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1.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 10(2): e202, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | UY-BNMED, BNUY, LILACS | ID: biblio-1513564

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el efecto del ácido clorogénico, uno de los compuestos polifenólicos con mayor concentración en la infusión de Ilex paraguariensis, sobre el daño celular y molecular inducido por el benzo(a)pireno. La infusión de Ilex paraguariensis ("mate") es bebida por la mayoría de los habitantes de Argentina, Paraguay, sur de Brasil y Uruguay. La levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae (cepas SC7K lys2-3; SX46A y SX46Arad14() se utilizó como modelo eucariota. Las células en crecimiento exponencial se expusieron a concentraciones crecientes de benzo(a)pireno y a tratamientos combinados con una concentración de 250 ng/mL de benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico a una concentración igual a la encontrada en la infusión de yerba mate. Luego de los tratamientos se determinaron fracciones de sobrevida, frecuencia mutagénica y roturas de doble cadena de ADN así como la modulación en la expresión de la proteína Rad14 a través de un análisis de Western Blot. Se observó un aumento significativo en las fracciones de sobrevida así como una disminución en la frecuencia mutagénica después de la exposición combinada con benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico en comparación con los tratamientos con benzo(a)pireno como único agente. En la cepa mutante deficiente en la proteína Rad14 se observó un aumento significativo en la sensibilidad a benzo(a)pireno en comparación con la cepa SC7K lys2-3. En los tratamientos combinados de benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico se observó una importante disminución de la letalidad. Con respecto a la determinación de roturas de doble cadena de ADN no se observó fraccionamiento cromosómico a la concentración de benzo(a)pireno utilizada en los experimentos. Los análisis de Western Blot mostraron un aumento en la expresión de la proteína Rad14 en las muestras tratadas con benzo(a)pireno como único agente en comparación con la muestra control. Adicionalmente se observó una disminución en la expresión de la proteína cuando en los tratamientos se utilizaron benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico combinados. Los resultados indican que el ácido clorogénico disminuye significativamente la actividad mutagénica producida por el benzo(a)pireno, la cual no se encuentra relacionada con un incremento en la remoción de las lesiones inducidas por el sistema de reparación por escisión de nucleótidos.


The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of chlorogenic acid, a polyphenolic compound found at high concentrations in Ilex paraguariensis infusions, on cellular and molecular damage induced by benzo(a)pyrene. Ilex paraguariensis infusions ("mate") are consumed by most of the population in Argentina, Paraguay, southern Brazil and Uruguay. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (SC7K lys2-3; SX46A and SX46Arad14( strains) were used as eukaryotic model organisms. Cells in an exponential growth phase were exposed to increasing concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene, as well as combined treatments of benzo(a)pyrene at a concentration of 250 ng/mL and chlorogenic acid at a concentration matching that which is commonly found in mate. Determinations of surviving fraction, mutagenic frequency and double strand DNA breaks induction were performed, along with the assessment of the modulation of the expression of protein Rad14 by Western Blot. A significant increase of surviving fractions and a decrease in mutagenic frequency were observed after exposure to benzo(a)pyrene plus chlorogenic acid, contrary to benzo(a)pyrene alone. A substantial increase in sensitivity to benzo(a)pyrene was observed for the Rad14 protein-deficient mutating strain when compared to the SC7K lys2-3 strain. An important decrease in lethality was observed when combined benzo(a)pyrene and chlorogenic acid treatments were applied. As for the determination of DSBs, no chromosomic fractionation was observed at the benzo(a)pyrene concentration tested in the experiments. Western Blot analysis showed an increase in the expression of protein Rad14 for samples treated with benzo(a)pyrene as a single agent when compared against the control sample. Additionally, the expression of this protein was observed to diminish when combined treatments with benzo(a)pyrene and chlorogenic acid were used. Results obtained indicate that chlorogenic acid significantly decreases the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene, which is not related to an increase in the removal of lesions induced by nucleotide excision repair system.


