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J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411461


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic potential of fluoxetine and fluoxetine-galactomannan. Methods: Chromosomal aberration test and Salmonella typhimurium/microsome mutagenicity assay. Results: The results showed that fluoxetine (250 µg/mL) can cause chromosomal breaks of treated leukocytes and increase the frequency of reversion of the tester strains of S. typhimurium / microsome assay only at the highest concentration (5 mg/mL), while fluoxetine encapsulated in galactomannan did not cause these changes (leukocytes and S. typhimuriums strains). Conclusion: In summary, fluoxetine showed a mutagenic effect detectable only at high concentrations in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic models. Furthermore, the fluoxetine/galactomannan complex, in this first moment, prevented the mutagenicity attributed to fluoxetine, emphasizing that the present encapsulation process can be an alternative in preventing these effects in vitro.

Objetivos: avaliar o potencial mutagênico da fluoxetina e da fluoxetina-galactomanana. Métodos: Teste de aberração cromossômica e ensaio de mutagenicidade de Salmonella typhimurium /microssoma. Resultados: a fluoxetina (250 µg/mL) pode causar quebras cromossômicas de leucócitos tratados e aumentar a frequência de reversão das cepas testadoras de S. typhimurium /microssoma apenas na concentração mais alta (5 mg/mL), enquanto a fluoxetina encapsulada em galactomanano não causou essas alterações (leucócitos e cepas de S. typhimurium). Conclusão: a fluoxetina mostrou um efeito mutagênico detectável apenas em altas concentrações em modelos eucarióticos e procarióticos. Além disso, o complexo fluoxetina/galactomanan, neste primeiro momento, evitou a mutagenicidade atribuída à fluoxetina, ressaltando que o presente processo de encapsulamento pode ser uma alternativa na prevenção desses efeitos in vitro.

Fluoxetine , Chromosome Aberrations , Salmonella typhimurium , Chromosome Breakage , Microsomes , Mutagenicity Tests
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226427, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393274


Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether non-ionizing radiation emitted by smartphones is likely to cause genotoxic effects on oral epithelial cells. Methods: Thirty adults were distributed into two groups according to the mobile phone brand used, namely Samsung (Samsung, Seoul, South Korea) and Apple (Apple, California, USA). The material was collected with gentle swabbing of the right and left buccal mucosa using a cervical brush, then the micronucleus test was performed. Results: The Mann-Whitney test with a 5% significance level did not reveal statistically significant differences in micronuclei frequency between the exposed and non-exposed sides (p=0.251). The different brands do not seem to cause risks of inducing genetic damage because there were no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.47). Conclusion: Therefore, our results suggest no correlations of micronuclei frequency in the exposed buccal cells of mobile phone users at the exposure standard levels observed

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation, Nonionizing/adverse effects , Radio Waves , Micronucleus Tests , Epithelial Cells , Smartphone , Mouth Mucosa , Mutagenicity Tests
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20096, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403677


Abstract Dexchlorpheniramine is a first-generation classical antihistamine, clinically used to treat allergies. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of the dexchlorpheniramine reference standard (DCPA Ref. St) and a pharmaceutical formula on DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We exposed PBMCs to five different concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 50 ng/mL) of DCPA Ref. St DCPA Ref. St and pharmaceutical formula in order to evaluate their cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic potential. The results showed that both dexchlorpheniramine formulations did not affect PBMC viability and CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations. The DCPA Ref. St and pharmaceutical formula neither induced genotoxic or mutagenic effects nor numerical or structural chromosomal alterations in PBMCs after 24 hours of exposure.

Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Drug Compounding , Genotoxicity , Mutagenicity Tests , DNA/analysis , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/complications
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201130, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420473


Abstract Fridericia caudigera and Cuspidaria convoluta (Bignoniaceae) species, which grow in the northwest of Argentina, have shown antibacterial effect against strains isolated from skin infections, and each one displayed synergism with commercial antibiotics. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antibacterial activity and toxicity of the combination of these two plant species, and to design a stable gel for topical use including the blend of extracts. The combination of extracts was evaluated for synergistic effects (chequerboard assay), genotoxicity (Ames test) and cytotoxicity (Artemia salina test). A gel was subsequently formulated with the combination of extracts using carboxymethylcellulose as a polymer. The following physico- chemical characteristics of the gel formulation: pH, viscosity, spreadability and total phenol content, as well as resistance to severe temperature changes, biological activity (diffusion in agar), in vitro permeation (Franz cells) and primary dermal irritation (Draize test) were analyzed. The combination of extracts showed a synergistic effect on pathogenic bacteria and was not toxic in the in vitro tests. The gel was stable and retained the antimicrobial activity of the original extracts. The formulation proposed in this work could constitute an alternative for primary skin infections since it proved to be safe for topical administration.

