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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon.@*METHODS@#We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM@*RESULTS@#The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is decreasing, cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB continue to increase. As conventional phenotype drug susceptibility testing (pDST) takes six to eight weeks, molecular assays are widely used to determine drug resistance. we developed QuantaMatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform (QMAP) MDR/XDR assay (QuantaMatrix Inc., Seoul, Korea) that can simultaneously detect mutations related to both first- and second-line drug resistance (rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, second-line injectable drugs, and streptomycin). METHODS: We used 190 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains isolated from Myanmar, compared QMAP and pDST results, and determined concordance rates. Additionally, we performed sequence analyses for discordant results. RESULTS: QMAP results were 87.9% (167/190) concordant with pDST results. In the 23 isolates with discordant results, the QMAP and DNA sequencing results completely matched. CONCLUSIONS: The QMAP MDR/XDR assay can detect all known DNA mutations associated with drug resistance for both MDR- and XDR-MTB strains. It can be used for molecular diagnosis of MDR- and XDR-TB to rapidly initiate appropriate anti-TB drug therapy.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , DNA , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Ethambutol , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Fluoroquinolones , Incidence , Isoniazid , Myanmar , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Phenotype , Seoul , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#More than 140 million people drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater. It is unknown how much arsenic exposure is necessary to cause neurological impairment. Here, we evaluate the relationship between neurological impairments and the arsenic concentration in drinking water (ACDW).@*PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS@#A cross-sectional study design was employed. We performed medical examinations of 1867 residents in seven villages in the Thabaung township in Myanmar. Medical examinations consisted of interviews regarding subjective neurological symptoms and objective neurological examinations of sensory disturbances. For subjective neurological symptoms, we ascertained the presence or absence of defects in smell, vision, taste, and hearing; the feeling of weakness; and chronic numbness or pain. For objective sensory disturbances, we examined defects in pain sensation, vibration sensation, and two-point discrimination. We analyzed the relationship between the subjective symptoms, objective sensory disturbances, and ACDW.@*RESULTS@#Residents with ACDW ≥ 10 parts per billion (ppb) had experienced a "feeling of weakness" and "chronic numbness or pain" significantly more often than those with ACDW  50 ppb). These data suggest a threshold for the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy due to arsenic exposure, and indicate that the arsenic concentration in drinking water should be less than 10 ppb to ensure human health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Arsenic , Toxicity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Exposure , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Female , Groundwater , Chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar , Epidemiology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Epidemiology , Sensation Disorders , Epidemiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Toxicity , Young Adult
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763497

ABSTRACT

Children living in the internally displaced person (IDP) camp are at higher risk of stunting. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence and to identify the associated factors of stunting among children aged 6–59 months at Myaing-Gyi-Ngu IDP camp in Kayin State, Myanmar. According to the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards, children with a height-for-age Z-scores below −2 standard deviation of the reference median (HAZ ≤ −2) were classified as stunted. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the strong predictors. Prevalence of stunting has been found very high (59.4%). Adjusted model revealed that children living with illiterate mothers (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–3.24), being third/later-birth child (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.13–3.14), consuming less than 4 food groups (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.94–9.16), and older age of child (OR, 6.36 for 13–24 months; 95% CI, 2.74–14.74, 7.45 for 25–36 months; 95% CI, 3.21–17.25 and 12.75 for 37–59 months; 95% CI, 5.51–29.52) had higher odds of becoming stunted. The levels of support availability, presumed support and support received of mothers were generally low, but no significant associations were observed. In conclusion, this study showed high prevalence of stunting, but low dietary diversity and social support in the IDP camp. Due to the significant association of dietary diversity scores with stunting, interventions aiming at improving dietary diversity should be taken to reduce the stunting among children in the IDPs camp.