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do ácido clorogênico, um dos compostos polifenólicos com maior concentração na infusão de Ilex paraguariensis, sobre o dano celular e molecular induzido pelo benzopireno. A infusão de Ilex paraguariensis ("mate") é consumida pela maioria dos habitantes da Argentina, Paraguai, sul do Brasil e Uruguai. A levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae (cepas SC7K lys2-3; SX46A e SX46Arad14() foi utilizada como modelo eucariótico. Células em crescimento exponencial foram expostas a concentrações crescentes de benzopireno e tratamentos combinados foram realizados com uma concentração de 250 ng/mL de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico, igual à encontrada na infusão de erva-mate. Após os tratamentos, foram determinadas as frações de sobrevivência, frequência mutagênica e quebras de fita dupla do DNA, bem como a modulação na expressão da proteína Rad14 por meio de análise de Western Blot. Um aumento significativo nas frações de sobrevivência, bem como uma diminuição na frequência mutagênica foram observados após a exposição combinada de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico em comparação com tratamentos de agente único de benzo(a)pireno. Um aumento significativo na sensibilidade ao benzo(a)pireno foi observado na cepa mutante deficiente em proteína Rad14 em comparação com a cepa SC7K lys2-3. Nos tratamentos combinados de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico, observou-se uma diminuição significativa na letalidade. Com relação à determinação das quebras de fita dupla de DNA, não foi observado fracionamento cromossômico na concentração de benzo(a)pireno utilizada nos experimentos. A partir da análise de Western Blot, observou-se um aumento na expressão da proteína Rad14 nas amostras tratadas com benzo(a)pireno como agente único em relação à amostra controle. Além disso, uma diminuição na expressão da proteína foi observada quando combinados de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico foram usados ​​nos tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho indicam que o ácido clorogênico diminui significativamente a atividade mutagênica produzida pelo benzo(a)pireno, a qual não está relacionada a um aumento na remoção de lesões induzidas pelo sistema de reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos.


Subject(s)
Benzo(a)pyrene/pharmacology , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Cell Death/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/adverse effects , DNA Repair Enzymes/genetics , Benzo(a)pyrene/toxicity , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Cell Death/genetics , Antimutagenic Agents/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded/drug effects , Mutation Rate
2.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e203, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1248717

ABSTRACT

El vino tinto variedad Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat en los últimos años ha tomado relevancia por su alta concentración de polifenoles, esto le podría significar un rol protector sobre el genoma disminuyendo la formación de lesiones oxidativas. Los efectos a nivel celular de las radiaciones ionizantes en blancos como el ADN, componentes de cascadas de transducción de señales, resultan en lesiones letales, mutagénicas y recombinogénicas y en retardos en el ciclo celular. Se utilizó como modelo eucariota poblaciones de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en fase exponencial expuestas a radiación gamma (200 Gy) en presencia, o ausencia, de vino Tannat (10 % v/v) o de ácido tánico (60 µg/mL). Se estimaron las probabilidades de sobrevida y frecuencia mutagénica en distintas condiciones. Las muestras celulares expuestas a radiación ionizante presentaron una fracción de sobrevida de 0.21 ± 0.02 mientras que en las muestras irradiadas en presencia de vino Tannat o de ácido tánico la fracción de sobrevida fue de 0.33 ± 0.03 y 0.30 ± 0.03 respectivamente. Se observó en las poblaciones irradiadas un aumento significativo de la probabilidad de mutagénesis. En el caso de los tratamientos combinados se observó que la frecuencia mutagénica fue significativamente menor (gamma Tannat: 33%, gamma ácido tánico: 45% ). Estos resultados preliminares podrían indicar radioprotección moderada por parte de los compuestos estudiados, efecto que podría explicarse por las interacciones redox del ácido tánico y polifenoles contenidos en el vino con los radicales libres formados por las radiaciones ionizantes, además de la activación de vías de reparación genómica.


The red wine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat in recent years has gained relevance due to its high concentration of polyphenols, this could mean a protective role on the genome, reducing the formation of oxidative lesions. The effects at the cellular level of ionizing radiation on targets such as DNA, components of signal transduction cascades, result in lethal, mutagenic and recombinogenic lesions and delays in the cell cycle. Exponential phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to gamma radiation (200 Gy) in the presence or absence of Tannat wine (10% v / v) or tannic acid (60 µg / ml) were used as a eukaryotic model. The probabilities of survival and mutagenic frequency in different conditions were estimated. Cellular samples exposed to ionizing radiation presented a survival fraction of 0.21 ± 0.02, while in samples irradiated in the presence of Tannat wine or tannic acid, the survival fraction was 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.30 ± 0.03 respectively. A significant increase in the probability of mutagenesis was observed in irradiated populations. In the case of the combined treatments, it was observed that the mutagenic frequency was significantly lower (Tannat gamma: 33%, Tannic acid gamma: 45%). These preliminary results could indicate moderate radioprotection by the compounds studied, an effect that could be explained by the redox interactions of tannic acid and polyphenols contained in wine with the free radicals formed by ionizing radiation, in addition to the activation of genomic repair pathways.


