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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928327


As an important exercise and energy metabolism organ of the human body, the normal maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for the body to perform normal physiological functions. The autophagy-lysosome (AL) pathway is a physiological or pathological mechanism that is ubiquitous in normal and diseased cells. It plays a key role in the maintaining of protein balance, removing damaged organelles, and the stability of internal environment. The smooth progress of the autophagy process needs to go through multiple steps, which are completed under the coordinated action of multiple factors. Autophagy maintains the muscle homeostasis of a healthy body by removing cell components such as damaged myofibrils and isolated cytoplasmic proteins. Autophagy could also provide the initial energy required for cell proliferation, promote muscle regeneration and remodeling after injury. At the same time, autophagy disorder is also an important cause of age-related skeletal muscle atrophy. Autophagy could affect the response of skeletal muscle to exercise, and increasing the level of basic autophagy is beneficial to improve the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise. This article summarizes the role and pathways of autophagy in the maintenance of skeletal muscle quality, in order to provide effective rehabilitation strategies for clinical prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy.

Autophagy/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Atrophy/pathology , Signal Transduction
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 39(174): 45-58, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1339814


Las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas han ganado gran interés e importancia en el ámbito de la salud debido a la alta carga mundial de morbilidad y la gran tasa de discapacidad que las mismas generan. A su vez, la prevalencia de desnutrición afecta un 40-60% de los pacientes hospitalizados, lo que supone un aumento de los costos sanitarios, mayor morbimortalidad y aumento de las tasas de discapacidad. Diversos conceptos surgen en la literatura relacionando la pérdida de masa muscular, la enfermedad y la desnutrición. El objetivo del presente artículo es definir los conceptos de desnutrición, fragilidad, caquexia y sarcopenia. Se buscó describir su prevalencia, diferenciar los mecanismos que generan cada situación y su impacto en la composición corporal(AU)

Abstract Chronic degenerative diseases have won great interest and value in the field of health due to the high global burden of morbidity and the high rate of disability that they generate. At the same time, the prevalence of malnutrition affects 40-60% of hospitalized patients, which implies an increase in health costs, greater morbi mortality and an increase in disability rates. Various concepts emerge in the literature in which the loss of muscle mass, disease and malnutrition are related. The objective of this article is to define the concepts of malnutrition, frailty, cachexia and sarcopenia. The aim was to describe its prevalence, to differentiate the mechanisms that generate each situation and its impact on body composition(AU)

Muscular Atrophy , Malnutrition , Cachexia , Sarcopenia , Muscles
Acta cir. bras ; 36(4): e360403, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248543


ABSTRACT Purpose To study effects of Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides (RGP) on bone tissue structure and skeletal muscle atrophy in rats with disuse. Methods A rat model of disuse osteoporosis combined with muscle atrophy was established by removing the bilateral ovaries of rats and fixing their hind limbs for a long time. Forty SD rats were administered intragastrically for 12 weeks. The bone histomorphometry parameters and the level of oxidative stress were measured. In addition, the changes of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) mRNA expression in skeletal muscle of rats were observed. Results RGP significantly increased the percentage of fluorescence perimeter and bone mineralization deposition rate of the second lumbar vertebrae of rats. It also significantly increased the wet weight ratio and muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. At the same time, RGP significantly increased the levels of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the skeletal muscle of rats, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression levels of FOXO1, MAFbx and MuRF1 mRNA in rat skeletal muscle. Conclusions RGP could improve the bone structure of osteoporotic rats. It could also improve muscle that atrophy may be related to the inhibition of FOXO1-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

Animals , Rats , Rehmannia , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones , Muscular Atrophy/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 426-429, June 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135648


Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is reported for the first time in the Aberdeen Angus (AA) breed in Uruguay. In a commercial herd of 30 purebred Aberdeen Angus cows, two calves with severe musculoskeletal malformations died at birth. The cows had been inseminated using semen imported from Argentina from one elite AA sire only. At necropsy, one calf showed severe muscular atrophy, arthrogryposis affecting all four limbs and the spine, kyphoscoliosis and torticollis. Histopathology showed muscular atrophy with marked fiber size variation and abundant fibroadipose fibers. The central nervous system only showed congestion and edema due to dystocia, whereas the peripheral nerves and the number of motor neurons in the spinal appeared normal. DNA analysis confirmed arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. It is concluded that disease in Aberdeen Angus cattle is due to failure in the neuromuscular junction.(AU)