Subject(s)
Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Growth Disorders , Humans , Logistic Models , Mothers , Myanmar , Prevalence , World Health Organization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742304

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of Spirometra ranarum, and to compare it with those of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The aim of this study was to provide information of the species level taxonomy of Spirometra spp. using the mitochondrial genomes of 3 Spirometra tapeworms. The S. ranarum isolate originated from Myanmar. The mitochondrial genome sequence of S. ranarum was compared with that of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) and S. decipiens (Gen-Bank no. KJ599679). The complete mtDNA sequence of S. ranarum comprised 13,644 bp. The S. ranarum mt genome contained 36 genes comprising 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mt genome lacked the atp8 gene, as found for other cestodes. All genes in the S. ranarum mitochondrial genome are transcribed in the same direction and arranged in the same relative position with respect to gene loci as found for S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens mt genomes. The overall nucleotide sequence divergence of 12 protein-coding genes between S. ranarum and S. decipiens differed by 1.5%, and 100% sequence similarity was found in the cox2 and nad6 genes, while the DNA sequence divergence of the cox1, nad1, and nad4 genes of S. ranarum and S. decipiens was 2.2%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cestoda , Classification , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genes, vif , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Myanmar , RNA, Transfer , Spirometra
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786447

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is third common malignancy in men of old age (average 65 years) in Myanmar. Currently, serum PSA and bone scan are the markers of choice. Because of the evidence-based, promising success of ⁶⁸Ga-PSMA PET-CT and 177Lu-PSMA theranostics in prostate cancer worldwide, (99m)Tc-PSMA SPECT-CT imaging and ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA therapy has launched as a stepping-stone of theranostics in Myanmar with the available facilities. Twelve cases of prostate cancer patients were imaged with 600 MBq of (99m)Tc-PSMA I+S SPECT-CT. Four metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (MCRPC) patients with abnormal result were treated with ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA. The protocol consists of 6–8 GBq of ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA, three successive doses at interval of 4–6 weeks. Post-therapy SPECT-CT imaging was done. All treated patients were improved by free of bone pain, and fall/rise in serum PSA level. Two patients with extensive skeletal metastases succumbed to complications. The results are well documented and present at the multidisciplinary conferences for clinical awareness. Theranostics in prostate cancer with available facilities is an additional boon to our health care professionals to upgrade cancer management in Myanmar. This paper provides the technology with cost effectiveness and benefit to prostate cancer patients of Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Castration , Congresses as Topic , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Male , Myanmar , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Theranostic Nanomedicine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761779

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax is usually considered morbidity in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and some part of Africa. In Thailand, previous studies indicated the genetic diversity of P. vivax in malaria-endemic regions such as the western part of Thailand bordering with Myanmar. The objective of the study is to investigate the genetic diversity of P. vivax circulating in Southern Thailand by using 3 antigenic markers and 8 microsatellite markers. Dried blood spots were collected from Chumphon, Phang Nga, Ranong and, Surat Thani provinces of Thailand. By PCR, 3 distinct sizes of PvMSP3α, 2 sizes of PvMSP3β and 2 sizes of PvMSP1 F2 were detected based on the length of PCR products, respectively. PCR/RFLP analyses of these antigen genes revealed high levels of genetic diversity. The genotyping of 8 microsatellite loci showed high genetic diversity as indicated by high alleles per locus and high expected heterozygosity (H(E)). The genotyping markers also showed multiple-clones of infection. Mixed genotypes were detected in 4.8% of PvMSP3α, 29.1% in PvMSP3β and 55.3% of microsatellite markers. These results showed that there was high genetic diversity of P. vivax isolated from Southern Thailand, indicating that the genetic diversity of P. vivax in this region was comparable to those observed other areas of Thailand.