A variedade de vinho tinto Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat nos últimos anos tem ganhado relevância devido à sua alta concentração de polifenóis, o que pode significar um papel protetor do genoma, reduzindo a formação de lesões oxidativas. Os efeitos no nível celular da radiação ionizante em alvos como o DNA, componentes de cascatas de transdução de sinal, resultam em lesões letais, mutagênicas e recombinogênicas e atrasos no ciclo celular. Populações de fase exponencial de Saccharomyces cerevisiae expostas à radiação gama (200 Gy) na presença ou ausência de vinho Tannat (10% v / v) ou ácido tânico (60 µg / ml) foram utilizadas como modelo eucariótico. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de sobrevivência e frequência mutagênica em diferentes condições. As amostras celulares expostas à radiação ionizante apresentaram uma fração de sobrevivência de 0,21 ± 0,02, enquanto nas amostras irradiadas na presença de vinho Tannat ou ácido tânico, a fração de sobrevivência foi de 0,33 ± 0,03 e 0,30 ± 0,03, respectivamente. Um aumento significativo na probabilidade de mutagênese foi observado nas populações irradiadas. No caso dos tratamentos combinados, observou-se que a frequência mutagênica foi significativamente menor (Tannat gama: 33%, ácido tânico gama: 45%). Esses resultados preliminares podem indicar radioproteção moderada pelos compostos estudados, efeito que pode ser explicado pelas interações redox do ácido tânico e polifenóis contidos no vinho com os radicais livres formados pela radiação ionizante, além da ativação de vias de reparo genômico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tannins/pharmacology , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Survival Rate , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mutation Rate
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1533-1539, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the relationship between JAK2 gene mutation and clinical indicators in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).@*METHODS@#122 MPN patients in the Department of Hematology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from September 2017 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between JAK2 gene mutation and sex, age, peripheral blood cell count, splenomegaly, and thrombosis and bleeding events were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In 122 patients with MPN, the patients with polycythemia vera (PV) accounted for 36 (29.5%), the patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) accounted for 56 (45.9%), the patients with myelofibrosis (MF) accounted for 30 (24.6%). The JAK2 gene mutation rate in MPN patients was 64.6% (79/122), and the JAK2 gene mutation rate in PV, ET and MF groups were 77.7% (28/36), 60.7% (34/56) and 56.7% (17/30), the JAK2 gene mutation rate of the patients in PV group was statistically significant as compared with those in the ET group (P<0.05). The hemoglobin (Hb) count of the patients in JAK2 gene mutation group was higher than those in wild-type group [(150.0±39.6)g/L vs (129.4±38.9)g/L, P<0.05]; the white blood cell (WBC) count of the patients in JAK2 gene mutation group was higher than those in the wild type group [(9.5±4.7)×10@*CONCLUSION@#The mutation rate of JAK2 gene in MPN patients is higher, and the mutation rate of JAK2 gene in PV patients is higher than that in ET and MF patients; JAK2 gene mutations in MPN patients are related to hemogram index; the incidence of splenomegaly is the highest in MF patients, and splenomegaly is related to the occurrence of JAK2 gene mutations in MF patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Janus Kinase 2/genetics , Mutation Rate , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics , Polycythemia Vera , Retrospective Studies
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 3-6, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880560

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands deaths and millions of infections and continued spreading violently. Although researchers are racing to find or develop effective drugs or vaccines, no drugs from modern medical system have been proven effective and the high mutant rates of the virus may lead it resistant to whatever drugs or vaccines developed following modern drug development procedure. Current evidence has demonstrated impressive healing effects of several Chinese medicines (CMs) for Covid-19, which urges us to reflect on the role of CM in the era of modern medicine. Undoubtedly, CM could be promising resources for developing drug candidates for the treatment of Covid-19 in a way similar to the development of artemisinin. But the theory that builds CM, like the emphasis of driving away exogenous pathogen (virus, etc.) by restoring self-healing capacity rather than killing the pathogen directly from the inside and the 'black-box' mode of diagnosing and treating patients, is as important, yet often ignored, an treasure as CM herbs and should be incorporated into modern medicine for future advancement and innovation of medical science.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Development/standards , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 57 p. ilust, quadros.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1179140

