test, subjects stood on a force platform. In addition to electromyography and the platform, heart rate was recorded during all tests. Three VMs were performed during the tests. Results: progressive peripheral changes were observed along both tests, more evidently during the active test. Conclusion: the active test detected changes in muscle and cardiovascular responses, which were exacerbated by the VM.


Resumo Fundamento: A manutenção do ortostatismo requer interação das respostas autonômicas e musculares para um controle postural eficiente e minimizar oscilações do corpo e facilitar o retorno venoso frente a um tipo comum de síncope chamada neurocardiogênica (SNC). A atividade da musculatura na posição de pé pode ser documentada por meio da eletromiografia de superfície (EMG) e as oscilações do corpo confirmadas pelo deslocamento do centro de pressão (CP) sobre uma plataforma de força. Estas variáveis periféricas mostram o papel muscular na manutenção do ortostatismo durante o tilt test ativo bem como esta atividade muscular ser comparada durante o teste passivo, Head-Up Tilt test, na tentativa de verificar alterações na atividade eletromiográfica destes músculos que podem antecipar os efeitos clínicos da SNC durante estes testes. Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar os efeitos de um protocolo padronizado para testes ativo e passivo de detecção da SNC associado ao efeito da manobra de valsalva (MV). Métodos: 23 voluntárias mulheres clinicamente saudáveis foram recrutadas para realizar ambos os testes. Os eletrodos da EMG foram posicionados em músculos associados com a manutenção postural, além de durante o teste ativo os sujeitos realizarem a postura ortostática sobre uma plataforma de força. Foi registrado além da EMG e da plataforma, a frequência cardíaca durante todo o teste. Três MV foram realizadas durante os testes. Resultados: Alterações periféricas foram verificadas de maneira progressiva ao longo dos testes, sendo mais evidente durante o teste ativo. Conclusão: o teste ativo verificou mudanças mais evidentes nas respostas musculares e cardiovasculares, amplificadas pela MV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tilt-Table Test/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Posture , Electromyography
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e5427, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889002

ABSTRACT

Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P<0.001). After the longer RET protocol, no difference was observed for body mass, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) morphology or skeletal muscle function (P>0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01). Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Fasting/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Weight/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Random Allocation , Eating/physiology
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 556-561, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887615

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The enzymatic activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) is key to protecting mineral corticoid receptors from cortisol and has been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) and acidity are thought to inhibit this enzyme in vitro. This study examines the effect of GFJ and intense exercise on 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity in vivo. Subjects and methods Eighteen subjects ingested GFJ or apple juice (CON) on separate days prior to reporting to the laboratory in a randomized order. Saliva (Sal) samples were obtained at baseline, 15 and 45 minutes post-treadmill stress test; Sal cortisone (E) and cortisol (F) levels were determined, and the Sal cortisone:cortisol (E:F) ratio was used as an index of 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity at rest and after intense muscular work. Results GFJ treatment decreased baseline 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity (44%) and Sal-E (28%) compared to CON (both, p < 0.05). Sal-E (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and Sal-F (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) were correlated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in GFJ-treated individuals. Treadmill stress significantly increased Sal-E and Sal-F but did not alter 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity regardless of treatment. When treatments were examined separately, CON 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity decreased by 36% (p < 0.05) from baseline to 15 post-treadmill exercise. Conclusion Our findings suggest that GFJ and intense muscular work decrease 11β-HSD-2 activity independently, and no additive effect was noted. The association between DBP and the levels of Sal-F and Sal-E during the GFJ trial should be interpreted cautiously and warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cortisone/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Citrus paradisi , Physical Exertion/physiology , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cross-Over Studies , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2/antagonists & inhibitors , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2/blood , Exercise Test , Heart Rate/physiology
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 472-478, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893007

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the changes in the muscle tissue of rats after application of growth hormone (GH) and performing a strength training protocol (ST). In total, 40 male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were used, divided into four groups: control (C), control and application of GH (GHC), strength training (T), and strength training with the application of GH (GHT). The physical training protocol (PT) was composed of four series of 10 jumps in water, 3x/week, with an overload of 50 % of body weight for four weeks. GH was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.2 IU/Kg to the GHC and GHT groups and saline (0.9 % sodium chloride) to the C and T groups. After four weeks of PT, the animals were euthanized and samples taken from the Soleus muscle. Histological sections were produced with a thickness of 5 mm and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR). The markings for determining the measurement of the smallest diameter of muscle fibers (MF) were carried out using the software (AuxioVisionRel 4.8-Carl Zeiss® and NIS-Elements D3.0-SP7-Nikon®). After obtaining the data, the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality was performed and then the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn post-test were used for analysis of MF and the Student t test for the analysis of intragroup body weights. All procedures adopted a 5 % significance value (p <0.05) and were performed using the software SPSS 22.0 for Windows®. It was observed that both the GH and PT were able to generate increased diameter of MF (C:31.81±6.35; GHC:36.88±6.38; T:38.38± 6.94; GHT:36.89±7.16). Moreover, when analyzing the type, a significant increase was found only in the fast twitch MF (C:33.78±7.78; GHC:37.80±6.03; T:38.53±6.94; GHT:37.98±7.65) when compared to the slow twitch (C:25.93±6.66; GHC:26.95±8.03; T:26.24±6.90; GHT:27.20±5.77).