Artrogripose múltipla congênita é relatada pela primeira vez em bovinos Aberdeen Angus (AA) no Uruguai. Num rebanho comercial de 30 vacas a Aberdeen Angus, dois bezerros com graves malformações musculoesqueléticas morreram logo após o nascimento. As vacas foram inseminadas utilizando sêmen importado da Argentina, de apenas um touro de elite de AA. Na necropsia, um dos bezerros apresentava atrofia muscular grave, artrogripose afetando todos os quatro membros e a coluna vertebral, cifoscoliose e torcicolo. A histopatologia demonstrou atrofia muscular com acentuadas variações no tamanho das fibras e abundantes fibras fibroadiposas. O sistema nervoso central apresentava apenas congestão e edema devido à distocia, enquanto os nervos periféricos e o número de neurônios motores na medula espinhal pareciam normais. A análise de DNA confirmou artrogripose múltipla congênita. Concluiu-se que a doença em bovinos Aberdeen Angus se deve a falha na junção neuromuscular.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Arthrogryposis/pathology , Arthrogryposis/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/congenital , Uruguay , Muscular Atrophy/veterinary
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 28, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130791


Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory and chronic autoimmune disease that leads to muscle mass loss and functional capacity impairment, potentiated by physical inactivity. Despite evidences demonstrate neuromuscular impairments in RA patients, aging effects may have masked the results of similar previous studies. The aim of study was to verify (i) the effects of RA on functional capacity and muscle properties in middle-aged patients and (ii) the association between age, clinical characteristics, quadriceps muscle properties and functional capacity. Methods: Thirty-five RA women and 35 healthy age-matched women were compared with the following outcomes: (i) physical activity level through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); (ii) timed-up and go (TUG) test; (iii) isometric knee extensor muscular strength; and (iv) vastus lateralis muscle activation and muscle architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) during an isometric test. An independent Student t-test and partial correlation (controlled by physical activity levels) were performed, with p < 0.05. Results: Compared with healthy women, RA presented (i) lower physical activity level (- 29.4%; p < 0.001); (ii) lower isometric knee extensor strength (- 20.5%; p < 0.001); (iii) lower TUG performance (- 21.7%; p < 0.001); (iv) smaller muscle thickness (- 23.3%; p < 0.001) and pennation angle (- 14.1%; p = 0.011). No differences were observed in muscle activation and fascicle length. Finally, the correlation demonstrated that, with exception of TUG, muscle strength and muscle morphology were not associated with age in RA, differently from healthy participants. Conclusion: Middle-aged RA patients' impairments occurred due to the disease independently of the aging process, except for functional capacity. Physical inactivity may have potentiated these losses.(AU)

Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Muscular Atrophy , Exercise , Electromyography/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle , Muscle Strength
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 378-383, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047159


Realizamos uma análise de quais são os elementos responsáveis pelo sustento e formato abdominal, determinando assim, que é devido a uma excessiva flacidez musculoaponeurótica de origem primária, à qual promove uma incapacidade do suporte da parede abdominal e pode estar relacionada a fatores predisponentes. Para esses casos específicos, desenvolvemos um tratamento propondo a colocação da tela e apresentando nossa experiência. Apresentamos esta série de casos de experiência em 26 anos. Onde 15 pacientes foram tratados com abdominoplastia primária e secundária. O reforço da parede abdominal foi realizado através da colocação de tela de polipropileno no plano submuscular com pontos em U na fáscia transversalis, buscando-se fortalecer o músculo e a fáscia transversa. Os resultados foram satisfatórios a longo prazo. Obtendo resolução das protuberâncias abdominais e restaurando a harmonia dos músculos. Apenas duas complicações ocorreram, que foram a presença de dor crônica localizada no abdome tratada com infiltrações de esteroides e fístula umbilical precoce de resolução rápida espontânea, independente da proposta.