Plants/adverse effects , Artemia/classification , Skin/injuries , Bignoniaceae/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutagenicity Tests/instrumentation
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e57856, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460995


This study evaluated the physicochemical and morphological properties of a marine sponge protein extract (PE) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), analysis of mass loss and pH and in vitro and in vivo. Scanning electron microscopy showed that PE fibers present a granular aspect and irregular structure and the element carbon followed by oxygen was detected in the EDS analysis. Moreover, a 29% of mass loss was observed after 14 days and the pH slightly modified after 14 days. Cell viability of fibroblast cells (L929) of control and PE at a concentration of 25% demonstrated higher values compared to the groups. Osteoblast cell viability of PE at 25 and 50% was significantly higher. Comet assay on day 1 showed higher values for PE at 25%. In addition, in vivo experiments demonstrated that in the treated animals, the bone defects were filled with biomaterial particles, granulation tissue and some areas of newly formed bone. Furthermore, similar immunoexpression of Runx-2 and Cox-2 was observed. Taken together, all results suggest that PE is biocompatible, present non-citotoxicity in the in vitro studies (at the lower concentration) and in the in vivo studies and it can be considered as an alternative source of collagen for tissue engineering proposals.

Porifera/chemistry , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Mutagenicity Tests , In Vitro Techniques
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250451


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate genotoxicity of zinc oxide, P. A. calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate and an iodoform paste using comet assay on human lymphocytes. Material and Methods: Two positive controls were used: methyl-methanesulfonate for the P.A. calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate; and doxorubicin for the iodoform paste and zinc oxide. There were also two negative controls: distilled water for the P.A. calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate; and DMSO for the iodoform paste and zinc oxide. Comets were identified using fluorescence microscopy and 100 of them were counted on each of the three slides analyzed per drug test. A damage index was established, taking into consideration the score pattern that had previously been determined from the size and intensity of the comet tail. Analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test, was used to compare the means of the DNA damage indices. Results: The DNA damage index observed for mineral trioxide aggregate (7.08 to 8.58) and P.A. calcium hydroxide (6.50 to 8.33), which were similar to negative control index. On the other hand, damage index for zinc oxide (104.7 to 218.50) and iodoform paste (115.7 to 210.7) were similar to positive control index. Conclusion: Iodoform paste and zinc oxide showed genotoxicity at all concentrations used.

Humans , Tooth, Deciduous , Zinc Oxide , Comet Assay , Genotoxicity , Mutagenicity Tests/instrumentation , Zinc Oxide , Brazil , Calcium Hydroxide , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(3): 425-437, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1143732


Abstract Introduction: Formaldehyde is a substance widely used in the industry; however, it is classified as mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans. In order to determine the risk of workers who are occupationally exposed to formaldehyde, it is necessary to monitor its environmental concentration levels and the biomarkers that allow identifying its potential health effects. Unfortunately, in Colombia there are not guidelines on occupational exposure to this substance. Objective: To review recent studies on occupational exposure to formaldehyde to design a monitoring and surveillance strategy for Colombian workers exposed to this substance. Materials and methods: A literature review was conducted in PubMed, MedLine, Science-Direct and Embase using the following search strategy: articles on occupational exposure to formaldehyde published in English or Spanish between 2013 and 2017. The following search terms were used: "occupational exposure", "formaldehyde" "mutagenicity test" y "DNA adducts" and their Spanish equivalents. Results: The initial search yielded 103 articles, of which only 36 met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: Proper management of the risk derived from occupational exposure to formaldehyde, as well as the appropriate medical follow-up of these workers, requires the implementation of a series of interdisciplinary actions that allow the creation of a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system for workers exposed to this substance.

Resumen Introducción. El formaldehido es una sustancia ampliamente usada a nivel industrial; sin embargo, es considerada un agente mutagénico y carcinógeno para los humanos. Para determinar el grado de riesgo de los trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos (TOE) al formaldehido, debe hacerse un seguimiento de sus niveles de concentración ambiental y de los biomarcadores que permiten identificar su daño potencial para la salud. En Colombia, lamentablemente, no existen lineamientos respecto a la exposición ocupacional a esta sustancia. Objetivo. Revisar estudios recientes sobre exposición ocupacional a formaldehido para diseñar una estrategia de seguimiento y vigilancia de los TOE a esta sustancia en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en PubMed, MedLine, ScienceDirect y Embase mediante la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: artículos sobre exposición ocupacional a formaldehido publicados en inglés o español entre 2013 y 2017. Los términos de búsqueda fueron "occupational exposure", "formaldehyde" "mutagenicity test" y "DNA adducts" y sus equivalentes en español. Resultados. La búsqueda inicial arrojó 103 registros, sin embargo solo 36 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión establecidos. Conclusiones. La gestión adecuada del riesgo derivado de la exposición ocupacional a formaldehido, asi como el seguimiento médico apropiado de estos trabajadores, requiere la implementación de una serie de acciones interdisciplinarias que permitan la creación de un sistema de vigilancia ocupacional integral de los TOE a esta sustancia.

