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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.

Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 142-146, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280056


ABSTRACT Introduction: Currently there is a lack of clarity around the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to analyze the effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the secondary structures of skeletal muscle tissue protein subjected to exercise. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the spectral characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle in rats subjected to exercise in a pool and to Cr supplementation. Methods: Experiment 1. First, an experiment was conducted to ensure that FT-IR would be able to detect change in the secondary structures of skeletal muscle tissue protein in the group of sedentary rats (SED) and in the group of rats that received creatine supplementation (CRE). Experiment 2. Next, the effect of physical exercise on the spectral characteristics of muscle tissue, especially when compared to the groups without exercise practice, was examined. Results: It was possible to verify that the peaks centered on 1658 cm-1 (amide I) and 1546 cm-1 (amide II) are characteristic spectra and indicated as markers of protein content. Conclusion: Thus, FT-IR spectroscopy proved to be able to monitor changes in secondary structures of skeletal muscle protein in both animals that received supplements and in those subjected to exercise and both cases reconciled. Furthermore, the FT-IR technique proved to be a viable method for the nondestructive evaluation of skeletal muscle protein structures. Level of evidence II, Investigation of treatment results.

RESUMEN Introducción: Actualmente, no hay claridad en lo que se refiere al uso de la técnica de espectroscopia de Infrarrojo con transformada de Fourier (FT-IR) para análisis del efecto de la suplementación de creatina (Cr) sobre las estructuras secundarias de la proteína del tejido muscular esquelético sometido a ejercicio. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características espectrales del músculo tibial anterior de ratones sometidos a ejercicio en piscina y a la suplementación con Cr. Métodos: Experimento 1. En primer lugar, fue realizada una experiencia para asegurar que la FT-IR sería capaz de detectar la variación en las estructuras secundarias de la proteína del tejido muscular esquelético en el grupo de ratones sedentarios (SED) y el grupo de ratones que sólo recibieron suplemento de creatina (CRE). Experimento 2. A continuación, fue examinado el efecto del ejercicio físico sobre las características espectrales del tejido muscular, especialmente cuando comparado con los grupos sin práctica de ejercicio. Resultados: Fue posible verificar que los picos centrados en 1658 cm−1 (amida I) y 1546 cm−1 (amida II) son espectros característicos e indicados como marcadores del tenor proteico. Conclusión: Siendo así, la técnica de espectroscopia de FT-IR mostró ser capaz de monitorizar las variaciones en las estructuras secundarias de la proteína del tejido muscular esquelético, tanto en animales que recibieron suplementos, como en los que fueron sometidos a ejercicio y ambos casos conciliados. Además, la técnica FT-IR probó ser un método viable para la evaluación no destructiva de las estructuras proteicas en el músculo esquelético. Nivel de evidencia II, Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

RESUMO Introdução: Atualmente, não há clareza no que diz respeito ao uso da técnica de espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FT-IR) para análise do efeito da suplementação de creatina (Cr) sobre as estruturas secundárias da proteína do tecido muscular esquelético submetido a exercício. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características espectrais do músculo tibial anterior de ratos submetidos a exercício em piscina e à suplementação com Cr. Métodos: Experimento 1. Em primeiro lugar, foi realizada uma experiência para assegurar que a FT-IR seria capaz de detectar a variação nas estruturas secundárias da proteína do tecido muscular esquelético no grupo de ratos sedentários (SED) e no grupo de ratos que só receberam suplemento de creatina (CRE). Experimento 2. Em seguida, foi examinado o efeito do exercício físico sobre as características espectrais do tecido muscular, especialmente quando comparado com os grupos sem prática de exercício. Resultados: Foi possível verificar que os picos centrados em 1658 cm−1(amida I) e 1546 cm−1(amida II) são espectros característicos e indicados como marcadores do teor proteico. Conclusão: Assim sendo, a técnica de espectroscopia de FT-IR mostrou ser capaz de monitorar as variações nas estruturas secundárias da proteína do tecido muscular esquelético tanto em animais que receberam suplementos, quanto nos que foram submetidos a exercício e ambos os casos conciliados. Além disso, a técnica FT-IR provou ser um método viável para a avaliação não destrutiva de estruturas proteicas no músculo esquelético. Nível de evidência II, Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

Animals , Male , Rats , Dietary Supplements , Creatinine/administration & dosage , Muscles , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/chemistry , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Swimming , Rats, Wistar , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6346, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888962


This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.

Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Thymol/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia/veterinary , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Catfishes/metabolism , Diazepam/pharmacology , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 291-298, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787545


ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) remains the most used irrigation solution during root canal preparation because of characteristics such as wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity and organic tissue dissolution capacity. However, these solutions can alter dentin composition and there is no consensus on the optimal concentration of NaOCl to be used. Objectives To determine the organic matter dissolution and changes in dentin chemical composition promoted by different concentrations of NaOCl over time. Material and Methods: Fragments of bovine muscle tissue were weighed before and after 5, 10, and 15 min of immersion in the groups (n=10): G1- 0.9% saline solution; G2- 1% NaOCl; G3- 2.5% NaOCl; and G4- 5% NaOCl. Bovine dentin fragments were subjected to the same irrigants and absorption spectra were collected by Attenuated Total Reflectance of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) before and after 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 min of immersion in the solutions. The ratios of the amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate absorption bands were determined. The tissue dissolution and carbonate/phosphate ratios were submitted to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s multiple-comparison test (α<0.05) and to the one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s (α<0.05). The amide III/phosphate ratio was analyzed by Friedman test (α<0.05) and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc (α<0.05). Results The increase in NaOCl concentration and contact time intensified the dissolution of organic matter and dentin collagen with reduction in the amide III/phosphate ratio. Significant differences between all groups (p<0.05) were observed in the dissolution of organic matter at 10 min and in the amide III/phosphate ratio between the saline solution and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. The carbonate/phosphate ratio decreased significantly in G2, G3, and G4 after 0,5 min of immersion (p<0.05), but more alterations did not occur in the subsequent periods (p>0.05). Intergroup differences were not observed in this ratio (p>0.05). Conclusions The increase in the exposure time and in the concentration of NaOCl solution lead to an increase in the tissue dissolution and dentin collagen deproteination. Furthermore, some carbonate ions are removed from the dentin inorganic phase by the NaOCl.

Animals , Cattle , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Disinfectants/chemistry , Reference Values , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Solubility/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Collagen/drug effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immersion , Muscles/drug effects
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 22(6): 980-987, 16/12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732943


OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups. METHOD: ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique. RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study. CONCLUSION: the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services. .

OBJETIVO: interpretar os significados atribuídos por pacientes portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 a grupos de educação em saúde. MÉTODO: estudo etnográfico em cinco grupos Hiperdia de um centro de saúde, com 26 informantes portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que participavam dos grupos há, no mínimo, três anos. Para coligir as informações, utilizaram-se observação participante, caracterização social, grupos de discussão e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram analisados por meio da técnica de codificação temática. RESULTADOS: emergiram quatro categorias temáticas - facilidades de acesso ao serviço e profissionais de saúde, orientações sobre o diabetes, participação nos grupos e experiência com o diabetes e compartilhamento de saberes e experiências. O aspecto mais relevante deste estudo diz respeito aos usos sociais que os informantes conferiam aos grupos Hiperdia pesquisados. CONCLUSÃO: os grupos estudados mostraram-se como instâncias produtoras de sentidos e de significados, concernentes ao processo de adoecimento e aos modos de navegação social no interior do sistema oficial de saúde. Almeja-se que este estudo possa contribuir para as ações dos profissionais de saúde que atuam nesses grupos, tendo em vista a observação do universo cultural dos indivíduos que procuram por cuidado profissional, nos diversos serviços públicos de saúde. .

OBJETIVO: interpretar los significados atribuidos por pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 a los grupos de educación para la salud. MÉTODO: estudio etnográfico en cinco grupos Hiperdia de un centro de salud, con 26 informantes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que participaban de los grupos hace, por lo menos, tres años. Para recolectar las informaciones se utilizaron la observación participante, la caracterización social, los grupos de discusión y las entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de la técnica de codificación temática. RESULTADOS: surgieron cuatro categorías temáticas: facilidades de acceso al servicio y profesionales de la salud; orientaciones sobre la diabetes; participación en los grupos y experiencia con la diabetes; y, compartir conocimientos y experiencias. El aspecto más relevante de este estudio se refiere a los usos sociales que los informantes daban a los grupos Hiperdia investigados. CONCLUSIÓN: los grupos estudiados se mostraron capaces de producir sentidos y significados concernientes al proceso de enfermarse y a los modos de navegación social en el interior del sistema oficial de salud. El objetivo de este estudio es que pueda contribuir para las acciones de los profesionales de la salud que actúan en esos grupos, considerando la observación del universo cultural de los individuos que buscan cuidados profesionales en los diversos servicios públicos de salud. .