We investigated the causative factors of abdominal support and shape and found that excessive musculoskeletal flaccidity of primary origin causes an inability to support the abdominal wall and may be associated with the predisposing factors. For such cases, we developed a treatment consisting of the placement of a subcutaneous mesh. Here, we present our experience with this treatment. We present a case series of 15 patients in our 26 years of experience who were treated with primary and secondary abdominoplasties. The abdominal wall was reinforced by placing a polypropylene mesh in the submuscular plane with U-stitches in the transversalis fascia, aiming at strengthening the muscle and transverse fascia. The results were satisfactory in the long term. Abdominal bulges were repaired, and muscle harmony was restored. Only two complications occurred: chronic pain localized in the abdomen, which was treated with steroid infiltrations, and an early umbilical fistula with spontaneous and rapid resolution, regardless of the proposal.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Muscular Atrophy , Secondary Treatment , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Abdominal Wall , Subcutaneous Tissue , Abdomen , Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System , Diastasis, Muscle , Muscular Atrophy/surgery , Secondary Treatment/analysis , Secondary Treatment/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Abdominal Wall/anatomy & histology , Subcutaneous Tissue/surgery , Abdominoplasty/methods , Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System/surgery , Diastasis, Muscle/surgery , Abdomen/surgery
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(3): 227-234, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039884


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do exercício passivo precoce em cicloergômetro na espessura muscular (EM) do quadríceps femoral (EMQ) de pacientes críticos admitidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) de um hospital universitário terciário. O método utilizado foi um estudo-piloto randomizado controlado conduzido em uma amostra de 24 pacientes (51±18,11 anos, 16 do sexo masculino), com 24 a 48 horas de ventilação mecânica (VM), aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle (n=12), que recebeu a fisioterapia convencional; e grupo-intervenção (n=12), que recebeu o exercício passivo em cicloergômetro, uma vez ao dia, durante o período de sete dias do protocolo, em adição à fisioterapia convencional. A EMQ foi mensurada através da ultrassonografia. A primeira medida ultrassonográfica foi realizada entre as primeiras 48 horas de VM e a segunda ao término do protocolo. Não houve diferenças significativas na EMQ esquerda (27,29±5,86mm vs. 25,95±10,89mm; p=0,558) e direita (24,96±5,59mm vs 25,9±9,21mm; p=0,682) do grupo-controle e na EMQ esquerda (27,2±7,38mm vs 29,57±7,89mm; p=0,299) e direita (26,67±8,16mm vs 28,65±8,04mm; p=0,381) do grupo-intervenção. Na comparação entre os grupos, não houve alterações significativas em relação à EMQ esquerda (3,61±1,07mm; p=0,248) e a EMQ direita (2,75±0,85mm; p=0,738). Os resultados deste estudo-piloto demonstraram que a aplicação precoce do exercício passivo em cicloergômetro não promoveu mudanças significativas na espessura da camada muscular avaliada. No entanto, nossos achados sinalizam que a fisioterapia convencional foi capaz de preservar a EMQ de pacientes críticos admitidos em UTI.

RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos del ejercicio pasivo precoz en cicloergómetro en el espesor muscular (EM) del cuádriceps femoral (EMC) de pacientes críticos ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) de un hospital universitario terciario. Se utilizó como método un estudio piloto aleatorizado controlado con una muestra de 24 pacientes (51±18,11 años, 16 varones), con 24 a 48 horas de ventilación mecánica (VM), quienes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo de control (n=12), que recibió fisioterapia convencional; y grupo intervención (n=12), que recibió el ejercicio pasivo en cicloergómetro una vez al día durante el período de protocolo de siete días, además de la fisioterapia convencional. El EMC se midió por ecografía. La primera medición ecográfica se realizó entre las primeras 48 horas de VM, y la segunda al final del protocolo. No hubo diferencias significativas en el EMC izquierdo (27,29±5,86 mm vs. 25,95±10,89mm; p=0,558) y derecho (24,96±5,59mm vs 25,9±9,21mm; p=0,682) del grupo de control; y en el EMC izquierdo (27,2±7,38mm vs 29,57±7,89mm; p=0,299) y derecho (26,67±8,16mm vs 28,65±8,04mm; p=0,381) del grupo intervención. En la comparación entre grupos, no hubo cambios significativos en el EMC izquierdo (3,61±1,07 mm; p=0,248) y en el EMC derecho (2,75±0,85 mm, p=0,738). Los resultados de este estudio piloto demostraron que la aplicación precoz del ejercicio pasivo en cicloergómetro no promovió cambios significativos en el espesor de la capa muscular evaluada. Sin embargo, nuestros hallazgos indican que la fisioterapia convencional pudo preservar el EMC de pacientes críticos ingresados en la UCI.