Occupational Exposure , Biomarkers , Formaldehyde , Mutagenicity Tests
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 853-861, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129489


The present study tested a comet assay that was modified for compatibility with Giemsa staining to assess the drug genotoxicity in the peripheral blood of rats. We analysed the peripheral blood of 16 female Wistar rats (N=8 rats/group) from a control group and from a group that was treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg cyclophosphamide/kg. The comet assay was carried out with modifications of the blood volume and immersion time in the lysing solution and different combinations of electrophoresis conditions (running time, voltage and current), to Giemsa staining. The lysing time and electrophoresis conditions allowed for the expression of all classes of DNA damage during the electrophoresis run, and the comets were efficiently stained with Giemsa. The technique showed high reproducibility for the DNA classes. The results demonstrate that the modified comet assay with Giemsa staining can be standardized for routine laboratory procedures using a 20µL blood sample, 3h and 30min immersions in the lysing solution and electrophoresis runs with 23 to 25 V and 310 and 360mA of electrical current. The modified comet assay with Giemsa staining that was described in the present study was standardized to be applied in the laboratory routine.(AU)

O presente estudo testou um ensaio cometa modificado para a coloração de Giemsa para avaliar a genotoxicidade de fármacos no sangue periférico de ratos. Analisou-se o sangue periférico de 16 ratas Wistar (n=8 ratas/grupo) de um grupo controle e de um grupo que foi tratado com uma injeção intraperitoneal de 50mg/kg pv. de ciclofosfamida. O ensaio cometa foi realizado com modificações do volume sanguíneo e do tempo de imersão na solução de lise, bem como com diferentes combinações de condições de eletroforese (tempo de corrida, tensão e corrente), para coloração de Giemsa. O tempo de lise e as condições de eletroforese permitiram a expressão de todas as classes de danos no DNA durante a corrida de eletroforese, e os cometas foram eficientemente corados com Giemsa. A técnica mostrou alta reprodutibilidade para as classes de DNA. Os resultados demonstram que o ensaio cometa modificado com coloração de Giemsa foi padronizado para procedimentos laboratoriais de rotina usando-se uma amostra de sangue de 20µL, 3h30min de imersão na solução de lise e eletroforese com 23 a 25 V e 310 e 360mA. O ensaio cometa modificado com coloração de Giemsa descrito foi padronizado para ser aplicado na rotina laboratorial.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Staining and Labeling/veterinary , Azure Stains/toxicity , Comet Assay/veterinary , Genotoxicity/analysis , Electrophoresis/veterinary , Mutagenicity Tests/veterinary
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 38-45, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177420


BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5 g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0 g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
Colomb. med ; 51(1): e3646, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124610


Abstract Introduction: Car painters are routinely exposed to organic solvents classified as carcinogenic and mutagenic substances. Objective: To characterize the population susceptibility and evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to organic solvents. Methods: A cross-sectional study comparing a group of car painters exposed to organic solvents with a non-exposed group. CYP2E1 polymorphisms and the presence of micronuclei in lymphocytes were determined. Results: One hundred twenty-two workers participated in the study: 62 who worked in car paint shops and were exposed to solvents, and 60 who were not exposed. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding micronucleated cells and nucleoplasmic bridges frequencies (p=0.042 and p=0.046, respectively; exact likelihood ratio). Significant differences were found at the interaction between the CYP2E1 genotype c1c1 and occupational exposure to solvents, with higher frequencies of micronuclei (p= 0.013) and micronucleated cells (p= 0.015). However, when the frequencies of micronuclei, micronucleated cells and nucleoplasmic bridges in the exposure group were compared between the c1c1 and c2c2/c1c2 allele groups of the CYP2E1 polymorphism, statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: This study confirms that when workers with CYP2E1 polymorphisms, specifically the c1c1 genotype, are exposed to organic solvents, they are more likely to have somatic cell mutations, a condition associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as cancer