Animals , Calcium/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Antipain/pharmacology , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Iodoacetic Acid , Iodoacetates/pharmacology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/pharmacology , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Muscles/physiopathology , Muscles/ultrastructure , Rana catesbeiana , Temperature
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(6): 530-537, 09/01/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732353


BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice. .

Adult , Humans , Male , Muscles/drug effects , Ubiquinone/pharmacology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Exercise , Muscles/metabolism , Sports
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 444-451, 07/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719200


Osteocalcin is a bone matrix protein that has been associated with several hormonal actions on energy and glucose metabolism. Animal and experimental models have shown that osteocalcin is released into the bloodstream and exerts biological effects on pancreatic beta cells and adipose tissue. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin is the hormonally active isoform and stimulates insulin secretion and enhances insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and muscle. Insulin and leptin, in turn, act on bone tissue, modulating the osteocalcin secretion, in a traditional feedback mechanism that places the skeleton as a true endocrine organ. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism in humans and its potential therapeutic implications in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

A osteocalcina é uma proteína da matriz óssea que tem sido implicada com várias ações hormonais relacionadas à homeostase de glicose e ao metabolismo energético. Modelos animais e experimentais têm demonstrado que a osteocalcina é liberada do osso para a circulação sanguínea e age nas células betapancreáticas e no tecido adiposo. A osteocalcina decarboxilada é a isoforma hormonalmente ativa e estimula a secreção e sensibilidade à insulina no tecido adiposo e muscular. A insulina e a leptina, por sua vez, atuam no tecido ósseo modulando a secreção da osteocalcina, formando uma alça de retroalimentação tradicional em que o esqueleto torna-se um órgão endócrino. Novos estudos ainda são necessários para elucidar o papel da osteocalcina na regulação glicêmica e no metabolismo energético em humanos, com potenciais implicações terapêuticas no tratamento de diabetes, obesidade e síndrome metabólica.

Animals , Humans , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Osteocalcin/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , /metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Leptin/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Obesity/metabolism , Osteocalcin/blood
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1095-1100, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207153


PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to explore non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs) potency for pelvic floor muscle pain by measuring local concentration in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used nine NSAIDs, including nabumetone, naproxen, ibuprofen, meloxicam, piroxicam, diclofenac potassium, etodolac, indomethacin, and sulindac, and 9 groups of female Wister rats. Each group of rats was fed with one kind of NSAID (2 mg/mL) for three consecutive days. Thereafter, one mL of blood and one gram of pelvic floor muscle were taken to measure drug pharmacokinetics, including partition coefficient, lipophilicity, elimination of half-life (T1/2) and muscle/plasma converting ratio (Css, muscle/Css, plasma). RESULTS: Diclofenac potassium had the lowest T1/2 and the highest mean Css, muscle/Css, plasma (1.9 hours and 0.85+/-0.53, respectively). The mean Css, muscle/Css, plasma of sulindac, naproxen and ibuprofen were lower than other experimental NSAIDs. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac potassium had the highest disposition in pelvic floor muscle in a rat model. The finding implies that diclofenac potassium might be the choice for pain relief in pelvic muscle.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Butanones/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Female , Muscles/drug effects , Naproxen/therapeutic use , Pelvic Floor/pathology , Pelvic Pain/drug therapy , Piroxicam/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Aug; 50(4): 326-329
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148615


The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent.

Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight/drug effects , Fatigue/blood , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/metabolism , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Glycogen/metabolism , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Lactic Acid/blood , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Swimming
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Feb; 51(2): 129-138
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147576


This study investigates if glycyrrhizin, a constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, is able to treat the complications (insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress) of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by feeding a fructose-enriched (60%) diet for six weeks, after which single dose of glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally. Different biochemical parameters from blood were estimated during three weeks after treatment. Then the rats were sacrificed to collect skeletal muscle tissue. Glycyrrhizin reduced the enhanced levels of blood glucose, insulin and lipids in metabolic syndrome group. Increased advanced glycation end products of hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin-mediated iron release and iron-mediated free radical reactions (arachidonic acid and deoxyribose degradation) in metabolic syndrome were inhibited by glycyrrhizin treatment. Reduced activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and elevated oxidative stress markers (malonaldehyde, fructosamine, hemoglobin carbonyl content and DNA damage) in metabolic syndrome were reversed to almost normal levels by glycyrrhizin. The decreased levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins in skeletal muscle of metabolic syndrome group were elevated by glycyrrhizin, indicating improved fatty acid oxidation and glucose homeostasis.