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early passive cycling exercise on quadriceps femoris thickness (QFT) in critically ill patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care university hospital. A controlled randomized pilot study was conducted with a sample of 24 patients (51±18.11 years, 16 male), on mechanical ventilation (MV) from 24 to 48 hours, who were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=12), receiving conventional physical therapy; and an intervention one (n=12), receiving passive cycle ergometer, once a day, throughout seven days of protocol, in addition to conventional physical therapy. The QFT was measured by ultrasonography. The first ultrasonographic measurement was performed within 48 hours after the start of MV, and the second at the end of the protocol. There were no significant differences in QFT of the left (27,29±5,86mm vs 25,95±10,89mm; p=0,558) and right (24,96±5,59mm vs 25,9±9,21mm; p=0,682) in the control group, and in QFT of the left (27,2±7,38mm vs 29,57±7,89mm; p=0,299) and right (26,67±8,16mm vs 28,65±8,04mm; p=0,381) in the intervention group. There were no significant between-groups differences for left QFT (3,61±1,07mm; p=0,248) and right QFT (2,75±0,85mm; p=0,738). The results of this pilot study demonstrate that application of early passive cycle ergometer exercises has not significantly change the muscle layer thickness. However, our findings indicate that conventional physical therapy is able to preserve the quadriceps femoris thickness in critically ill patients admitted in ICU.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Early Ambulation , Quadriceps Muscle/anatomy & histology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Muscular Atrophy/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , Ultrasonography , Physical Therapy Modalities/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 65-73, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002423


Abstract Introduction: Evaluate the association between the thumb adductor muscle thickness and the patient's nutritional status, and propose cutoff points for muscle mass depletion in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) under conservative treatment. Epidemiological and cross-sectional study, including patients with CKD stages 3 to 5, older than 60 years. Socioeconomic, clinical, physical activity and anthropometric data was obtained. TAMT was described and compared according to CKD stage, socioeconomic data, physical activity, nutritional status and correlated with age, glomerular filtration rate and anthropometric variables. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were produced, considering the lean tissue index classification as reference. The cut-off point was defined by the Youden index. Results: We evaluated 137 individuals. The TAMT was lower in malnourished and/or depleted muscle mass individuals; among males it was higher among those who practiced physical activities (p <0.05). This measure was moderately correlated with BMI, calf and brachial circumferences, lean body tissue, lean tissue index and body cell mass (r <0.7); negatively with age (r = -0.34). The ROC curve analysis determined cut points of 15.33 mm for females and 20.33 mm for males, with 72.22% and 62.50% accuracy, respectively. Conclusion: TAMT is used to estimate muscle mass and we suggest the cutoff point is useful to rule out the likelihood of muscle mass depletion. It is recommended that it be used in a complementary way in nutritional assessment.

Resumo Introdução: Avaliar a associação da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar (EMAP) com o estado nutricional e propor pontos de corte para depleção de massa muscular em idosos portadores da doença renal crônica (DRC) em tratamento conservador. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico, delineamento transversal, incluindo portadores de DRC estágios 3 a 5, acima de 60 anos. Obteve-se dados socioeconômicos, clínicos, prática de atividade física e antropométricos. A EMAP foi descrita e comparada de acordo com o estágio da DRC, dados socioeconômicos, atividade física e estado nutricional e correlacionada com idade, taxa de filtração glomerular e variáveis antropométricas. Foram produzidas curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), considerando como padrão de referência a classificação do índice de tecido magro. O ponto de corte foi definido pelo índice Youden. Resultados: Avaliou-se 137 indivíduos. A EMAP foi inferior nos desnutridos e/ou com depleção de massa muscular; no sexo masculino foi superior nos praticantes de atividade física (p<0,05). A medida se correlacionou moderadamente com IMC, circunferência da panturrilha e braquial, tecido de massa magra, índice de tecido magro e massa celular corporal (r<0,7), e negativamente com a idade (r=-0,34). A análise da curva ROC determinou pontos de corte de 15,33 mm para o sexo feminino e 20,33 mm para o masculino, com acurácia de 72,22% e 62,50%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A EMAP serve para estimar a massa muscular, e o ponto de corte sugerido é útil para afastar a probabilidade de depleção de massa muscular. Recomenda-se que seja utilizada de forma complementar na avaliação nutricional.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thumb/pathology , Aging/physiology , Nutrition Assessment , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment , Body Composition , Muscular Atrophy/diagnosis , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Age Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate
Clinics ; 74: e981, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011918