Resumen Introducción: Los pintores de vehículos automotores están rutinariamente expuestos a agentes como los solventes orgánicos, capaces de producir efectos mutágenos y carcinógenos. Objetivo: Caracterizar la susceptibilidad poblacional y evaluar los efectos genotóxicos debidos a la exposición a solventes orgánicos. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal que comparó a un grupo de pintores de carros expuestos a solven tes orgánicos con un grupo de personas no expuestas. Fueron determinados tanto los polimorfismos de CYP2E1 como la presencia de micronúcleos en linfocitos. Resultados: Participaron 122 personas, 62 trabajadores de talleres de pintura de autos expuestos a solventes y 60 personas no expuestas. Con relación al cuestionario Q 16, 32% de los expuestos refirieron síntomas sugestivos de neurotoxicidad. Las frecuencias de células micronucleadas y de puentes nucleoplásmicos fueron significativamente mayores en los expuestos que en los no expuestos: p= 0.042 y p= 0.046, respectivamente, Razón de verosimilitud exacta). Fueron halladas diferencias significativas en la interacción de CYP2E1 (c1c1) y la exposición ocupacional a solventes, con mayores frecuencias de micronúcleos (p= 0.013) y de células micronucleadas (p= 0.015). Conclusiones: Este estudio reafirma que los trabajadores expuestos a solventes orgánicos con polimorfismos de CYP2E1, específicamente con genotipo c1c1, tienen mayor probabilidad de presentar mutaciones en las células somáticas, condición asociada con una mayor susceptibilidad a enfermedades como el cáncer

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paint/toxicity , Solvents/toxicity , Carcinogens/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Automobiles , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Alleles , Personal Protective Equipment , Mutagenicity Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878294


Objective@#This research was performed to evaluate the effect of tebuconazole (TBZ) on reproductive organs of male rats and to assess the protective role of combined essential trace elements in alleviating the detrimental effect of TBZ on male reproductive function.@*Methods@#For this purpose, 48 rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg TBZ, TBZ supplemented with zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe), TBZ + (Se + Zn); TBZ + Cu; or TBZ + Fe. The experiment was conducted for 30 consecutive days.@*Results@#TBZ caused a significant perturbation in mineral levels and reduction in reproductive organs weights, plasma testosterone level, and testicular antioxidant enzyme activities. The TBZ-treated group also showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities (count, motility, and viability percent), plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and severe DNA degradation in comparison with the controls. Histopathologically, TBZ caused testis impairments. Conversely, treatment with trace elements, in combination or alone, improved the reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, TBZ-induced toxicity, and histopathological modifications in testis.@*Conclusion@#TBZ exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system. The concurrent administration of trace elements reduces testis dysfunction, fertility, and toxicity induced by TBZ.

Animals , Male , Rats , Animal Feed/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism , Diet , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects , Minerals/metabolism , Mutagenicity Tests , Rats, Wistar , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Triazoles/adverse effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9331, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098113


The melamine and cyanuric acid (CA) complex has been suggested to cause the toxic effects observed in melamine-contaminated food or milk. However, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of co-exposure to melamine and CA are not fully clear. Therefore, the cytotoxic effects of melamine and CA were first examined by co‐exposure in human kidney 293 cells using the MTT assay. During a 24-h period for the three concentrations tested (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/mL), neither melamine nor CA alone showed significant toxic effects on 293 cells at 0.5 mg/mL, while higher concentrations led to decreased in cell viability. However, co-exposure to several combinations of melamine and CA [100:1, 10:1, 1:10, and 1:100 (v:v), at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL] did cause cytotoxicity with higher levels of CA leading to higher cytotoxicity. By contrast, while neither melamine nor CA alone induced phosphorylated-H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation, melamine and CA at a 100:1 ratio induced γH2AX foci 24 h post-treatment. The alkaline comet assay also revealed the presence of DNA damage following melamine and CA co-exposure. In vivo assay also revealed the presence of melamine-CA complex in the kidney. These data indicated that the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of melamine and CA co-exposure differ from those of melamine or CA alone.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Triazines/toxicity , DNA Damage/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Time Factors , Kidney/embryology , Mutagenicity Tests
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: e1779, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489592


A defumação é um processo rotineiramente empregado nos alimentos como técnica de conservação, e uma maneira de proporcionar as características sensoriais específicas. Entretanto, o processo pode levar à formação de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs), que são compostos com dois ou mais anéis aromáticos condensados, alguns deles considerados carcinogênicos, mutagênicos e teratogênicos. Estudos em diversos países indicam que a contaminação de produtos cárneos defumados por diferentes HPAs é elevada e frequente, e desta maneira pode apresentar risco à saúde humana. O Brasil tem sido um dos maiores consumidores de carne no mundo, com tendência de aumentar o consumo de alimentos processados, e não é conhecida a real exposição da população aos HPAs pela ingestão de produtos cárneos defumados. Não há dados nacionais recentes quanto à contaminação destes alimentos com estes produtos. Considerando este panorama, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar a revisão das principais metodologias analíticas, dos aspectos regulatórios e dos níveis de HPAs detectados em produtos cárneos defumados. Ademais, são apresentadas as maneiras de reduzir a contaminação dos alimentos por estes compostos.