Animals , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , DNA Damage , Diet , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/blood , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Fructose/adverse effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipids/blood , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/chemically induced , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tissue Extracts
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(11): 1035-1038, Nov. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529098


Anesthetics can affect the structure and biological function of tissues and systems differentially. The aim of the present study was to compare three injectable anesthetics generally used in experiments with animals in terms of the degree of hemolysis and glycogenolysis occurring after profound anesthesia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (330-440 g) were divided into three groups (N = 8): chloral hydrate (CH), ketamine + xylazine (KX), Zoletil 50® (zolazepam and tiletamine) + xylazine (ZTX). After deep anesthesia, total blood was collected. The liver and white (WG) and red gastrocnemius (RG) muscles were also immediately removed. The degree of serum hemolysis was quantified on the basis of hemoglobin concentration (g/L). Hepatic and muscular glycogen concentrations (mmol/kg wet tissue) were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric method. The CH and KX groups exhibited serum hemolysis (4.0 ± 2.2 and 1.9 ± 0.9 g/L, respectively; P < 0.05) compared to the ZTX group, which presented none. Only KX induced elevated glycogenolysis (mmol/kg wet tissue) in the liver (86.9 ± 63.2) and in WG (18.7 ± 9.0) and RG (15.2 ± 7.2; P < 0.05). The CH and ZTX groups exhibited no glycogenolysis in the liver (164.4 ± 41.1 and 176.8 ± 54.4, respectively), WG (28.8 ± 4.4, 32.0 ± 6.5, respectively) or RG (29.0 ± 4.9; 25.3 ± 8.6, respectively). Our data indicate that ZTX seems to be an appropriate general anesthetic for studies that seek to simultaneously quantify the concentration of glycogen and serum biochemical markers without interferences. ZTX is reasonably priced, found easily at veterinary markets, quickly induces deep anesthesia, and presents a low mortality rate.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, General/pharmacology , Glycogenolysis/drug effects , Hemolysis/drug effects , Liver Glycogen/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Biomarkers/analysis , Drug Combinations , Ketamine/pharmacology , Muscles/enzymology , Rats, Wistar , Tiletamine/pharmacology , Xylazine/pharmacology , Zolazepam/pharmacology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Oct; 45(10): 907-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60436


In denervation, there was loss of protein in gastrocnemius muscles and this loss of was more in prednisolone treated animals. There was significant change of protein loss between tenotomy and tenotomy with prednisolone treatment. The reduction of protein in denervation and denervation with prednisolone treatment were also highly significant. Significant loss of muscle creatine was observed in denervation with prednisolone treatment. It was about 50% of the normal control group and about 40% when compared to other limb. In denervation alone, the creatine loss was about 24%. In tenotomy and in tenotomy with prednisolone treatment, the loss of creatine was also significantly high. All these figures regarding the reduction of muscle creatine in different experiments were highly significant. The reduction of muscle weight, protein and creatine content of muscle in denervation were due to inactivation of the muscle and due to trophic changes caused by loss of motor supply to the muscle. But in tenotomy, the reductions were only due to inactivation.

Animals , Creatine/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Male , Muscles/drug effects , Organ Size/drug effects , Proteins/metabolism , Rats
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2): 245-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113673


In acute toxicity (96 hr) experiment the fingerlings of freshwater fish Labeo rohita was exposed to tannery, electroplating and textile mill effluents. The LC0 and LC50 concentrations were 15% and 20% for tannery effluents, 3% and 6% for electroplating effluents and 18% and 22% for textile mill effluents respectively. It was found that, electroplating effluent was more toxic than tannery and textile mill wastes. After acute toxicity experiments for different industrial effluents, various tissues viz. gill, liver, muscle and kidney were obtained separately from control, LC0 and LC50 groups. These tissues were used for biochemical estimations. The glycogen content in all the tissues decreased considerably upon acute toxicity of three industrial effluents except muscle in LC50 group of tannery effluent and kidney in LC50 group of textile mill effluent, when compared to control group. The total protein content decreased in all tissues in three effluents except gills in LC50 group of tannery effluent, kidney in LC50 group of electroplating effluent and kidney in LC0 group of textile mill effluent. In general total lipid content decreased in all tissues after acute exposure when compared to control group. The results obtained in the present study showed that, the industrial effluents from tannery, electroplating and textile mills caused marked depletion in biochemical composition in various tissues of the fish Labeo rohita after acute exposure.