Subject(s)
Africa , Alleles , Asia, Central , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Malaria , Microsatellite Repeats , Myanmar , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , South America , Thailand
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761762

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance is widespread throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion. This raises concern over the antimalarial treatment in Thailand since it shares borders with Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar where high ACT failure rates were reported. It is crucial to have information about the spread of ACT resistance for efficient planning and treatment. This study was to identify the molecular markers for antimalarial drug resistance: Pfkelch13 and Pfmdr1 mutations from 5 provinces of southern Thailand, from 2012 to 2017, of which 2 provinces on the Thai- Myanmar border (Chumphon and Ranong), one on Thai-Malaysia border (Yala) and 2 from non-border provinces (Phang Nga and Surat Thani). The results showed that C580Y mutation of Pfkelch13 was found mainly in the province on the Thai-Myanmar border. No mutations in the PfKelch13 gene were found in Surat Thani and Yala. The Pfmdr1 gene isolated from the Thai-Malaysia border was a different pattern from those found in other areas (100% N86Y) whereas wild type strain was present in Phang Nga. Our study indicated that the molecular markers of artemisinin resistance were spread in the provinces bordering along the Thai-Myanmar, and the pattern of Pfmdr1 mutations from the areas along the international border of Thailand differed from those of the non-border provinces. The information of the molecular markers from this study highlighted the recent spread of artemisinin resistant parasites from the endemic area, and the data will be useful for optimizing antimalarial treatment based on regional differences.


Subject(s)
Cambodia , Drug Resistance , Laos , Myanmar , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium , Thailand
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761737

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. In this study, we analyzed seroprevalence of T. gondii among 467 school children living in the rural areas of Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among school children was 23.5%; 22.5% of children were positive for T. gondii IgG, 0.4% of children were positive for T. gondii IgM, and 0.6% of children were positive for both T. gondii IgG and IgM. Geographical factors did not significantly affect the seroprevalence frequency between Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. No significant difference was found between males (22.2%) and females (25.0%). The overall seroprevalence among school children differed by ages (10 years old [13.6%], 11–12 years old [19.8%], 13–14 years old [24.6%], and 15–16 years old [28.0%]), however, the result was not significant. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for T. gondii B1 gene for IgG-positive and IgM-positive blood samples were negative, indicating no direct evidence of active infection. These results collectively suggest that T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar was relatively high. Integrated and improved strategies including reinforced education on toxoplasmosis should be implemented to prevent and control T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Education , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Myanmar , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Airborne particulate pollution is more critical in the developing world than in the developed countries in which industrialization and urbanization are rapidly increased. Yangon, a second capital of Myanmar, is a highly congested and densely populated city. Yet, there is limited study which assesses particulate matter (PM) in Yangon currently. Few previous local studies were performed to assess particulate air pollution but most results were concerned PM alone using fixed monitoring. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess distribution of PM in different townships of Yangon, Myanmar. This is the first study to quantify the regional distribution of PM in Yangon City.@*METHODS@#The concentration of PM was measured using Pocket PM Sensor (Yaguchi Electric Co., Ltd., Miyagi, Japan) three times (7:00 h, 13:00 h, 19:00 h) for 15 min per day for 5 days from January 25 to 29 in seven townships. Detailed information of eight tracks for PM pollution status in different areas with different conditions within Kamayut Township were also collected.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that in all townships, the highest PM concentrations in the morning followed by the evening and the lowest concentrations in the afternoon were observed. Among the seven townships, Hlaingtharyar Township had the highest concentrations (164 ± 52 μg/m) in the morning and (100 ± 35 μg/m) in the evening. Data from eight tracks in Kamayut Township also indicated that PM concentrations varied between different areas and conditions of the same township at the same time.@*CONCLUSION@#Myanmar is one of the few countries that still have to establish national air quality standards. The results obtained from this study are useful for the better understanding of the nature of air pollution linked to PM. Moreover, the sensor which was used in this study can provide real-time exposure, and this could give more accurate exposure data of the population especially those subpopulations that are highly exposed than fixed station monitoring.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Myanmar , Particulate Matter
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742250