Smoking is a common process employed in food as a conservation technique, as well as to provide the specific sensory characteristics. However, the process can lead to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are composed of two or more fused aromatic rings, and some of them are considered carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. Studies conducted in several countries indicate that contamination of smoked meat products by different PAHs is high and frequent, and it may cause a risk to human health. Although Brazil has been one of the largest consumers of meat in the world, with a trend to increase the consumption of processed foods, it has not known the real population exposure to PAHs by consuming the smoked meat products. There is no recent national data on the contamination of these foods. Considering this scenario, this study aimed at reviewing the main analytical methodologies, the regulatory aspects and the levels of PAHs found in the smoked meat products. In addition, the forms to reduce the contamination by these compounds are presented.

Food, Preserved/analysis , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/isolation & purification , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Meat Products/analysis , Carcinogenic Danger , Carcinogenicity Tests , Mutagenicity Tests
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1319-1325, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1022203


Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze if environmental or occupational exposure to pesticides can produce changes in pregnant women living in a countryside municipality. Methods: The participants of this study were twenty-three pregnant women, who both answered a questionnaire and donated biological material in order to perform Micronucleus (MN) Tests in lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells, and also for measuring the enzyme activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Results: Considering the total analyzed samples, the following was found: an average of 8 ± 2.92 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from urban participants; an average of 6.82 ± 3.43 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from rural participants; and 100% of the microscope slides contained cells with two MN, which shows high intensity lesions to the DNA. There was found a high frequency of spontaneous abortions (34.8%), greater than in Brazil. Conclusion: The exposure of pregnant women living in a countryside municipality to pesticides may increase the rate of spontaneous abortions, as well as the chances of mutagenic effects

Objetivo: Analisar se a exposição ambiental ou ocupacional aos agrotóxicos causa alterações em gestantes residentes em um município rural. Métodos: Compuseram a amostra 23 gestantes, que responderam a um questionário e doaram amostras biológicas para a realização dos testes de micronúcleos (MN) em linfócitos, em células do epitélio oral, e para a dosagem da atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase eritrocitária. Resultados: Obteve-se uma média de 8 ± 2,92 MN/1000 células do epitélio oral analisadas em amostras de participantes da zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN/1000 de participantes da zona rural, e 100% das lâminas continham células com dois MN, o que demonstra lesões ao DNA de maior intensidade. Encontrou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de abortos espontâneos (34,8%), superior à encontrada no Brasil. Conclusão: A exposição de gestantes residentes em um município rural aos agrotóxicos eleva a taxa de abortos espontâneos, bem como as chances de ocorrência de efeitos mutagênicos

Objetivo: Analizar si la exposición ambiental o ocupacional a los agrotóxicos causa cambios en gestantes residentes en un municipio rural. Métodos: Compusieron la muestra 23 gestantes, que respondieron a un cuestionario y donaron muestras biológicas para la realización de las pruebas de micronúcleos (MN) en linfocitos, en células del epitelio oral, y para la dosificación de la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa eritrocitaria. Resultados: Se obtuvieron una media de 8 ± 2,92 MN / 1000 células del epitelio oral analizadas en muestras de participantes de la zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN / 1000 de participantes de la zona rural, y el 100% de las láminas contenían células con dos MN, lo que demuestra lesiones al ADN de mayor intensidad. Se encontró una frecuencia elevada de casos de abortos espontáneos (34,8%), superior a la encontrada en Brasil. Conclusión: La exposición de gestantes residentes en un municipio rural a los agrotóxicos eleva la tasa de abortos espontáneos, así como las posibilidades de ocurrencia de efectos mutagênicos

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Abortion , Mutagenicity Tests/methods , Acetylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 372-376, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055172