ABSTRACT

Adenocarcinoma gástrico (AdG) possui uma alta incidência na população mundial e brasileira. É um tipo tumoral cujos sintomas são bastante inespecíficos no seu início, resultando no diagnóstico já em estadios avançados. Recentemente, foi proposta uma nova classificação, estratificando o AdG em quatro subtipos, sendo um deles caracterizado pela infecção pelo Epstein Barr vírus (EBV). Neste subtipo, por sua vez, não são totalmente conhecidos os mecanismos subjacentes à infecção, os quais podem estar relacionados à instabilidade genômica e mecanismos adicionais de tumorigênese. Deste modo, o presente estudo fez uso de abordagens de Bioinformática para análise de dados públicos (TCGA) e sua validação no painel gênico de pacientes com AdG do A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, buscando assinaturas mutacionais relacionadas à instabilidade genômica na presença de EBV. A partir dos dados obtidos do consórcio TCGA, observamos expressão aumentada de APOBEC3s no subtipo molecular de AdG EBV positivo. Também foi possível ver maior taxa mutacional, no contexto TCW, nesse subtipo molecular, condizente com a ação de APOBECs. Na coorte do A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, foram obtidas amostras de tecido e de suco gástrico de 240 pacientes com AdG (caso) e 137 controles saudáveis. Nos pacientes caso, foi possível observar 6% de amplificação de fragmento de EBV na biópsia e 11,1% no Suco Gástrico. Os achados do TCGA foram validados na coorte do hospital, utilizando painel gênico. Foi possível cofirmar que a ação da família APOBEC3 está mais presente em amostras EBV positivas, indicando a ação viral na instabilidade gênica em AdG, através da família APOBEC


Gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) is highly frequent in the world and in Brazilian population. It's symptoms are rather nonspecific in the beginning, being diagnosed in advanced stages. Recently, a new classification was proposed, stratifying GA in four subtypes, one characterized by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Yet, in this subtype, the underlying mechanisms of infection are not fully understood, which may be related to genomic instability and additional mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Thus, the present study made use of Bioinformatics approaches for public data analysis (TCGA) and its validation in the gene panel of A.C.Camargo Cancer Center patients with GA, searching for mutational signatures related to genomic instability in the presence of EBV. Analysing data from TCGA consortium, we observed increased expression of APOBEC3s in the EBV positive GA molecular subtype. It was also possible to observe a higher mutational rate, in TCW context, in GA with EBV infection, consistent with APOBECs action. In A.C.Camargo Cancer Center cohort, tissue samples and gastric juice were collected from 240 GA patients (case) and 137 healthy controls. It was possible to observe 6% EBV fragment amplification in biopsy and 11.1% in Gastric Juice. TCGA findings were validated in the hospital cohort, by gene panel. It was possible to confirm that APOBEC3 family members are more abundant in EBV positive samples, indicating a viral action in GA genomic instability through APOBEC3 members


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Mutation Rate , APOBEC Deaminases , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Chemical
7.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 99-103, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763277

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in Korean women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes cause hereditary breast cancer and are detected in 15–20% of hereditary breast cancer. We investigated the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in 114 familial breast cancer patients using next-generation sequencing. We confirmed 20 different mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 25 subjects (21.9%). Two such mutations in eight patients were novel (not reported in any variant database or previous study). Six mutations have been reported as disease-causing mutations in public databases. Seven mutations were found only in a single nucleotide polymorphism database and one mutation has been reported in Korea. The BRCA1/2 mutation frequency was similar to that of other studies on familial breast cancer patients in the Korean population. Further studies should examine more cases and mutations of whole exons.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , BRCA1 Protein , BRCA2 Protein , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Exons , Genes, BRCA2 , Germ-Line Mutation , Korea , Mutation Rate , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 128-140, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719711