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we identified a Spirometra species of Myanmar origin (plerocercoid) by molecular analysis using mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes, as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. Spargana specimens were collected from a paddy-field in Taik Kyi Township Tarkwa Village, Yangon, Myanmar in December 2017. A total of 5 spargana were obtained from 20 frogs Hoplobatrachus rugulosus; syn: Rana rugulosa (Wiegmann, 1834) or R. tigrina (Steindachner, 1867). The plerocercoids were used for experimental infection of a dog. After 4 weeks of infection, an adult tapeworm was recovered from the intestine of the dog. Morphologically, the distinct features of Spirometra sp. (Myanmar origin) relative to S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens include a uterine morphology comprising posterior uterine coils that larger than the terminal uterine ball and coiling of the uteri diagonally (swirling) rather than spirally. The cox1 sequences (1,566 bp) of the Myanmar-origin Spirometra species showed 97.9% similarity to a reference sequence of S. decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679) and 90.5% similarity to a reference sequence of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680). Phylogenetic tree topologies were identical and presented high confidence level of values for the 3 major branches of the 3 Spirometra species in cox1 and nad1 genes. These results indicated that Myanmar-origin Spirometra species coincided with those of S. ranarum and may be considered as a valid species.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cestoda , Dogs , Genes, vif , Humans , Intestines , Myanmar , Ranidae , Spirometra , Trees , Uterus
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742237

ABSTRACT

Development of an effective vaccine is critically needed for the prevention of malaria. One of the key antigens for malaria vaccines is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the surface protein for erythrocyte invasion of the parasite. The gene encoding AMA-1 has been sequenced from populations of P. falciparum worldwide, but the haplotype diversity of the gene in P. falciparum populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), including Thailand, remains to be characterized. In the present study, the AMA-1 gene was PCR amplified and sequenced from the genomic DNA of 65 P. falciparum isolates from 5 endemic areas in Thailand. The nearly full-length 1,848 nucleotide sequence of AMA-1 was subjected to molecular analyses, including nucleotide sequence diversity, haplotype diversity and deduced amino acid sequence diversity and neutrality tests. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise population differentiation (F( st) indices) were performed to infer the population structure. The analyses identified 60 single nucleotide polymorphic loci, predominately located in domain I of AMA-1. A total of 31 unique AMA-1 haplotypes were identified, which included 11 novel ones. The phylogenetic tree of the AMA-1 haplotypes revealed multiple clades of AMA-1, each of which contained parasites of multiple geographical origins, consistent with the F(st) indices indicating genetic homogeneity or gene flow among geographically distinct populations of P. falciparum in Thailand's borders with Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. In summary, the study revealed novel haplotypes and population structure needed for the further advancement of AMA-1-based malaria vaccines in the GMS.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cambodia , DNA , Erythrocytes , Gene Flow , Haplotypes , Humans , Laos , Malaria , Malaria Vaccines , Membranes , Myanmar , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Thailand , Trees
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742226