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death globally. Unfortunately, the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy following surgery has been less than a half. Besides, chemotherapy has many side effects. Current evidence suggests that some antidepressants like duloxetine have growth-inhibiting effects against a number of cancer cell lines. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of duloxetine on gastric cancer. METHODS: In this regard, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of duloxetine were investigated in MKN45 and NIH3T3 cell lines by MTT assay and on peripheral blood lymphocytes by MN assay. For this purpose, cells were cultured in 96 wells plate. Stock solutions of duloxetine and cisplatin were prepared. After cell incubation with different concentrations of duloxetine (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL), MTT solution was added. For micronucleus assay fresh blood was added to RPMI culture medium 1640 supplemented, and different concentrations of duloxetine (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL) were added. RESULTS: The cytotoxicity of duloxetine on MKN45 cancer cell line and NIH3T3 normal cell line were studied followed by MTT assay. duloxetine exhibited higher IC50 in the MKN45 cells in comparison with the NIH3T3 cells. In addition, genotoxic effect of duloxetine was evaluated by micronucleus assay. The results revealed that duloxetine induced more DNA damage at 100 and 200 μM and no significant difference at 200 μM with respect to cisplatin, but it had less genotoxic effects at 100 and 50 μM concentrations. CONCLUSION: Although, in this study, duloxetine had less genotoxicity than cisplatin in concentrations under 200 μM and showed cytotoxic effects as well, due to its IC50, it cannot be considered as a better choice for gastric cancer therapies with respect to cisplatin as a common anticancer drug.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer gástrico é a segunda principal causa de morte relacionada ao câncer globalmente. Infelizmente, a taxa de sobrevivência dos pacientes com câncer gástrico que se submeteram à quimioterapia após a cirurgia, tem sido inferior à metade. Além disso, a quimioterapia tem muitos efeitos colaterais. Evidências atuais sugerem que alguns antidepressivos como a duloxetina têm efeitos inibidores de crescimento contra um número de linhas de células cancerosas. OBJETIVO: Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos da duloxetina sobre o câncer gástrico. MÉTODOS: A este respeito, a citotoxicidade e a genotoxicidade da duloxetina foram investigadas em linhas celulares MKN45 e NIH3T3 por ensaio de MTT e por ensaio de MN em linfócitos periféricos de sangue. Para este efeito, as células foram cultivadas em 96 placas. Soluções de estoque de duloxetina e cisplatina foram preparadas. Após incubação celular com diferentes concentrações de duloxetina (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL), a solução de MTT foi adicionada. Para o teste do micronúcleo o sangue fresco foi adicionado ao meio de cultura RPMI 1640 suplementado, e as concentrações diferentes de duloxetina (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL) foram adicionadas. RESULTADOS: A citotoxicidade da duloxetina na linha celular cancerosa MKN45 e NIH3T3 linha celular normal foram estudadas e seguidas pelo ensaio de MTT. A duloxetina exibiu maior IC50 nas células MKN45 em comparação com as células NIH3T3. Além disso, o efeito genotóxico da duloxetina foi avaliado pelo ensaio de micronúcleos. Os resultados revelaram que a duloxetina induziu mais dano de DNA em 100 e 200 μM e não houve diferença significativa em 200 μM em relação à cisplatina, mas teve menos efeitos genotóxicos nas concentrações de 100 e 50 μM. CONCLUSÃO: Embora, neste estudo, a duloxetina tenha menos genotoxicidade do que a cisplatina em concentrações inferiores a 200 μm e também tenha mostrado efeitos citotóxicos, devido ao seu IC50, não pode ser considerada como uma escolha terapêutica melhor para o câncer gástrico no que diz respeito à cisplatina como uma droga anticâncer comum.

Humans , Animals , Mice , DNA Damage/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Duloxetine Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , NIH 3T3 Cells/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenicity Tests
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 155-159, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019454


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is known as the fourth most common cancer. Current treatments for cancer have damaged the sensitive tissues of the healthy body, and in many cases, cancer will be recurrent. Therefore, need for treatments that are more effective is well felt. Researchers have recently shifted their attention towards antipsychotic dopamine antagonists to treat cancer. The anticancer activities of aripiprazole remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole on gastric cancer and normal cell lines. METHODS: In this regard, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aripiprazole were investigated in MKN45 and NIH3T3 cell lines by methyl tetrazolium assay and on peripheral blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay. For this purpose, cells were cultured in 96 wells plate. Stock solutions of aripiprazole and cisplatin were prepared. After cell incubation with different concentrations of aripiprazole (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL), methyl tetrazolium solution was added. For micronucleus assay fresh blood was added to RPMI culture medium 1640 supplemented, and different concentrations of aripiprazole (50, 100 and 200 μL) were added. RESULTS: The finding of present study showed that the IC50 of aripiprazole in the cancer cell line (21.36 μg/mL) was lower than that in the normal cell line (54.17 μg/mL). Moreover, the micronucleus assay showed that the frequency of micronuclei of aripiprazole at concentrations below 200 μM was much less than cisplatin. CONCLUSION: Aripiprazole can be a good cytotoxic compound and good candidate for further studies of cancer therapy.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer gástrico é conhecido como o quarto câncer mais comum. Os tratamentos atuais para o câncer danificaram os tecidos sensíveis do corpo saudável e, em muitos casos, o cancro será recorrente. Portanto, a necessidade de tratamentos que são mais eficazes é desejada. Recentemente, os pesquisadores mudaram sua atenção para os antagonistas antipsicóticos da dopamina para tratar o câncer. As atividades anticâncer de aripiprazol permanecem desconhecidas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do aripiprazol no câncer gástrico e nas linhagens celulares normais. MÉTODOS: A este respeito, a citotoxicidade e a genotoxicidade do aripiprazol foram investigadas em linhas celulares MKN45 e NIH3T3 por ensaio de metil tetrazólio e em linfócitos periféricos de sangue por ensaio de micronúcleos. Para este efeito, as células foram cultivadas em 96 placas. As soluções de estoque de aripiprazol e cisplatina foram preparadas. Após incubação celular com diferentes concentrações de aripiprazol (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL), a solução de metil tetrazólio foi adicionada. Para o ensaio do micronúcleo o sangue fresco foi adicionado ao meio de cultura RPMI 1640 suplementado, e as concentrações diferentes de aripiprazole (50, 100 e 200 μL) foram adicionadas. RESULTADOS: O presente estudo mostrou que o IC50 de aripiprazol na linhagem celular cancerosa (21,36 μg/mL) foi menor do que na linha celular normal (54,17 μg/ mL). Além disso, o ensaio de micronúcleos demonstrou que a frequência de micronúcleos de aripiprazol em concentrações inferiores a 200 μM foi muito inferior à cisplatina. CONCLUSÃO: O aripiprazol pode ser um bom composto citotóxico e bom candidato para estudos adicionais da terapia do câncer.