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prevalence of PIK3CA in Chinese breast cancer patients may be underestimated. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of somatic PIK3CA/AKT1 mutations in Chinese breast cancer patients and explored their roles in tumor phenotypes and disease prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors from 507 breast cancer patients were prospectively collected from the West China Hospital between 2008 and 2013. Whole exons of AKT1 and PIK3CA were detected in fresh-frozen tumors using next-generation sequencing, and correlations between PIK3CA/AKT1 mutations and clinicopathological features were analyzed. RESULTS: The AKT1 mutation was found in 3.6% (18/507) of patients. Tumors from patients that carried the AKT1 mutation were estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)‒ and were more likely to have high expression levels of Ki67. The prevalence of the PIK3CA mutation was 46.5% (236/507), and 35 patients carried two or three variants of the PIK3CA gene. PIK3CA mutations were associated with ER+/PR+/HER2‒ status. The prognosis of patients with one mutation in PIK3CA (or PIK3CA/AKT1) was not significantly different than that of patients with wild-type PIK3CA (or PIK3CA/AKT1), while patients with two or three variants in PIK3CA (or PIK3CA/AKT1) exhibited poorer outcomes in the entire group and in all three subgroups (ER+, HER2‒, Ki67 high), particularly with respect to overall survival. CONCLUSION: A high frequency of somatic PIK3CA mutations was detected in Chinese breast cancer patients. In addition to the mutation frequency, the tumor mutational burden of the PIK3CA and AKT1 genes should also be of concern, as they may be associated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , China , Estrogens , Exons , Mutation Rate , Phenotype , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ErbB Receptors
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 657-663, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the instability of mitochondrial DNA(mt DNA) D-loop region genes in patients with Leukemia.@*METHODS@#The HV-1 and HV-2 regions of D-loop region in 24 patients with leukemia were amplificated and sequenced, then their results were compared with revised Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS) and Databank mtDB. The mutation rate was detected by SPSS 22.0 statistics software.@*RESULTS@#The total mutation rate in patients was 95.83% (23/24), the detection showed 82 mutated genes, out of which 47 (57.32%) mutated genes located in HV-1 region, 35 (42.68%) mutated genes in HV-2 region. The comparison showed that the mutation rate in untreated (UT) group and treated (T) group of AML patients was (2.37±0.82)×10 and (4.76±2.45)×10 respectively(P<0.01), the mutation rate in PR and CR groups of treated AML patients was (5.10±2.56)×10 and (4.51±2.51)×10 respectively (P<0.05), the comparison among M3 group showed that the mutation rates in UT, PR and CR groups were (2.55±0.63)×10, (5.37±3.41)×10 and (3.71±1.65)×10 respectively (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The more high mutation rate and many kinds of mutation types exist in D-loop region, suggesting that the genes in D-loop region display the more strong instability, the chemotherapy may aggravate the instability of genes in D-loop region.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Mitochondrial , Leukemia , Mitochondria , Mutation , Mutation Rate
11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 378-385, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present multi-institutional study, the prevalence and clinicopathologic characteristics of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) were evaluated among Korean patients who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).METHODS: Data from 18,819 patients with PTC from eight university hospitals between January 2012 and February 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Pathology reports of all PTCs and slides of potential NIFTP cases were reviewed. The strict criterion of no papillae was applied for the diagnosis of NIFTP. Due to assumptions regarding misclassification of NIFTP as non-PTC tumors, the lower boundary of NIFTP prevalence among PTCs was estimated. Mutational analysis for BRAF and three RAS isoforms was performed in 27 randomly selected NIFTP cases.RESULTS: The prevalence of NIFTP was 1.3% (238/18,819) of all PTCs when the same histologic criteria were applied for NIFTP regardless of the tumor size but decreased to 0.8% (152/18,819) when tumors ≥1 cm in size were included. The mean follow-up was 37.7 months and no patient with NIFTP had evidence of lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or disease recurrence during the follow-up period. A difference in prevalence of NIFTP before and after NIFTP introduction was not observed. BRAF(V600E) mutation was not found in NIFTP. The mutation rate for the three RAS genes was 55.6% (15/27).CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence and indolent clinical outcome of NIFTP in Korea was confirmed using the largest number of cases to date. The introduction of NIFTP may have a small overall impact in Korean practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Papillary , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, ras , Hospitals, University , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mutation Rate , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology , Prevalence , Protein Isoforms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7404, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951760