OBJECTIVE: Muscle wasting contributes to the reduced quality of life and increased mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Muscle atrophy in mice with cachexia was caused by Activin A binding to ActRIIB. The role of circulating Activin A leading to muscle atrophy in COPD remains elusive. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between serum levels of Activin A and skeletal muscle wasting in COPD patients. The expression levels of serum Activin A were measured in 78 stable COPD patients and in 60 healthy controls via ELISA, which was also used to determine the expression of circulating TNF-α levels. Total skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was calculated according to a validated formula by age and anthropometric measurements. The fat-free mass index (FFMI) was determined as the fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for body surface area. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, COPD patients had upregulated Activin A expression. The elevated levels of Activin A were correlated with TNF-α expression, while total SMM and FFMI were significantly decreased in COPD patients. Furthermore, serum Activin A expression in COPD patients was negatively associated with both FFMI and BMI. CONCLUSION: The above results showed an association between increased circulating Activin A in COPD patients and the presence of muscle atrophy. Given our previous knowledge, we speculate that Activin A contributes to skeletal muscle wasting in COPD.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Muscular Atrophy/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Activins/blood , Cachexia/metabolism , Muscular Atrophy/metabolism , Muscular Atrophy/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Activins/metabolism , Inhibin-beta Subunits
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e8576, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055463


Physical exercise is a known preventive and therapeutic alternative for several cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the motor performance and histomorphometry of the biceps brachii, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles of rats submitted to a treadmill training program prior to the induction of cerebral ischemia via occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (OMCA). A total of 24 Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: Sham-Sed: sedentary control animals (n=6), who underwent sham surgery (in which OMCA did not occur); Sham+Ex: control animals exercised before the sham surgery (n=6); I-Sed: sedentary animals with cerebral ischemia (n=6); and I+Ex: animals exercised before the induction of ischemia (n=6). The physical exercise consisted of treadmill training for five weeks, 30 min/day (5 days/week), at a speed of 14 m/min. The results showed that the type-I fibers presented greater fiber area in the exercised ischemic group (I+Ex: 2347.96±202.77 µm2) compared to the other groups (Sham-Sed: 1676.46±132.21 µm2; Sham+Ex: 1647.63±191.09 µm2; I+Ex: 1566.93±185.09 µm2; P=0.0002). Our findings suggested that the angiogenesis process may have influenced muscle recovery and reduced muscle atrophy of type-I fibers in the animals that exercised before cerebral ischemia.

Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Muscular Atrophy/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/complications , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Muscular Atrophy/etiology , Muscular Atrophy/pathology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(10): e8391, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039250


The effect of a short-term creatine supplementation on hindlimb suspension (HS)-induced muscle atrophy was investigated. Creatine monohydrate (5 g/kg b.w. per day) or placebo, divided in 2 daily doses, was given by oral gavage for 5 days. Rats were maintained in HS with dietary supplementation concomitantly for 5 days. Body weight, soleus and EDL muscle masses, and cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the muscle fibers were measured. Signaling pathways associated with skeletal muscle mass regulation (FST, MSTN, FAK, IGF-1, MGF, Akt, mTOR, atrogin-1, and MuRF1 expressions, and Akt, S6, GSK3B, and 4EBP1 proteins) were evaluated in the muscles. Soleus muscle exhibited more atrophy than the EDL muscle due to HS. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease of wet weight and increased p-4EBP1 protein in the EDL muscle of HS rats. Also, creatine increased mTOR and atrogin-1 expressions in the same muscle and condition. In the absence of HS, creatine supplementation increased FAK and decreased MGF expressions in the EDL muscle. Creatine attenuated the increase in FST expression due to HS in the soleus muscle. MuRF1 expression increased in the soleus muscle due to creatine supplementation in HS animals whereas atrogin-1 expression increased still further in this group compared with untreated HS rats. In conclusion, short-term creatine supplementation changed protein metabolism signaling in soleus and EDL muscles. However, creatine supplementation only slightly attenuated the mass loss of both muscles and did not prevent the CSA reduction and muscle strength decrease induced by HS for 5 days.