Humans , Animals , Mice , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Aripiprazole/toxicity , Micronucleus Tests/methods , NIH 3T3 Cells/drug effects , Mutagenicity Tests
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190017, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012676


BACKGROUND Only benznidazole (Bnz) (1) and nifurtimox (Nfx) (2) are licensed for the treatment of Chagas disease although their safety and efficacy profile are far from ideal. Farmanguinhos from Fiocruz has developed seven nitroimidazole compounds (4-10) analogs of megazol (3). OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the genotoxic effect of 3 was abolished in the seven nitroimidazoles (4-10) analogs using the in vitro alkaline comet assay (CA) and the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in whole human blood cells (WHBC) and correlate this effect with their trypanocidal activity using bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS The toxicity of 3-10 to WHBC in the in vitro CA was determined using the fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assay. DNA damage in the in vitro CA was evaluated according to tail size in four classes (0-3) and methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS) was used as a positive control. The cytotoxicity of 3-10 to WHBC in the CBMN was measured using the cytokinesis-block proliferation index and the replication index. The number of the micronucleate cells in 2,000 binucleate cells by experimental group was determined. Mitomycin C and N-deacetyl-N-methylcolchicine were used as positive controls. FINDINGS Compound 3 showed a significant DNA strand break effect through the in vitro CA and highly significant clastogenic and/or aneugenic effect in the CBMN. Compounds 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10 showed negative results in the CBMN and positive results in the in vitro CA, while the inverse effect was observed for 4 and 7. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Compound 10 was the most promising to proceed with the development as a drug candidate in the treatment of Chagas disease showing absence of chromosomal cytogenetic damage and high activity against T. cruzi, about two times higher than 3 and the clinical drug 1.

Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Mutagenicity Tests/methods
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4742, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019812


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the induction of DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea. Methods The study subjects were divided into two groups: one group of 22 patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea, and a Control Group composed of 24 patients with sickle cell disease who were not treated with hydroxyurea. Peripheral blood samples were submitted to peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation to assess genotoxicity by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay, in which DNA damage biomarkers - micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds - were counted. Results Patients with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 25.4 years, whereas patients with sickle cell disease not treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 17.6 years. The mean dose of hydroxyurea used by the patients was 12.8mg/kg/day, for a mean period of 44 months. The mean micronucleus frequency per 1,000 cells of 8.591±1.568 was observed in the Hydroxyurea Group and 10.040±1.003 in the Control Group. The mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges per 1,000 cells and nuclear buds per 1,000 cells for the hydroxyurea and Control Groups were 0.4545±0.1707 versus 0.5833±0.2078, and 0.8182±0.2430 versus 0.9583±0.1853, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusion In the study population, patients with sickle cell disease treated with the standard dose of hydroxyurea treatment did not show evidence of DNA damage induction.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da indução de danos ao DNA em células monocelulares do sangue periférico de pacientes com doença falciforme, genótipos SS e SC, tratados com hidroxiureia. Métodos Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram divididos em dois grupos: um de 22 pacientes com doença falciforme genótipos SS e SC tratados com hidroxiureia, e o outro controle, composto por 24 pacientes com doença falciforme que não eram tratados com o fármaco. As amostras de sangue periférico foram submetidas ao isolamento de células mononucleares do sangue periférico para avaliação da genotoxicidade pelo ensaio de micronúcleo citoma com bloqueio da citocinese, tendo sido quantificados os biomarcadores de danos ao DNA - micronúcleos, pontes nucleoplasmáticas e brotamento nuclear. Resultados Os pacientes com doença falciforme tratados com hidroxiureia apresentaram média de idade de 25,4 anos, enquanto aqueles com doença falciforme não tratados com hidroxiureia tiveram média de idade de 17,6 anos. A dose média de hidroxiureia utilizada pelos pacientes foi de 12,8mg/kg/dia, por período médio de 44 meses. A frequência média de micronúcleos por 1.000 células de 8,591±1,568 foi observada no Grupo Hidroxiureia e de 10,040±1,003 no Grupo Controle. Adicionalmente, a frequência média de pontes nucleoplasmáticas por 1.000 células e brotamento nuclear por 1.000 células para o Grupo Hidroxiureia e Controle foi de 0,4545±0,1707 versus 0,5833±0,2078, e de 0,8182±0,2430 versus 0,9583±0,1853, respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão Na população estudada de pacientes com doença falciforme com tratamento em dose padrão de hidroxiureia, não houve evidência de indução de danos ao DNA.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , DNA Damage/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxyurea/pharmacology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , DNA Damage/genetics , Micronucleus Tests , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokinesis , Hydroxyurea/adverse effects , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Mutagenicity Tests , Mutation/drug effects
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272773