ABSTRACT

DNA repair pathways, cell cycle checkpoints, and redox protection systems are essential factors for securing genomic stability. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of Ilex paraguariensis (Ip) infusion and one of its polyphenolic components rutin on cellular and molecular damage induced by ionizing radiation. Ip is a beverage drank by most inhabitants of Argentina, Paraguay, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC7Klys 2-3) was used as the eukaryotic model. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to gamma rays (γ) in the presence or absence of Ip or rutin. The concentrations used simulated those found in the habitual infusion. Surviving fractions, mutation frequency, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were determined after treatments. A significant increase in surviving fractions after gamma irradiation was observed following combined exposure to γ+R, or γ+Ip. Upon these concomitant treatments, mutation and DSB frequency decreased significantly. In the mutant strain deficient in MEC1, a significant increase in γ sensitivity and a low effect of rutin on γ-induced chromosomal fragmentation was observed. Results were interpreted in the framework of a model of interaction between radiation-induced free radicals, DNA repair pathways, and checkpoint controls, where the DNA damage that induced activation of MEC1 nodal point of the network could be modulated by Ip components including rutin. Furthermore, ionizing radiation-induced redox cascades can be interrupted by rutin potential and other protectors contained in Ip.


Subject(s)
Rutin/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/radiation effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antimutagenic Agents/pharmacology , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Radiation Protection/methods , Mass Spectrometry , DNA, Fungal/radiation effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, Liquid , Mutagenesis , DNA Repair , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , Mutation Rate , Gamma Rays
13.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 14-20, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713224

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of mutation rate, some difficulties exist in estimating it. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data yields large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which can make it feasible to estimate substitution rates. The genetic substitution rates of Hanwoo and Holstein cattle were estimated using NGS data. Our main findings was to calculate the gene's substitution rates. Through estimation of genetic substitution rates, we found: diving region of altered substitution density exists. This region may indicate a boundary between protected and unprotected genes. The protected region is mainly associated with the gene ontology terms of regulatory genes. The genes that distinguish Hanwoo from Holstein in terms of substitution rate predominantly have gene ontology terms related to blood and circulatory system. This might imply that Hanwoo and Holstein evolved with dissimilar mutation rates and processes after domestication. The difference in meat quality between Hanwoo and Holstein could originate from differential evolution of the genes related to these blood and circulatory system ontology terms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Diving , Gene Ontology , Genes, Regulator , Genome , Meat , Mutation Rate
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 13-19, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742510

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer that went undetected by amplification refractory mutation system-Scorpion real-time PCR (ARMS-PCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 specimens were obtained from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from August 2014 to August 2015. In total, 100 ARMS-negative and 100 ARMS-positive specimens were evaluated for EGFR gene mutations by Sanger sequencing. The methodology and sensitivity of each method and the outcomes of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 100 ARMS-PCR-positive samples, 90 were positive by Sanger sequencing, while 10 cases were considered negative, because the mutation abundance was less than 10%. Among the 100 negative cases, three were positive for a rare EGFR mutation by Sanger sequencing. In the curative effect analysis of EGFR-TKIs, the progression-free survival (PFS) analysis based on ARMS and Sanger sequencing results showed no difference. However, the PFS of patients with a high abundance of EGFR mutation was 12.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.6−12.4 months], which was significantly higher than that of patients with a low abundance of mutations detected by Sanger sequencing (95% CI, 10.7−11.3 months) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The ARMS method demonstrated higher sensitivity than Sanger sequencing, but was prone to missing mutations due to primer design. Sanger sequencing was able to detect rare EGFR mutations and deemed applicable for confirming EGFR status. A clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in patients with rare EGFR mutations is needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Base Sequence , Disease-Free Survival , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation/genetics , Mutation Rate , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Treatment Outcome
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 119-127, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742495