Animals , Cyprinidae/metabolism , Electroplating , Fresh Water , Gills/drug effects , Glycogen/metabolism , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50 , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Metals/analysis , Muscles/drug effects , Proteins/metabolism , Tanning , Textile Industry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2 Suppl): 483-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113436


This study has revealed significant variation in total ATPase activity after administration of aluminium acetate in different tissues of albino mice. With sublethal dose (3.5 mg/kg body weight) of aluminium acetate, total ATPase activity was decreased in brain (-50.61), liver (-50.69), kidney (-30.74), heart (-64.07), muscle (-51.50) and testis (-65.53) of albino mice. The decrement was enhanced with the increase of aluminium acetate. ATPases play an important role in the maintenance of cell permeability and energy transformation in the biological system. The results suggest that ATPase has a particular sensitivity to aluminium acetate.

Acetates/toxicity , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Animals , Brain/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Male , Mice , Muscles/drug effects , Myocardium/enzymology , Testis/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 66(4): 1103-1108, Nov. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-448493


Aquatic environmental factors are very changeable in short periods. Among these factors are pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia and ions. Nitrite, as one ion naturally present in aquatic systems, deserves particular consideration as it is highly toxic for many species. Among fish, nitrite may have harmful effects, such as methemoglobin (MtHb) formation, disruption to the gill and hepatic structure, which could result in hemolytic anemia and cell hypoxia by reducing the functional hemoglobin content. In this work, we compared hematological and metabolical responses of pacu and its hybrid tambacu exposed to 20 ppm of environmental nitrite. It was observed that the MtHb content was less than 18 percent in tambacu while pacu reached nearly 8 percent. These data reflect specific differences in nitrite uptake by the gill. The hematocrit of both fish was distinct; pacu did not have a typical response of poisoning by nitrite. This fact shows less skill of the hybrid to cope with environmental nitrite. Incipient hemolytic anemia was observed in pacu and both species presented a neoglycogenic profile. The glucose-provider character of the liver was more evident in tambacu. The white muscle of both species presented distinct metabolic behavior. While in pacu the white muscle was predominantly oxidative, in tambaqui the lactic fermentation was the most important metabolic profile. Metabolic and hematological observations in both species show that they present distinct metabolical strategies to cope with toxic effects of nitrite and there is no evidence that the hybrid is more resistant to nitrite.

Os fatores ambientais nos meios aquáticos são muito flutuantes em curtos intervalos de tempo. Valores de pH, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, amônia e íons podem estar freqüentemente variando. Entre esses íons, o nitrito merece especial atenção por ser altamente tóxico para muitas espécies. Entre os peixes, o nitrito pode apresentar efeitos danosos como a formação de metahemoglobina (MtHB), lesão às estruturas branquiais e hepática, podendo levar a quadros de anemia hemolítica e hipóxia celular pela redução do teor de hemoglobina funcional. Neste trabalho, foram comparadas as respostas hematológicas e metabólicas do pacu e de seu híbrido tambacu expostos a 20 ppm de nitrito ambiental, e verificou-se que o teor de MtHb no tambacu foi menor que 18 por cento, enquanto no pacu atingiu valores de 8 por cento. Esses valores refletem diferenças específicas na captação de nitrito pelas brânquias. O hematócrito de ambas as espécies foi diferente; o pacu não apresentou uma resposta típica à intoxicação pelo nitrito. Este fato revelou uma diminuição na capacidade do híbrido em resistir ao nitrito ambiental. Observou-se no pacu um princípio de anemia hemolítica. As duas espécies mostraram um perfil bioquímico neoglicogênico. O papel glicemiante do fígado foi mais evidente no tambacu. O músculo branco de ambas as espécies mostrou um comportamento metabólico distinto. Enquanto o músculo do pacu foi predominantemente oxidativo, o músculo branco do tambaqui exposto ao nitrito realizou fermentação láctica. As observações metabólicas e hematológicas em ambas as espécies indicam que estas apresentam estratégias metabólicas diferentes para enfrentar os efeitos tóxicos do nitrito ambiental, não sendo evidenciada qualquer vantagem do híbrido neste particular.

Animals , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Fishes/metabolism , Methemoglobin/drug effects , Nitrites/adverse effects , Erythrocyte Count , Fishes/blood , Hematocrit , Liver/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Muscles/chemistry , Muscles/drug effects , Time Factors
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Mar; 44(3): 228-32
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60897


Histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney and muscles of normal, protein-malnourished, diabetic as well as both protein-malnourished and diabetic albino rats when exposed to a mixture of monocrotophos, hexachlorocyclohexane and endosulfan at varying intervals. The examination revealed hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and muscular necrotic effects in pesticides exposed rats. Toxicity was aggravated in protein-malnourished and diabetic animals and more so, if the animals were both diabetic and protein-malnourished.

Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Endosulfan/pharmacology , Female , Kidney/drug effects , Hexachlorocyclohexane/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Male , Malnutrition/pathology , Monocrotophos/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Pesticides/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Apr; 26(2): 191-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113773


The activities of phosphatases and transaminases were studied in muscle and liver of the fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to different sublethal concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mgl(-1)) of cartap hydrochloride (insecticidal derivative from marine polycheate) for 96 h. There was an overall decrease in phosphatases and transaminases activity in muscle and liver of the fish subjected to cartap hydrochloride.

Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Alanine Transaminase/antagonists & inhibitors , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver/drug effects , Muscles/drug effects , Polychaeta/chemistry , Thiocarbamates/toxicity , Tilapia/metabolism
J Environ Biol ; 2004 Jul; 25(3): 239-49
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113548


The present study embodies the observations on duration (45, 75 and 105 days) dependent effects of toxicologically low concentration (16 ppm) of a carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on first ovarian maturity with correlative recovery response by withdrawal of treatment for 30 days in virgin yearlings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Communis. In control fish histological organization of ovary and changes in gonado-somatic index (GSI) revealed the initiation of oocyte differentiation and development at the commencement of experiment in December-January and peak of maturation with fully grown yolky oocytes was attained by the time of termination of experiment in the end of March. In carbofuran exposed groups ovaries exhibited retardation of development and growth evident by significantly decreased GSI and predominace of immature oocytes passing through nuclear-cytoplasmic degeneration of variable magnitude. Severity of degenerative changes was more pronounced with prolonged duration. In recovery group ovaries had experienced regeneration as clued by the presence of oocytes of differential stages including vitellogenic and fully grown oocytes. In liver histopathological changes coupled with significant decrease in hepato-somatic index (HSI) attributed hepatic inactivation in all exposure groups whereas in recovery group an increase in HSI value with marked sign of hepatic reactivation was evidenced. No significant change in values of condition (CF) and somatic condition (SCF) factors substantiated the over all normal health of fish. Lipid and water content of ovary, liver and muscle registered the significant decrease at 105th day of exposure with concomitant augmented value for recovery group. These observations suggest that the commercial formulation of carbofuran, even at this toxicologically low concentration, is equally capable of affecting the first ovarian maturity with associated physiological implications but with reversibility in toxicity by withdrawal of pesticide exposure attributing regeneration in affected organs in due course time.

Animals , Carbamates/toxicity , Carbofuran/toxicity , Cytoplasm/drug effects , Environmental Exposure , Female , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Muscles/drug effects , Oocytes/drug effects , Oogenesis/drug effects , Pesticides/toxicity , Reproduction/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23617


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The main cause of morbidity due to organophosphate poisoning is intermediate syndrome (Type II paralysis) that can occur 48-72 h after poisoning. Mechanisms that underlie the intermediate syndrome are not known. This study investigates the role of oxidative damage to muscles as a possible mechanism underlying the development of the intermediate syndrome. METHODS: Nineteen patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were evaluated from admission to discharge from intensive care for the severity of poisoning and the development and duration of the intermediate syndrome. Blood cholinesterases and parameters of oxidative stress were studied daily and their temporal profiles analysed according to the severity of poisoning and the development and duration of the intermediate syndrome. RESULTS: Fifteen patients had severe poisoning and 16 developed intermediate syndrome. There was a positive association between the severity of poisoning and the occurrence of intermediate syndrome. There was no association between the organophosphate ingested and the development of intermediate syndrome. Erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase and serum butyrylcholinesterase levels at admission and over the course of poisoning were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in patients compared to controls. There were significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of lipid peroxidation, conjugated dienes and protein thiols in erythrocyte membranes of patients who developed the intermediate syndrome compared to healthy controls, in patients who developed intermediate syndrome compared to those who did not and in patients with long compared to short duration intermediate syndrome. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In acute organophosphate poisoning, severe and prolonged acetylcholinesterase inhibition is associated with oxidative stress, detected in erythrocyte membranes, that occurs early in the course of poisoning and may contribute to the development and severity of intermediate syndrome.

Acetylcholinesterase/blood , Adult , Butyrylcholinesterase/blood , Case-Control Studies , Erythrocyte Membrane/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Muscles/drug effects , Organophosphorus Compounds/poisoning , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Syndrome