Animals , Male , Rats , Muscular Atrophy/diet therapy , Hindlimb Suspension/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements , Creatine/administration & dosage , Muscular Atrophy/etiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739755


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the subscapularis muscle volume between the intact groups (group I) and supraspinatus tendon tear groups (group T) based on the sex and three different age groups. METHODS: Subjects with a group I and subjects with group T without any other lesions were retrospectively evaluated from among patients who received a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan between January 2011 and December 2013. The MRI scans were studied by a consultant radiologist. The subscapularis muscle volume was compared according to the age and sex; the age groups were categorized as patients in their 40s, 50s, and 60s. The volume of subscapularis muscle was measured by three-dimensional reconstructed images acquired through the axial section of 1.5T MRI. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were observed between subscapularis muscle volume of the group I and group T, except for male patients in their 50s (group I: 100,650 mm3 vs. group T: 106,488 mm3) and 60s (group I: 76,347 mm3 vs. group T: 99,549 mm3) (p<0.05). Males had a larger mean volume of subscapularis muscle than females, and the subscapularis muscle volume decreased in a linear manner with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in subscapularis muscle volume was observed with increasing age, and the impact of supraspinatus tear on subscapularis muscle volume is age and sex dependent.

Consultants , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Muscular Atrophy , Retrospective Studies , Tears , Tendons
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 671-679, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777144


The skeletal muscle mass accounts for more than 40% of the body weight of healthy adults. The skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in physical activities but also affects the function of other organs as a secretory organ secreting multiple muscle factors. Therefore, it is important to maintain the normal quantity and function of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle mass is the basis of skeletal muscle function and is often affected by many factors such as exercise and disease. Resistance exercise training induces increased protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells, while limb disuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, cachexia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and many other pathological conditions lead to decreased protein synthesis or enhanced protein degradation of skeletal muscle cells. The process of skeletal muscle hypertrophy involves changes in multiple signaling pathways, such as IGF-1/PI3K/Akt, myostatin and G protein. On the other hand, activations of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, IGF-1/Akt/FoxO, autophagy-lysosomal pathway, NF-κB, and the glucocorticoid-mediated signaling pathways play important roles in regulating muscle atrophy. These signaling pathways regulate skeletal muscle mass and are modulated by some different conditions. This review briefly summarizes the signaling pathways of skeletal muscle mass control.

Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Physiology , Muscular Atrophy , Organ Size , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776525


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of massage on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy in rats and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into model group (n=24) and massage group (n=24). Gastrocnemius muscle atrophy model was established by transecting the right tibial nerve of rat. On the second day after operation, the gastrocnemius muscle of the rats in the massage group was given manual intervention and the model group was not intervened. Six rats were sacrificed at the four time points of 0 d, 7 d, 14 d and 21 d. The gastrocnemius of the rats were obtained and measured the wet mass ratio after weighing. Cross-sectional area and diameter of the muscle fiber were measured after HE staining. The relative expressions of miR-23a, Akt, MuRF1 and MAFbx mRNA were tested with qPCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with 0 d, the wet weight ratio, cross-sectional area and diameter of gastrocnemius muscle showed a progressive decline in the model group and massage group. The wet weight ratio, cross-sectional area and diameter of gastrocnemius muscle in the massage group were higher than those in the model group on 7 d, 14 d and 21 d (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with 0 d, the expressions of MuRF1, MAFbx and Akt mRNA were increased first and then were decreased in the model group and massage group. The expression of MuRF1 mRNA in massage group was lower than that in model group on 7 d and 21 d (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of MAFbx mRNA in massage group was lower than that in model group on 7 d, 14 d and 21 d (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of Akt mRNA in massage group was higher than that in model group on 7 d, 14 d and 21 d (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with 0 d, the expression of miR-23a mRNA was increased in the model group and massage group on 21 d, and the expression of miR-23a mRNA in massage group was higher than that in model group (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Massage can delay the atrophy of denervated skeletal muscle. The mechanism may be related to up-regulation of the expression of miR-23a and Akt mRNA, down-regulation of the expressions of MuRF1 and MAFbx mRNA, inhibition of protein degradation rate, and reduction of skeletal muscle protein degradation.