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis. Both the etiology of KD and the erythema of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) injection sites observed in the disease are poorly understood. We investigated the association between KD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two candidate genes: inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 3-kinase (ITPKC), a well-studied KD-associated gene, and solute carrier 11a1 (SLC11A1), which is associated with the hypersensitive reaction to the BCG strain in Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Associations between KD and SNPs in two genes were evaluated. Potential associations between BCG injection site erythema and SNPs in two genes were also evaluated. Gene-gene interactions between ITPKC and SLC11A1 in KD and BCG injection site erythema were also analyzed. RESULTS: Three tagging SNPs in ITPKC and five tagging SNPs in SLC11A1 were genotyped in 299 KD patients and 210 control children. SNP rs28493229 in ITPKC was associated with KD and coronary artery complications. SNP rs77624405 in SLC11A1 was associated with KD. Comparisons of KD patients with and without BCG injection site erythema revealed that SNP rs17235409 in SLC11A1 was associated with erythema; no erythema-associated SNPs in ITPKC were identified. Interactions between ITPKC rs28493229_GG and SLC11A1 rs17235409_GA and between ITPKC rs10420685_GG and SLC11A1 rs17235409_AA were strongly associated with BCG injection site erythema. CONCLUSION: This study identified several important polymorphisms in the ITPKC and SLC11A1 genes in Koreans. The genetic variants identified in this study affected KD and erythema of BCG injection sites independently and through gene-gene interactions. Also, the effects of the polymorphisms were age-dependent.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Asian People/genetics , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Epistasis, Genetic , Erythema/complications , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mutation Rate , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Republic of Korea
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 866-870, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689562

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the mutation rate and clinical characteristics of CALR, MPL W515K and JAK2 V617F genes in patients with primary thrombocythemia (PT).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty-six patients with PT were selected as the research objects in our hospital. The CALR and MPL W515K gene mutations were determined by genomic DNA-PCR direct sequencing of the PCR products, and the JAK2 V617F gene mutation was detected by allele specific PCR method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the 56 patients with PT there were 14 cases of CALR gene mutation with the incidence rate of 25%, including 6 cases of type I, 5 cases of type II and 3 cases of type III. The sex, age, platelet(Plt) count, white blood cell (WBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) level in the type I case of CALR gene mutation all were not significantly different from that in type II and III(all P>0.05); the WBC level in type III group significantly increased in comparison of type II group (P<0.05), while the sex, age, Hb and Plt levels showed no significant difference between the type III and type II groups (P>0.05). There were 3 cases of MPL W515K gene mutation with the incidence rate of 5.36%; 21 cases of JAK2 V617F gene mutation with the incidence rate of 37.50%. There were 13 cases of CALR gene mutation in negative patients with MPL W515K and JAK2 V617F (18 cases) with 72.22% incidence rate (13/18), and there was no cases of 1 or 2 gene mutations coexisted. The levels of Hb and WBC in peripheral blood of patients with CALR mutation were significantly lower than those of JAK2 V617F mutation (both P<0.05). In 56 cases, there were 3 cases of abnormal karyotype, with the incidence rate of 5.36%. The mutation rate of CALR gene in abnormal karyotypes (66.67%) was significantly higher than that of normal karyotypes (20.75%) (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The incidence of JAK2 V617F gene mutation increases in the patients with primary thrombocythemia; CALR mutation rate is higher in the patients with negative MPL W515K and JAK2 V617F gene mutation, which may closely correlate with abnormal karyotype; the levels of peripheral Hb and WBC in PT the patients with CALR gene mutation are significantly lower than those in patients with JAK2 V617F mutation.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Calreticulin , Janus Kinase 2 , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Receptors, Thrombopoietin , Thrombocythemia, Essential
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 411-416, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 30 Y-STR loci in Chinese Han males and to evaluate its forensic application.@*METHODS@#The DNA extracted from blood samples of 1 005 unrelated males and 1 008 father-son pairs (1 949 individuals in all) in Chinese Han population were typed using developed 30 Y-STR loci identification system. The parameters of population genetics and the mutation rates of each locus were analysed statistically.@*RESULTS@#A total of 983 haplotypes were found in 1 005 unrelated males from Chinese Han population, of which 963 were unique. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) were 0.999 955 and 0.978 109, respectively. Totally 340 alleles were detected on 30 Y-STR loci, the value of gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.410 3 to 0.952 3. The GD values of 24 out of the 30 loci were over 0.6. There were 30 269 allele transfers in 1 008 father-son pairs, one mutation in 68 father-son pairs, and the mutation of three father-son pairs occurred at two loci. On 26 Y-STR loci, 74 mutations were detected in 71 father-son pairs. The average mutation rates were 2.4×10⁻³ (95% CI: 1.9×10⁻³-3.1×10⁻³). Seventy-three mutation events were one-step mutation (98.6%), 1 mutation event was two-step mutation (1.4%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The multiplex PCR system with 30 Y-STR loci has high genetic polymorphism and low mutation rates in Chinese Han males. Therefore, the system shows important values in Y-STR database construction and population genetic research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alleles , Asian People/genetics , China , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Haplotypes , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation/genetics , Mutation Rate , Polymorphism, Genetic
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 236-241, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To select a Y-STR marker system with strong haplotype identification ability, appropriate mutation rate and high compatibility and to assess its forensic application.@*METHODS@#The 24 Y-STR loci were tested by self-built fluorescent multiplex system, and the forensic assessment was conducted by 139 pairs of father-son samples collected in Jinan, Shandong province.@*RESULTS@#Totally 176 alleles were identified among the 24 Y-STR loci in the sample of 139 unrelated individuals labeled with father, and the gene diversity (GD) distributed between 0.083 7 (DYS645)-0.966 9 (DYS385a/b). According to the 24 Y-STR loci, 139 different haplotypes were detected from 139 unrelated male individuals labeled with father in Han population of Shandong province and with no shared haplotype observed. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) was 1 and the discrimination capacity (DC) was 1. A total of 5 one-step mutations events were observed among the 24 Y-STR loci in 139 pairs of father-son. The average mutation rate was 0.001 5 [95% CI (0.000 5, 0.003 5)].@*CONCLUSIONS@#The system of 24 Y-STR loci shows a strong individual recognition ability and low mutation rate in the population in Jinan, Shandong province, and it has good application value in forensic science.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alleles , China , Chromosomes, Human, Y , Forensic Genetics , Forensic Sciences , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Haplotypes , Mutation Rate , Population Groups
19.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 280-285, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718754