ABSTRACT

Molecular techniques have been introduced for malaria diagnosis because they offer greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examinations. Therefore, DNA isolation methods have been developed for easy preparation and cost effectiveness. The present study described a simple protocol for Plasmodium DNA isolation from EDTA-whole blood. This study demonstrated that after heating infected blood samples with Tris–EDTA buffer and proteinase K solution, without isolation and purification steps, the supernatant can be used as a DNA template for amplification by PCR. The sensitivity of the extracted DNA of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax was separately analyzed by both PCR and semi-nested PCR (Sn-PCR). The results revealed that for PCR the limit of detection was 40 parasites/μl for P. falciparum and 35.2 parasites/μl for P. vivax, whereas for Sn-PCR the limit of detection was 1.6 parasites/μl for P. falciparum and 1.4 parasites/μl for P. vivax. This new method was then verified by DNA extraction of whole blood from 11 asymptomatic Myanmar migrant workers and analyzed by Sn-PCR. The results revealed that DNA can be extracted from all samples, and there were 2 positive samples for Plasmodium (P. falciparum and P. vivax). Therefore, the protocol can be an alternative method for DNA extraction in laboratories with limited resources and a lack of trained technicians for malaria diagnosis. In addition, this protocol can be applied for subclinical cases, and this will be helpful for epidemiology and control.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diagnosis , DNA , Edetic Acid , Endopeptidase K , Epidemiology , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Limit of Detection , Malaria , Methods , Myanmar , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transients and Migrants
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 51-57, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Differences in the Helicobacter pylori infection rate are not sufficient to clarify the dissimilarity of gastric cancer incidence between Myanmar and its neighboring countries. To better understand this trend, the H. pylori virulence gene cagA was characterized in Myanmar. METHODS: Glutamate-proline-isoleucine-tyrosine-alanine (EPIYA) patterns and CagA multimerization (CM) motifs of cagA genotypes were examined by performing polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Of 69 tested H. pylori strains, cagA-positive patients had significantly more severe histological scores in their antrum than cagA-negative patients. Sequence analysis revealed that 94.1% of strains had Western-type cagA containing an EPIYA motif (92.6%) or EPIYT motif (6.4%). The intestinal metaplasia scores in the antral of patients infected with the ABC and ABCC types of cagA were significantly higher than those of patients with AB-type cagA. Interestingly, in patients infected with H. pylori, 46.3% of strains with three EPIYA motifs contained two identical Western-typical CM motifs, and these patients showed significantly higher antrum inflammation scores than patients infected with two identical nontypical-CM motif strains (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In Myanmarese strains, Western-type cagA was predominant. The presence of CM motifs and the proportion of multiple EPIYA-C segments might partially explain the intermediate gastric cancer risk found in Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Metaplasia , Myanmar , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Stomach Neoplasms , Virulence
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1007-1008, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717816

ABSTRACT

The REAP-AP study recruited 3,746 patients with schizophrenia, in March and April 2016, from 71 centers in 15 Asian countries/territories namely Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Our findings reveal a trend according to which high dose antipsychotic prescription is more prevalent in Eastern Asia (especially, Japan and Korea) than in other regions of Asia. This historical factor may be associated with our finding of an Eastern Asian preponderance of high dose antipsychotic prescription.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asians , Bangladesh , China , Far East , Hong Kong , Humans , India , Indonesia , Japan , Korea , Malaysia , Myanmar , Pakistan , Prescriptions , Schizophrenia , Singapore , Sri Lanka , Taiwan , Thailand , Vietnam
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 358-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Myanmar has a long history of using medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge there are no previous reports on antiglycation activities of medicinal plants from Myanmar. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, antiglycation and antimicrobial properties of 20 ethanolic extracts from 17 medicinal plants indigenous to Myanmar.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In vitro scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals were used to determine the antioxidant activities. Folin-Ciocalteu's method was performed to determine the total phenolic content. Antiglycation and antimicrobial activities were detected by bovine serum albumin-fluorescent assay and agar well diffusion method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fruit), containing the highest total phenolic content, showed high antioxidant activities with inhibition of 77.98% ± 0.92%, 88.95% ± 2.42%, 88.56% ± 1.87% and 70.74%± 2.57% for DPPH, NO, SO assays and antiglycation activity respectively. It also showed the antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with inhibition zone of 19, 18, 17, 25 and 15 mm, respectively. Garcinia mangostana Linn. showed the strongest activities for SO and antiglycation assays with inhibition of 93.68% ± 2.63% and 82.37% ± 1.78%. Bark of Melia sp. was the best NO radical scavenger with inhibition rate of 89.39%± 0.60%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that these plants are potential sources of antioxidants with free radical-scavenging and antiglycation activities and could be useful for decreasing the oxidative stress and glycation end-product formation in glycation-related diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Biphenyl Compounds , Metabolism , Candida albicans , Fruit , Garcinia , Chemistry , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Metabolism , Humans , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Melia , Chemistry , Myanmar , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phenols , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Picrates , Metabolism , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxides , Terminalia , Chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To overcome challenges in the implementation of electronic dental record systems in a low-resource setting, it is crucial to know the level of users’ satisfaction with the existing system of paper-based dental records and their perceptions of electronic dental records. METHODS: A cross-sectional paper-based questionnaire survey was conducted among Myanmar dental professionals who worked in one of two teaching hospitals or in private dental clinics. Descriptive data were analyzed and regression analysis was carried out to identify factors influencing perceptions of electronic dental records. RESULTS: Most dental professionals (>60%) were satisfied with just three out of six aspects of paper-based dental records (familiarity, flexibility, and portability). In addition, generalized positive perceptions were found among decision makers towards electronic dental records, and 86% of dentists indicated that they were willing to use them. Financial concerns were identified as the most important barrier to the implementation of electronic dental records among dentists who were not willing to use the proposed system. CONCLUSIONS: The first step towards implementing electronic dental records in Myanmar should be improvement of the content and structure of paper-based dental records, especially in private dental clinics. Utilization of appropriate open-source electronic dental record software in private dental clinics is recommended to address perceived issues around financial barriers. For the long term, we recommend providing further education and training in health informatics to healthcare professionals to facilitate the efficient use of electronic dental record software in Myanmar in the future.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Dental Clinics , Dental Records , Dentists , Education , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Informatics , Myanmar , Pliability
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27503