Background: Hexaflumuron (HFM) is an insect growth regulator (IGR); it is highly effective against a wide range of pests. Aim of the work: Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this insecticide especially the formulation type, the objective of the present study was aimed to investigate the toxicological effects of repeated exposure of HFM formulation on adult albino rats. Materials and methods: Three groups were administered daily by gavage for (28 days) at dose of 11, 4, and 2.5 mg/kg b.wt respectively. In addition to control group. Results: The results of acute toxicity indicated HFM exhibited moderate to some extent high toxicity toward the treated rats. Slight tremors and bleeding from nose were observed. The repeated exposure results revealed the high and middle doses exhibited methemoglobinemia. Also, the HFM treatment led to increase in AST and ALT levels. The urea and creatinine levels were not significantly increased except the level of creatinine in high dose. According to the histopathological findings the middle and low doses of HFM revealed greater injurious in liver and spleen tissues than induced by high dose. HFM induced a statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency in a dose-dependent manner compared with a negative control group. Conclusion: So, it is obvious the middle and low doses induced damage in the liver and spleen organs while the high dose induced damage in blood, bone marrow, and kidney organs

Albinism , Aptitude , Male , Mutagenicity Tests , Spleen
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 37(2): 75-86, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003928


Introducción: La enfermedad cerebrovascular constituye un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial. En la actualidad se desarrollan investigaciones científicas dedicadas al estudio de los efectos del campo magnético de frecuencia extremadamente baja para su tratamiento. No es suficientemente clara la información acerca de su inocuidad en las dosis estudiadas. Objetivo: Estudiar la seguridad de la aplicación del campo magnético de frecuencia extremadamente baja a nivel del sistema nervioso central a través de un estudio toxicológico a dosis aguda, repetida y ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea. Métodos: Se conformaron tres grupos experimentales con ratas Sprague Dawley Cenp:SPRD jóvenes y sanas para los experimentos de toxicidad y ratones CENP: NMRI para la evaluación mutagénica. Se utilizaron controles negativos no tratados. En el ensayo de micronúcleos se incorporó un grupo control positivo al que se administró Ciclofosfamida por vía intraperitoneal. Se aplicó un campo magnético no homogéneo con niveles de inducción magnética de 6,5 y 15 mT, tomando como referencia el valor máximo sobre la superficie de la bobina. Para la aplicación del campo magnético la bobina estimuladora se colocó sobre la cabeza asegurando la exposición completa del encéfalo. Resultados: En ninguno de los ensayos se detectaron signos de toxicidad. Se comprobó así mismo que no se indujeron efectos genotóxicos ni citotóxicos sobre las células somáticas. Conclusiones: El tratamiento con campo magnético de frecuencia extremadamente baja a nivel del sistema nervioso central en las condiciones experimentales y dosis estudiadas es seguro(AU)

Introduction: Stroke is a major health problem all over the world. Nowadays are developed scientific researches devoted to the study of extremely low frequency magnetic field effects over this illness. The information about it safety is unclear yet. Objective: To study the safety of extremely low frequency magnetic field applied at central nervous system level wasby means ofa toxicological assay (Acute, repeated doses and micronucleus in bone marrow assay) Methods: Three experimental groups were made with Sprague Dawley Cenp: SPRD young and healthy rats for toxicity experiments and CENP: NMRI mice for mutagen evaluation. Untreated negative controls were used. In the micronucleus assay, an additional positive control group was included. This group received Cyclophosphamide by intraperitoneal administration. Was applied a non-homogenousmagnetic fieldof 6,5 and 15 mT, taken as reference the maximum value over the coil surface. The coil was positioned over the head, ensuring full exposure of brain to magnetic field. Results : In none of trials were detected any sign of toxicity. It was also found no genotoxic or cytotoxic effects induced on somatic cells. Conclusions : These results indicated the safety of treatmentwith extremely low frequency magnetic field at central nervous system level for experimental conditions and doses studied(AU)

Animals , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Magnetic Field Therapy/methods , Toxicological Symptoms/toxicity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neuroprotection , Mutagenicity Tests/methods