ABSTRACT

For many years, developmental and physiological differences have been known to exist between anatomic segments of the colorectum. Because of different outcomes, prognoses, and clinical responses to chemotherapy, the distinction between right colon cancer (RCC) and left colon cancer (LCC) has gained attention. Furthermore, variations in the molecular features and gut microbiota between right and LCCs have recently been a hot research topic. CpG island methylator phenotype-high, microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancers are more likely to occur on the right side whereas tumors with chromosomal instability have been detected in approximately 75% of LCC patients and 30% of RCC patients. The mutation rates of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes also differ between RCC and LCC patients. Biofilm is more abundant in RCC patients than LLC patients, as are Prevotella, Selenomonas, and Peptostreptococcus. Conversely, Fusobacterium, Escherichia/Shigella, and Leptotrichia are more abundant in LCC patients compared to RCC patients. Distinctive characteristics are apparent in terms of molecular features and gut microbiota between right and LCC. However, how or to what extent these differences influence diverging oncologic outcomes remains unclear. Further clinical and translational studies are needed to elucidate the causative relationship between primary tumor location and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms , Chromosomal Instability , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , CpG Islands , Drug Therapy , Fusobacterium , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Leptotrichia , Microsatellite Repeats , Mutation Rate , Oncogenes , Peptostreptococcus , Prevotella , Prognosis , Selenomonas , Treatment Outcome
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1294-1303, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717739

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among the clinical characteristics and the frequency of T790M mutation in advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients with acquired resistance after firstline EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled EGFR-mutant stage IIIB-IV lung adenocarcinoma patients, who had progressed to prior EGFR-TKI therapy, and evaluated their rebiopsy EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: A total of 205 patients were enrolled for analysis. The overall T790M mutation rate of rebiopsy was 46.3%. The T790M mutation rates among patients with exon 19 deletion mutation, exon 21 L858R point mutation, and other mutations were 55.0%, 37.3%, and 27.3%, respectively. Baseline exon 19 deletion was associated with a significantly higher frequency of T790M mutation (adjusted odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 3.83; p=0.010). In the exon 19 deletion subgroup, there was a greater prevalence of T790M mutation than other exon 19 deletion subtypes in patients with the Del E746-A750 mutation (61.6% vs. 40.6%; odds ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.49; p=0.049). The progression-free survival (PFS) of first-line TKI treatment > 11 months was also associated with a higher T790M mutation rate (54.1% vs. 39.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02 to 3.25; p=0.044). Patients who underwent rebiopsy at metastatic sites had more chance to harbor T790M mutation (52.6% vs. 33.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.67; p=0.032). CONCLUSION: PFS of first-line EGFR-TKI, rebiopsy site, EGFR exon 19 deletion and its subtype Del E746-A750 mutation are associated with the frequency of T790M mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Exons , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mutation Rate , Odds Ratio , Phosphotransferases , Point Mutation , Prevalence , ErbB Receptors , Sequence Deletion
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