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP1) gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within PvMSP1 gene (Pv MSP142) from 77 P. vivax isolates, collected from imported cases of China-Myanmar border (CMB) areas in Yunnan province and the inland cases from Anhui, Yunnan, and Zhejiang province in China during 2009–2012. Totally, 41 haplotypes were identified and 30 of them were new haplotypes. The differences between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggest that PvMSP142 has evolved under natural selection, and a high selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified of PvMSP133. Our results also demonstrated that PvMSP142 of P. vivax isolates collected on China-Myanmar border areas display higher genetic polymorphisms than those collected from inland of China. Such results have significant implications for understanding the dynamic of the P. vivax population and may be useful information towards China malaria elimination campaign strategies.


Subject(s)
China , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , Malaria , Merozoite Surface Protein 1 , Merozoites , Myanmar , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Polymorphism, Genetic , Selection, Genetic , Silent Mutation
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110644

ABSTRACT

Malaria, tuberculosis, and hepatitis are common and notorious infectious diseases in Myanmar. Despite intensive efforts to control these diseases, their prevalence remains high. For malaria, which is a vector-borne disease, a remarkable success in the reduction of new cases has been achieved. However, the annual number of tuberculosis cases has increased over the last few decades, and the prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis infection has been high in Myanmar and other nearby countries. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to control these diseases. We have devoted our research efforts to understanding the status of these infectious diseases and working towards their eventual elimination for the last four years with the support of the Korea International Cooperation Agency. In the modern era, an infection that develops in one geographical area can spread globally because national borders do not effectively limit disease transmission. Our efforts to understand the status of infectious diseases in Myanmar will benefit not only Myanmar but also neighboring countries such as Korea.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hepatitis , International Cooperation , Korea , Malaria , Myanmar , Prevalence , Tuberculosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16097

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic trematode (ZT) metacercariae in fish from a local market in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 264 fish (12 species) were collected through 4 times from December 2013 to June 2015. All collected fish were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. More than 7 species of ZT metacercariae, i.e., Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp. were detected. Metacercariae of H. taichui were collected in 58 (42.3%) out of 137 fish (5 species), and their average density was 42.9 per fish infected. Metacercariae of H. pumilio were detected in 96 (49.0%) out of 196 fish (9 species), and their average density was 23.6 per fish infected. H. yokogawai metacercariae were found in 40 (50.0%) out of 80 fish (5 species), and Centrocestus spp. metacercariae in 91 (50.8%) out of 179 fish (8 species), and their densities were 306 and 25.8 per fish infected, respectively. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only in mullets, Chelon macrolepis. A total of 280 Procerovum sp. metacercariae were found in 6 out of 12 climbing perch, Anabas testudineus. Morphological characteristics of adult flukes recovered from experimental animals were described. It has been first confirmed that fish from Yangon, Myanmar are commonly infected with various species of ZT metacercariae.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Digestion , Humans , Ice , Metacercariae , Methods , Myanmar , Perches , Smegmamorpha , Trematoda
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