El objetivo de la investigación fue observar las modificaciones en tejido muscular esquelético de ratas después de la aplicación de la hormona del crecimiento (GH) y posterior entrenamiento de fuerza muscular (EFM). Fueran utilizadas 40 ratas Wistar, con 60 días de edad, distribuidas en: control (C), control y aplicación de la hormona del crecimiento (GHC), entrenamiento de fuerza muscular (T), y entrenamiento de fuerza muscular y hormona del crecimiento (GHT). El protocolo de entrenamiento (PT) fue compuesto por cuatro series de diez saltos acuáticos, 3x/semana, con sobrecarga de 50 % del peso corporal, por cuatro semanas. El GH fue aplicado de forma intraperitoneal con una dosis de 0,2UI/kg en grupos GHC y GHT y solución salina (0,9% clorhidrato de sodio) en grupos C y T. Después de cuatro semanas del PT, los animales fueron sacrificados y retirados los músculos sóleos. Se realizaron cortes de 5 µm los que fueron coloreados con Hematoxilina y Eosina (HE), posteriormente fueron sometidos a reacción con nicotinamida adenina dinucleotide tetrazolium reductasa (NADH-TR). Después de la obtención de los datos, fue utilizado la prueba del Shapiro-Wilk para la verificación de la normalidad de los datos y se usó el ensayo de Kruskal-Wallis con pos verificación del Dunn para análisis de las fibras musculares (FM) y prueba t del Student para la análisis del peso corporal entre los grupos. Todos los procedimientos fueron establecidos con valor de la significancia de 5 % (p<0,05) y realizados con el software SPSS 22.0 for Windows®. Fue verificado que tanto lo GH cuanto lo PT fueran capaces de proporcionar el aumento en el diámetro de las FM (C:31.81±6.35; GHC:36.88±6.38; T:38.38±6.94; GHT:36.89±7.16). En relación al tipo de fibras se observó aumento significativo solamente en las FM de contracción rápida (C:33.78±7.78; GHC:37.80±6.03; T:38.53±6.94; GHT:37.98±7.65) cuando se comparó con las FM de contracción lenta (C:25.93±6.66; GHC:26.95±8.03; T:26.24±6.90; GHT:27.20±5.77).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Muscle Strength/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Resistance Training , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Physical Endurance , Rats, Wistar
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 637-643, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893033

ABSTRACT

To analyze the effects of concurrent training (CT) on the muscle fibers of Wistar rats submitted to standard and hypercaloric diets. In total, 40 rats were used, divided into 4 groups: Sedentary Group (GS); Exercise Group (GE), Obese Sedentary Group (OS) and Obese Exercise Group (OE). The animals performed a CT protocol consisting of: muscle strength training and aerobic training, carried out 3 times a week for 45 days. The smallest diameter of muscle fibers (MDF) was analyzed to evaluate muscle hypertrophy. It was observed that the OE group presented a significant decrease in MDF, compared to the OS group (OE=77.41 µm vs. OS=98.58 µm). In addition, the animals that performed CT demonstrated muscle hypertrophy (GE=74.39 µm vs. GS=72.13 µm). In conclusion, the CT with a standard diet promoted an increase in MDF while CT with a hypercaloric diet resulted in a decrease.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto del entrenamiento concurrente (EC) en las fibras musculares de ratas Wistar sometidas a dietas normal e hipercalórica. Fueron utilizadas 40 ratas Wistar, distribuidas en cuatro grupos de animales: grupo sedentario (GS); grupo ejercicio (GE); grupo obeso sedentario (OS) y grupo obeso ejercicio (OE). Los animales realizaron el protocolo del EC compuesto por entrenamiento de fuerza y aeróbico, tres veces en la semana y por 45 días. La media del menor diámetro (MMD) de las fibras musculares fue medida para verificar la hipertrofia muscular. Fue observado que el grupo OE presentó una significante diminución del MMD comparado al grupo OS (OE=77.41 µm vs. OS=98.58 µm). Además, los animales que fueron sometidos al protocolo del EC demostraron hipertrofia muscular (GE=74.39 µm vs. GS=72.13 µm). Se puede concluir que el protocolo del EC con dieta normal tiene como resultado un aumento del MMD, mientras que el EC con dieta hipercalórica tiene como resultado la diminución del MMD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diet, High-Fat , Exercise/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Rats, Wistar
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