Animals , Male , Massage , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle Proteins , Metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Therapeutics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases , Metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins , Metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763632


BACKGROUND: Patients with rotator cuff tears are usually afflicted with shoulder pain and disability. However, it is unclear which factors are related to shoulder pain in patients with rotator cuff tears. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the factors correlated with shoulder pain in patients with painful rotator cuff tears, but without any history of trauma. METHODS: We evaluated a cohort of 745 patients with painful rotator cuff tears having no trauma history, and analyzed the relationship between pain and multiple factors including demographic data, tear characteristics, and passive range of motion. Pain was analyzed with a questionnaire concerning the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Tear characteristics were determined by evaluating tear size, muscle atrophy, number of torn tendons, and presence of arthritis. Multivariate linear regression analysis and chi-squared test were applied to evaluate the relationship between the VAS for pain and variable factors. RESULTS: Shoulder pain was associated with young age (p=0.01), male sex (p=0.01) and the presence of diabetes mellitus (p0.05) also showed no correlation with VAS for pain. CONCLUSIONS: Young age, male sex and the presence of diabetes mellitus correlated positively with preoperative shoulder pain in patients with painful rotator cuff tears without a trauma history. Combined treatment of pain management and risk factor correction could be helpful to control preoperative shoulder pain.

Arthritis , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Muscular Atrophy , Pain Management , Range of Motion, Articular , Risk Factors , Rotator Cuff , Shoulder Pain , Shoulder , Tears , Tendons
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763623


BACKGROUND: This study evaluated postoperative changes in the supraspinatus from time-zero to 6 months, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that restoration of the musculotendinous unit of the rotator cuff by tendon repair immediately improves the rotator cuff muscle status, and maintains it months after surgery. METHODS: Totally, 76 patients (29 men, 47 women) with rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus tendon who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs were examined. MRI evaluation showed complete repair with intact integrity of the torn tendon at both time-zero and at 6 months follow-up. All patients underwent standardized MRI at our institution preoperatively, at 1 or 2 days postoperative, and at 6 months after surgery. Supraspinatus muscular (SSP) atrophy (Thomazeau grade) and fatty infiltrations (Goutallier stage) were evaluated by MRI. The cross-sectional area of SSP in the fossa was also measured. RESULTS: As determined by MRI, the cross-sectional area of SSP significantly decreased 11.41% from time-zero (immediate repair) to 6 months post-surgery, whereas the Goutallier stage and Thomazeau grade showed no significant changes (p<0.01). Furthermore, compared to the preoperative MRI, the postoperative MRI at 6 months showed a no statistically significant increase of 8.03% in the cross-sectional area. In addition, morphological improvements were observed in patients with high grade Goutallier and Thomazeau at time-zero, whereas morphology of patients with low grade factors were almost similar to before surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cross-sectional area of the initial repair appears to decrease after a few months postoperatively, possibly due to medial retraction or strained muscle.

Atrophy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Muscular Atrophy , Rotator Cuff , Tears , Tendons
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 47-51, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760463


Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and motor nuclei in the lower brainstem, resulting in hypotonia, progressive proximal muscle weakness, paralysis, and progressive respiratory insufficiency. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (Werdnig-Hoffman disease) who has been treated at home with non-invasive ventilation (assist-control mode with a back-up respiratory rate of 26 per minute). She presented with an atrioventricular block and atrial fibrillation, as well as paroxysmal fluctuation of blood pressure and heart rate indicating autonomic dysfunction. Although it is known that patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 do not generally demonstrate cardiac problems, it can be concluded based on findings in our case that long-term survivors with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 may develop cardiac rhythm disturbances. We therefore recommend that the possibility of cardiac complications and autonomic dysfunction should be borne in mind in the management of such patients.

Anterior Horn Cells , Atrial Fibrillation , Atrioventricular Block , Blood Pressure , Brain Stem , Child , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Muscle Hypotonia , Muscle Weakness , Muscular Atrophy , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Neuromuscular Diseases , Noninvasive Ventilation , Paralysis , Primary Dysautonomias , Respiratory Insufficiency , Respiratory Rate , Spinal Cord , Survivors